Tiar

Last updated

Tiar
Regions with significant populations
India
Languages
Hindi Bengali
Religion
Hinduism 100% •
Related ethnic groups
KewatMallaah

The Tiar are found in North India. They are also known as the Parihar. [1]

North India Group of Northern Indian states

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia.

Contents

History and origin

The word tiar is a corruption of the Sanskrit word thivara, which means a hunter. They were traditionally hunters, but with the greater deforestation of their environment, they are now mainly farmers and fishermen. The Tiar in Bihar are found in the districts of Purnea, Bhagalpur, and Munger, and Hooghly, Howrah, North & South 24parganas in West Bengal and Jharkhand. A small number are also found in eastern Uttar Pradesh. According to some traditions, they are a sub-group of the Kewat community. [1]

Sanskrit language of ancient Indian subcontinent

Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a 3,500-year history. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Bihar State in Eastern India

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the twelfth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.

Bhagalpur City in Bihar, India

Bhagalpur is a city of historical importance on the southern banks of the river Ganges in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the 3rd largest city of Bihar and also the headquarters of Bhagalpur district and Bhagalpur division. Known as "Silk City", it is a major educational, commercial, and political centre, and listed for development under the Smart City program, a joint venture between Government and industry. The Gangetic plains surrounding the city are very fertile and the main crops include rice, wheat, maize, barley, and oilseeds. The river is home to the Gangetic dolphin, the National Aquatic Animal of India, and the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is established near the town.

Present circumstances

The Tiar have seven sub-divisions, the Rajbansi, Surajbansi, Polwar, Malhasuraiya, Kewat, Muriary and Bin. Among these clans, there is a sharp stratification and the Muriary and Bins are looked down upon. Like other Hindu communities, they maintain gotra exogamy. The Tiar are now landless, and most are agricultural labourers. They are Hindu, but have their own tribal deity Raja Bhim Sen Salis. The Tiar speak Bhojpuri and most now understand Hindi. [1]

In North Indian Hindu culture, the term gotra is commonly considered to be equivalent to clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor or patriline. Generally the gotra forms an exogamous unit, with the marriage within the same gotra being prohibited by custom, being regarded as incest. The name of the gotra can be used as a surname, but it is different from a surname and is strictly maintained because of its importance in marriages among Hindus, especially among the higher castes. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram, which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son." When a person says "I am Vipparla-gotra", he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Vipparla by unbroken male descent.

Hindi Indo-Aryan language spoken in India

Hindi or Modern Standard Hindi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and across the Indian subcontinent. Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Contrary to the popular belief, Hindi is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

The Tiar in Uttar Pradesh are confined to the Ballia Division, although at one time they extended as far west as Sultanpur District. They were said to the rulers of this region until they were overthrown by the Bachgoti Rajputs. The Tiar are now mainly small cultivators, and speak the Awadhi dialect.[ citation needed ]

Uttar Pradesh State in India

Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu.

Rajput member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and some parts of Pakistan and Nepal

Rajput is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted.

See also

Related Research Articles

The Mallah are the aboriginal traditional boatmen and fishermen like as Rak tribes or communities of North India, East India, Northeastern India and Pakistan. A significant number of Mallah are also found in Nepal and Bangladesh. In the Indian state of Bihar, the term Nishad includes the Mallah and refers to communities whose traditional occupation centred on rivers.

Hajjam, alternately pronounced and spelled as Hajaam or Hajam, are an ethnic group found in North India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, they are settled in Sindh and Punjab provinces. The word Hajaam is derived from the Urdu word Hajaamat which in Urdu means barber and hairdresser. They are also known as the Khalifa and in Uttar Pradesh as the Salamani.

The Chik are a Muslim community, found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Bakar Qasab, Buz Qassab and Chikwa. The Chik have been granted Other Backward Class status in both Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

The Rangrez is a Muslim community in North India. Many members of Muslim Rangrez community have migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh.

The Momin Ansari or Ansari are a Muslim community, found mainly in West and North India, and the province of Sindh in Pakistan. A small number of Ansaris are also found in the Terai region of Nepal. In North India, the community are known as Ansari or shiekh, while in Maharashtra the community is known as Momin. The name or title of Ansari ("supporters") originated in Arabia at the time of the prophet Mohammed.

The Muslim Gaddi are a Muslim community found mainly in northern India. After the independence in 1947, the Gaddi of the states of Haryana and Delhi migrated to Pakistan and are now found in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. In Pakistan, the community is often referred to as Gadi Rajput, and sometimes Gaddi. A few Gaddi are also found in the Terai region of Nepal.

The Muslim Raibhat are a Muslim community found in North India. They are converts to Islam from the Rai Bhatt community. The Muslim Rai Bhatt are the heredity bards and genealogists of many communities in India. A small number are also found in the city of Karachi in Pakistan, where they now form a component of the Muhajir community.

The Halalkhor are a Dalit Muslim community, found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. They are mostly. The Halalkhor are also known as Shaikhra or Shahani in Bihar and Muslim Bhangi and in Uttar Pradesh.

The Kewat are a Hindu caste, found in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. They are the traditional boatmen of northern India.

The Muslim Teli are an ethnic group found in Pakistan and India. The word Tel means oil and Teli means person dealing with manufacture and sale of cooking oil in Urdu. Related to the Muslim Teli are the Ghanchi, a community found in Gujarat, who are also involved in the manufacture of cooking oil.

The Marasi(Mostly Quraishis) are the genealogists and traditional singers and dancers of a number of communities. The word " mirasi" is derived from the Arabic word (ميراث) mirasi, which means inheritance or sometimes heritage.

The Darzi, sometimes pronounced Darji, are a Muslim community, found in North India and Pakistan. A small number are also found in the Terai region of Nepal. Darzi means tailor in Hindi-Urdu. They are also known as Idrisi or Idrisi Shaikh. The Buddhist Dorji tribe of Tibet and North-East India are also called Darji.

The Bisati` are a Muslim community, found in North India. Many members of this community migrated to Pakistan in 1947 and have settled in Karachi and Sindh.

The Bind are a caste found in Northeast North India. They are also known as Chatai Bin or Chai. Other names for them include Bin or kewat.

The Chero is a caste found in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh in India.

The Sai or sometimes pronounced Sayee are a Muslim community found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as the Sain.

The Patharkat are a Hindu sub-caste found in North India. The majority of this subcaste in Nepal, Kushbadiya, speak a poorly known language, and exhibit enough distinct cultural values to be a separate ethnic group, nevertheless Pattharkat in Kapilbastu District are exceptional as they considered themselves to be Dalit rather than adivasi. In India, they are also known as Sangtarash.

The Goriya are a Hindu caste found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. Those found in the Basti Division of eastern Uttar Pradesh have converted to Islam, and now form a distinct community of Muslim Goriya. A small number of Goriya are also found in the Terai region of Nepal.

The Nat are a Muslim community found in North India. A few are also found in the Terai region of Nepal. They are Muslim converts from the Hindu Nat caste.

Nalband is a Persian and Urdu word with the meaning manufacturer of horseshoes. The word is derived from the Persian word nal, meaning horseshoe and band, a fastener.

References

  1. 1 2 3 People of India Bihar Volume XVI Part Two edited by S Gopal & Hetukar Jha pages 933 to 934 Seagull Books