The Bhuyan are an indigenous community found in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. They are not only geographically disparate but also have many cultural variations and subgroups.
The Bhuiyans name comes from the Sanskrit bhumi, meaning land. Most of the Bhuiya are agriculturalists and many believe that they are descended from Bhūmi, the Hindu goddess who represents Mother Earth. They are patrilineal exogamous groups with strong family ties.
There are significant economic variations in the Bhuiya community, with some in areas such as Ghatwar and Tikait being landowners but many others being reliant on working the land either independently or as paid labourers. Basket-making, livestock rearing, fishing, hunting and the sale of forest produce such as firewood, honey and resin also contribute to their livelihood, although the practise of food collection has probably mostly died out.
The Government of Uttar Pradesh had classified the Bhuiya as a Scheduled Caste but by 2007, they were one of several groups that it redesignated as Scheduled Tribes.As of 2017, this tribal designation applies only for Sonbhadra district.
The 2011 Census of India for Uttar Pradesh showed the Bhuiya Scheduled Caste population as 4095.
The Meena is a tribe found mainly in the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh regions of India. Its name is also transliterated as Meenanda or Mina. The Meenas claim connection to the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, and the ancient Matsya Kingdom.
The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond or Koitur are an Indian ethnic group. They speak the Gondi language which is a Dravidian language. They are one of the largest tribal groups in India. They are spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. They are listed as a Scheduled Tribe for the purpose of India's system of positive discrimination. They are an Adivasi group of India
Adivasi is the collective term for tribes of the South Asia, who are considered indigenous to places within India wherein they live, either as foragers or as tribalistic sedentary communities.
The Domba or Dom are an ethnic group, or groups, scattered across India. In North India, the preferred self-designation is Dom.
The Baiga are an ethnic group found in central India primarily in the state of Madhya Pradesh, and in smaller numbers in the surrounding states of Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. The largest number of Baiga is found in Baiga-chuk in Mandla district and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh. They have sub-castes: Bijhwar, Narotia, Bharotiya, Nahar, Rai Bhain and Kadh Bhaina.
The Dhangar is a herding caste of people found in Indian states such as Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.
Bhoksa, also known as Buksa, are indigenous peoples living mainly in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. They are mostly concentrated in Dehradun and Nainital districts in the foothills of the outer Himalayas. They are also found in the Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh, where they are known as Mehra. Both communities have been granted Scheduled Tribe status.
The Agariya are community of the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in India. Those in the vicinity of Mirzapur were involved in mining and smelting iron during the British Raj.
The demographics of Uttar Pradesh is a complex topic, which is undergoing dynamic change. Uttar Pradesh is India's most populous state. It has a population of about 199,812,341 as per the 2011 census. If it were a separate country, Uttar Pradesh would be the world's fifth most populous nation, next only to China, India, the United States of America and Indonesia. Uttar Pradesh has a population more than that of Pakistan. There is an average population density of 828 persons per km² i.e. 2,146 per sq mi. The capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow, and Allahabad serves as the state’s judicial capital. Hindus and Muslims both consider the state as a holy place.
The Sahariya are a community found in the Bundelkhand region of North India, which is administered by the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. They are also known as Rawat, Banrawat, Banrakha and Soarain. In Assam, the surname Saharia is claimed by the Kalita or the Kshatriya caste. The surnames that the Mathur a sun caste of the Kayastha caste frequently adopt are Dayal, Lall, Chandra, Andley, Berni, Saharia,
The Bind' are a caste found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and Tripura. Bind are under the OBCs category of the central list. The government of India's draft defines them as a nomadic tribe in Tripura. The Assam government and MP government categorise them as a tribe. The nearest name which comes closer for them is Nishad. The Bind are originally from the Vindhya.
The Chero is a caste found in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh in India.
The Parahiya are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India.
Musahar or Mushahar are a tribal-turned-Dalit community found in the eastern Gangetic plain and the Terai. They are also known as Banbasi, and on the plateau as pasi. Their name literally means 'rat-eater' due to their main former occupation of catching rats, and there are many who are still forced to do this work due to destitution and poverty.
Kharwar is a community found in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and West Bengal.
The Khairaha are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have Scheduled Caste status.
The Koli people are an ethnic Indian group in Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir states.
The Patari are a community found mainly in the Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Bhuyan are an originally Non-Aryan Austro-Dravidian ethnic group found mainly in many districts of Odisha. They may have had a tribal dialect of most probably Austric or Dravidian origin but now they speak Odia in their own distinctive dialects. The 2011 census showed their population to be around 220,859. They are classified as a Scheduled Tribe by the Indian government.
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