The Tidalforce Electric Bicycle was an electric bicycle manufactured by Wavecrest Labs from 2003 until the company went out of business in 2006. All models of Wavecrest Tidalforce electric bikes have a 36 volt electric hub motor built into the rear wheel hub and a 36 volt battery pack built into the front wheel hub. Wavecrest Labs manufactured three models of Tidalforce bikes: The Wavecrest Tidalforce M-750, the S-750 Traditional hard tail mountain bike and the iO-750 Cruiser. Any of the three bikes with an X suffix denotes that the motor is a 1000 watt motor without a set speed restriction as compared to the speed limit 750 watt version.
The Wavecrest Tidalforce M-750 was based on The original military experimental M-313 model. The M-313/M-750X was the first electric bike to be made and tested by Wavecrest Labs. It is based on a design developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that was meant to allow zero-heat long distance troop movements for the United States Marine Corps in Afghanistan. The rear wheel in-hub motor and 36 volt/8ah front-hub battery were mounted onto a standard Montague Bicycles Paratrooper Bicycle frame. The 1000 watt rear hub motor had no set speed restriction, but was limited to about 25-32 (depending on load weight) MPH on a flat course. The distance the bike traveled on a single charge ranged from 15 miles (heavier load with no pedaling) to about 25 miles (vigorous assisted pedaling with less hill climbing).
The later commercial versions had speed restrictions to comply with federal law with 750 watt restrictions (500 watts maximum in the Canadian version) but had 1000 watt unrestricted speed as an add on option.
After Wavecrest Labs went out of business, it was arranged for service and support for Tidalforce bicycles to be taken over by Light Electric Vehicle Technologies, located in Idaho.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids.
The Twike is a human-electric hybrid vehicle (HEHV) designed to carry two passengers and cargo. Essentially a velomobile with an electrical hybrid engine, it can be driven in electric-only mode or electric + pedal power mode. Pedaling warms the user, making electric heating in winter unnecessary, extends the range of the vehicle but does not substantially add to the vehicle's top speed.
Bicycle lighting is illumination attached to bicycles whose purpose above all is, along with reflectors, to improve the visibility of the bicycle and its rider to other road users under circumstances of poor ambient illumination. A secondary purpose is to illuminate reflective materials such as cat's eyes and traffic signs. A third purpose may be to illuminate the roadway so that the rider can see the way ahead. Serving the latter purposes require much more luminous flux and thus more power.
The CitiCar was an electric car produced between 1974 and 1977 by a U.S. company called Sebring-Vanguard, Inc., based in Sebring, Florida. Sebring-Vanguard was sold to Commuter Vehicles, Inc., which produced similar vehicles from 1979 to 1982. Its exterior design lives on in the Norwegian Kewet. Accounting for all CitiCar variants, a total of 4,444 units were produced up to 1979, the most since 1945 for an electric car assembled in North America until surpassed by the Tesla Model S.
A motorized bicycle is a bicycle with an attached motor or engine and transmission used either to power the vehicle unassisted, or to assist with pedalling. Since it always retains both pedals and a discrete connected drive for rider-powered propulsion, the motorised bicycle is in technical terms a true bicycle, albeit a power-assisted one. However, for purposes of governmental licensing and registration requirements, the type may be legally defined as a motor vehicle, motorbike, moped, or a separate class of hybrid vehicle.
Brompton Bicycle is a British manufacturer of folding bicycles based in Greenford, London..
An electric bicycle also known as an e-bike is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion. Many kinds of e-bikes are available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power to more powerful e-bikes which are closer to moped-style functionality. All retain the ability to be pedalled by the rider and are therefore not electric motorcycles.
Many countries have enacted electric vehicle laws to regulate the use of electric bicycles. Countries such as the United States and Canada have federal regulations governing the safety requirements and standards of manufacture. Other countries like the signatories of the European Union have agreed to wider-ranging legislation covering use and safety of their term EPAC
Bicycle gearing is the aspect of a bicycle drivetrain that determines the relation between the cadence, the rate at which the rider pedals, and the rate at which the drive wheel turns.
Kronan bicycles are marketed by Kronan Trademark AB, also known as Kronan AB. Kronan AB was established in June 1997 by three former-students, John Wahlbäck and the Avander brothers, Henry and Martin. In autumn 2003 the company was bought by the Brunstedt family with Mary Brunstedt is the company's current CEO.
Hybrid vehicle drive trains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle has multiple forms of motive power.
A pedelec is a type of electric bicycle where the rider's pedalling is assisted by a small electric motor; thus it is a type of low-powered e-bike. However, unlike some other types of e-bikes, pedelecs are classified as conventional bicycles in many countries by road authorities rather than as a type of electric moped. Pedelecs include an electronic controller which cuts power to the motor when the rider is not pedalling or when a certain speed – usually 25 km/h (16 mph) or 32 km/h (20 mph) – is reached. Pedelecs are useful for people who ride in hilly areas or in strong headwinds. While a pedelec can be any type of bicycle, a pedelec city bike is very common. A conventional bicycle can be converted to a pedelec with the addition of the necessary parts, i.e. motor, battery etc.
Montague Corporation is an American company that designs, manufactures, and sells full-size folding bicycles. It is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The GreenWheel is a modular electronic assist device for bicycles that fits inside the wheel of any standard bicycle and provides additional power above and beyond the power provided by the person pedaling.
Bicycle drivetrain systems are used to transmit power on bicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, unicycles, or other human-powered vehicles from the riders to the drive wheels. Most also include some type of a mechanism to convert speed and torque via gear ratios.
The City Mantis Electric Scooter is a personal transporter developed by City Mantis USA. It is not clear when the City Mantis was first launched but its earliest appearance comes from a Cycle Show at the Business Design Centre in 2002. The original City Mantis model was known for its unique fold-up feature and was marketed for being conveniently stored or carried away after use. According to the official website, the City Mantis was voted "most innovative new product of 2003" at the time of its release.
Invalid carriages were usually single seater road vehicles, buggies, or self-propelled vehicles for disabled people. They pre-dated the electric mobility scooters and from the 1920s were generally powered by a small gasoline/petrol engine, although some were battery powered. They were usually designed without foot-operated controls.
Manulectrics was a British marque of milk floats and other battery electric road vehicles. The vehicles were made by Sidney Holes Electric Vehicles, of Brighton, Sussex. They were designed out of Holes' experience of doorstep milk delivery, through Holes and Davigdor Dairies. Both pedestrian controlled vehicles (PCVs) and ride-on models were produced, and entered the market around 1947. The company was bought by Stanley Engineering in the 1960s, and sold to Crompton Electricars in 1972. Some Manulectric models were subsequently manufactured by Harbilt Electric Trucks.
Superpedestrian Inc., is a transportation robotics company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, that develops technological solutions to improve urban mobility worldwide. Superpedestrian specializes in micro-mobility technologies which enable the development of small-scale electric vehicles that can sense and adapt to the road and the driver. The company works with ride-hailing and electric bike sharing companies to create electric-bike fleets optimized for safety, reliability, and enjoyable riding experiences. Their consumer-facing product, the Copenhagen Wheel, is the first human-enhancing transportation technology available to the mass market.