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The Tiar are found in North India. They are also known as the Parihar. [1]

North India Group of Northern Indian states

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia.


History and origin

The word tiar is a corruption of the Sanskrit word thivara, which means a hunter. They were traditionally hunters, but with the greater deforestation of their environment, they are now mainly farmers and fishermen. The Tiar in Bihar are found in the districts of Purnea, Bhagalpur, and Munger, and Hooghly, Howrah, North & South 24parganas in West Bengal and Jharkhand. A small number are also found in eastern Uttar Pradesh. According to some traditions, they are a sub-group of the Kewat community. [1]

Sanskrit language of ancient Indian subcontinent

Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a 3,500-year history. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Bihar State in Eastern India

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the twelfth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.

Bhagalpur City in Bihar, India

Bhagalpur is a city of historical importance on the southern banks of the river Ganges in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the 3rd largest city of Bihar and also the headquarters of Bhagalpur district and Bhagalpur division. Known as "Silk City", it is a major educational, commercial, and political centre, and listed for development under the Smart City program, a joint venture between Government and industry. The Gangetic plains surrounding the city are very fertile and the main crops include rice, wheat, maize, barley, and oilseeds. The river is home to the Gangetic dolphin, the National Aquatic Animal of India, and the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is established near the town.

Present circumstances

The Tiar have seven sub-divisions, the Rajbansi, Surajbansi, Polwar, Malhasuraiya, Kewat, Muriary and Bin. Among these clans, there is a sharp stratification and the Muriary and Bins are looked down upon. Like other Hindu communities, they maintain gotra exogamy. The Tiar are now landless, and most are agricultural labourers. They are Hindu, but have their own tribal deity Raja Bhim Sen Salis. The Tiar speak Bhojpuri and most now understand Hindi. [1]

In North Indian Hindu culture, the term gotra is commonly considered to be equivalent to clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor or patriline. Generally the gotra forms an exogamous unit, with the marriage within the same gotra being prohibited by custom, being regarded as incest. The name of the gotra can be used as a surname, but it is different from a surname and is strictly maintained because of its importance in marriages among Hindus, especially among the higher castes. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram, which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son." When a person says "I am Vipparla-gotra", he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Vipparla by unbroken male descent.

Hindi Indo-Aryan language spoken in India

Hindi or Modern Standard Hindi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and across the Indian subcontinent. Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Contrary to the popular belief, Hindi is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

The Tiar in Uttar Pradesh are confined to the Ballia Division, although at one time they extended as far west as Sultanpur District. They were said to the rulers of this region until they were overthrown by the Bachgoti Rajputs. The Tiar are now mainly small cultivators, and speak the Awadhi dialect.[ citation needed ]

Uttar Pradesh State in India

Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu.

Rajput member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and some parts of Pakistan and Nepal

Rajput is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted.

See also

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  1. 1 2 3 People of India Bihar Volume XVI Part Two edited by S Gopal & Hetukar Jha pages 933 to 934 Seagull Books