|Born||5 January 1956|
Tanganyika (now Tanzania)
|Type of climber||Mountaineer|
|Known for||Co-founder of Sea to Summit|
|First ascents||Mount Everest via the North Face to Norton Couloir route|
|Updated on 17 March 2013.|
Tim Macartney-Snape(born 5 January 1956) is a mountaineer and author. On 3 October 1984 Macartney-Snape and Greg Mortimer were the first Australians to reach the summit of Mount Everest. They reached the summit, climbing without supplementary oxygen, via a new route on the North Face (North Face to Norton Couloir). In 1990, Macartney-Snape became the first person to walk and climb from sea level to the top of Mount Everest. Macartney-Snape is also the co-founder of the Sea to Summit range of outdoor and adventure gear and accessories, a guide for adventure travel company World Expeditions and a founding director and patron of the World Transformation Movement.
Macartney-Snape was born in Tanganyika Territory (now Tanzania), where he lived on a farm with his Australian father and Irish mother. In 1967, the family moved to Australia to a farm in north eastern Victoria.He attended Geelong Grammar School and spent a year at the school's outdoor education campus Timbertop. Macartney-Snape studied at the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra where he joined the ANU Mountaineering Club (ANUMC) and obtained a BSc.
Having rock-climbed all over Australia, his first mountaineering experience was two seasons in New Zealand's Southern Alps.
In 1978, Macartney-Snape travelled to India as part of the ANUMC's expedition to Dunagiri (7,066 m). After prolonged bad weather he and Lincoln Hall radioed to the Expedition Leader, Peter Cocker, that they wanted to make another attempt on East Dunagiri. Cocker, who was alone at the time at Col Camp on Dunagiri, invited them instead to make a final attempt on Dunagiri. If they could force through a route to the Summit Ridge, they could then return to Col Camp and wait for support to make the summit attempt. Maccartney-Snape and Hall agreed, returned to Dunagiri, and then pushed through to the Summit Ridge. The weather cleared, and after they spent a clear but very cold night out without sleeping bags, Macartney-Snape and Hall made an audacious attempt for the summit of Dunagiri. They were successful and the pair then descended through an electrical storm. Maccartney-Snape reached Col Camp at 10.30 p.m.; however, Hall spent another night out on the mountain. During the night, Cocker ascended the fixed ropes to meet him and accompany him back to Col Camp. This was the first major Himalayan summit climbed by an Australian.
In 1981, Macartney-Snape climbed Ama Dablam (6812m) via the north ridge with a small lightweight team. Macartney-Snape reportedly cited this climb as the inspiration for later climbing Everest: "partway up the North ridge of Ama Dablam he looked over and could see Mt Everest and wondered what it might be like to experience the highest point of the world via a new route in good style".
In 1983, Macartney-Snape planned and participated in an expedition to Annapurna II (7,937 m) successfully reaching the summit via the first ascent of the south spur. The descent was delayed by a blizzard and the expedition ran out of food during the last five days. They were reported missing and when the expedition eventually returned they received significant publicity.
In July 1984, a small Australian team headed to the north side of Mt Everest where they prepared and ascended an unclimbed route on the north face, climbing without bottled oxygen in a lightweight alpine style and without the help of high altitude porters. On 3 October 1984, climbing in cross-country ski boots as substitutes for his high altitude climbing boots that had been lost in an earlier avalanche, Macartney-Snape and Greg Mortimer became the first Australians to climb Mt Everest,an achievement for which they were both awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM) for service to mountaineering. Mt Everest historian, Walt Unsworth, described it as "one of the greatest climbs ever done on the mountain" and American climber, John Roskelley, said, "the Aussies pulled off the coup of the century". The expedition was sponsored by Channel 9 who produced a television documentary about the expedition.
In 1986 fellow Australian Greg Child was organising an international team to attempt Gasherbrum IV (7980m). The mountain's first and only ascent had been in 1958 by an elite team of Italian alpinists, as its sheer faces and rocky ridges had since thwarted many attempts. The climb up the previously-unclimbed north west ridge proved difficult; it was one "that challenged even Macartney-Snape’s legendary strength and endurance at high altitude."Macartney-Snape took a film movie camera on the climb, as he had done on Everest, and the subsequent film, was given the title Harder than Everest. After a night without sleeping bags or stove at just under 8000m Child, Macartney-Snape and American Tom Hargis had finally made the coveted second ascent of Gasherbrum IV.
In 1990, Macartney-Snape returned once again to Mt Everest with the idea of climbing the mountain from the sea to the summit. The idea had originally been floated by adventure cameraman, Michael Dillon. With sponsorship provided by Australian Geographic, amongst others, it would take Macartney-Snape three months to achieve this goal.
This was the first time anyone had walked from sea level and reached the top of Mt Everest, as even the first expeditions started from Kathmandu, at 1400m above sea level. While planning the expedition, Macartney-Snape and his then wife, Dr Ann Ward, were living in Meekatharra, Western Australia where she was stationed with the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Macartney-Snape trained for the upcoming expedition with demanding runs in the 40-degree heat of the surrounding bush and short, solo climbs on the large boulders around Meekatharra.
The 500 vertical metres from the Bay of Bengal involved a 1200 km walk from the sea, leaving Ganga Sagar on 5 February 1990, walking through India to the Nepalese border. He was joined by Ward, his sister Pip, film-maker Mike Dillon, Nepali cook Tenzing Sherpa and Charles Norwood, who drove a Land Rover with gear for the trek.
Macartney-Snape planned to avoid three large expeditions attempting the South Col route, by climbing Everest via the more difficult West Ridge, then traversing to descend the standard South Col route. He reached nearly 7500m on acclimatisation sorties, but bad weather and a strong avalanche risk changed Macartney-Snape's plans to ascend via the South Col route. After two preparatory trips through the Khumbu Icefall to the Western Cwm, he left his team on 7 May to attempt the summit solo and without supplemental oxygen, carrying a pack with a tent, food, fuel and a movie camera to the South Col at 8000m. Light-headed and plagued by bouts of diarrhoea following the challenging solo climb up the Lhotse Face, Macartney-Snape rested a day before setting out for the summit of Everest at 9.30pm on 10 May in bright moonlight. Climbing solo, weak with nausea and diarrhea and having eaten little in the previous days, it took nearly six hours in −30 °C (−22 °F) cold for him to ascend from 8,230 m and 8,536 m, nearly falling to his death at midnight when stopping to adjust the movie camera he carried. Then he climbed the South-East Ridge from the South Summit to the true summit. He achieved his second ascent of Everest at about 9.45 am on 11 May, the first to climb from sea to summit. On the summit he unfurled the flag of the Australian Geographic Society, his sponsor, and that of the Foundation for Humanity's Adulthood (now named the World Transformation Movement).
In 1993 he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) for service to mountaineering and to international relations.
In 1995 Macartney-Snape, Stephen Venables, John Roskelley, Jim Wickwire and Charlie Porter attempted a new route on Mt Sarmiento, on the western shores of Tierra del Fuego, where Macartney-Snape, Roskelley and Venables summited via new route up the southwest face of the western summit.
In 2010 Macartney-Snape successfully summited a 6,500m unclimbed peak in remote Eastern Nepal with a team that included four members of the ANUMC Himalayan Expedition of 1978 to Dunagiri.
Macartney-Snape is a founding director and patron of the World Transformation Movement (WTM), formerly known as the Foundation for Humanity's Adulthood (FHA), an organisation dedicated to understanding and ameliorating the human condition. In particular the World Transformation Movement supports the work of Australian biologist Jeremy Griffith.
In 1987 the Australian Geographic Society, founded by businessman Dick Smith, arranged a function at which Macartney-Snape made a speech. Griffith attended the function and met with Macartney-Snape. Several months later they met again where Griffith discussed his ideas with Macartney-Snape and gave him a draft copy of his first book Free: The End of the Human Condition. Macartney-Snape said that the explanation given in the book for human nature "made total sense". Macartney-Snape subsequently became involved in the World Transformation Movement and in 1990 on Everest's summit filmed himself saying "It is time to climb the mountains of the mind". When Griffith published Beyond the Human Condition in 1991 it featured a foreword written by Macartney-Snape.
In 2020 Macartney-Snape explained his interest in Griffith’s work, saying, “Mountains are an apt metaphor for the urge to explore and ultimately get to the bottom of the greatest riddle of all, why humans are the way we are—the only animal capable of great works of art and acts of selflessness, yet at the same time capable of wilfully committing the greatest atrocities. The answer does lie in us ‘climbing the mountains of our mind’—in healing our psychosis through compassionate understanding of how we ended up in this predicament.”
In 1995 an Australian Broadcasting Corporation Four Corners program was broadcast and a feature article was published in The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper concerning Macartney-Snape, Griffith and the World Transformation Movement. In 2003 and 2005 respectively the publications were found by NSW Supreme Court juries to be defamatory of Macartney-Snape, Griffith and the World Transformation Movement. In 2008 Macartney-Snape was awarded almost $500,000 plus costs for the loss and damage caused by the broadcast, with the total payout expected to exceed $1 million.Macartney-Snape said "Thirteen years later the truth has caught up with the lie". In 2009 The Sydney Morning Herald published an apology for the harm caused by the article.
Macartney-Snape is a member of The Fred Hollows Foundation. The Foundation focuses on treating and preventing blindness and other vision problems.
Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain in the world at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft), after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga. The main summit is on the border between Tibet Autonomous Region of China and the Khumbu region of Nepal.
Reinhold Andreas Messner is an Italian mountaineer, explorer, and author from South Tyrol. He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest and, along with Peter Habeler, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen. He was the first climber to ascend all fourteen peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level without oxygen. Messner was the first to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. He also crossed the Gobi Desert alone. He is widely considered one of the greatest mountaineers of all time.
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,481 metres (27,825 ft). It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km (12 mi) southeast of Mount Everest, in Nepal. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak in the shape of a four-sided pyramid.
Dhaulagiri is the seventh highest mountain in the world at 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) above sea level, and the highest mountain within the borders of a single country (Nepal). It was first climbed on 13 May 1960 by a Swiss-Austrian-Nepali expedition. Annapurna I is 34 km (21 mi) east of Dhaulagiri. The Kali Gandaki River flows between the two in the Kaligandaki Gorge, said to be the world's deepest. The town of Pokhara is south of the Annapurnas, an important regional center and the gateway for climbers and trekkers visiting both ranges as well as a tourist destination in its own right.
Kamet is the second highest mountain in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India, after Nanda Devi. It lies in the Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. Its appearance resembles a giant pyramid topped by a flat summit area with two peaks.
Alan Hinkes OBE is an English Himalayan high-altitude mountaineer from Northallerton in North Yorkshire. He is the first British mountaineer to claim all 14 Himalayan eight-thousanders, which he did on 30 May 2005.
Annapurna II is part of the Annapurna mountain range located in Nepal, and is the eastern anchor of the range.
The Kangshung Face or East Face is the eastern-facing side of Mount Everest, one of the Tibetan sides of the mountain. It is 3,350 metres (11,000 ft) from its base on the Kangshung Glacier to the summit. It is a broad face, topped on the right by the upper Northeast Ridge, and on the left by the Southeast Ridge and the South Col. Most of the upper part of the face is composed of hanging glaciers, while the lower part consists of steep rock buttresses with couloirs between them. The steep southern third of the Kangshung Face also comprises the Northeastern Face of Lhotse; this section may be considered a separate face altogether following the division of the South "Neverest" Buttress up to the South Col. It is considered to be a dangerous route of ascent, compared to the standard North Col and South Col routes, and it is the most remote face of the mountain, with a longer approach.
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,849 metres (29,031.7 ft) above sea level. It is situated in the Himalayan range of Solukhumbu district, Nepal.
Lincoln Ross Hall OAM was a veteran Australian mountain climber, adventurer, author and philanthropist. Lincoln was part of the first Australian expedition to climb Mount Everest in 1984, which successfully forged a new route. He reached the summit of the mountain on his second attempt in 2006, miraculously surviving the night at 8,700 m (28,543 ft) on descent, after his family was told he had died.
Susan Erica Fear was an Australian mountain climber, supporter of the Fred Hollows Foundation and a 2005 recipient of the Order of Australia Medal. Her life and climbing career is illustrated in her biography Fear No Boundary: The Road to Everest and Beyond, written by fellow climber Lincoln Hall and Fear, published in 2005.
Andrew James Lock OAM is an Australian high-altitude mountaineer. He became the first, and still remains the only, Australian to climb all 14 "eight-thousanders" on 2 October 2009, and is the 18th person to ever complete this feat. He climbed 13 of the 14 without using bottled oxygen, only using it on Mount Everest, which he has summited three times. He retired from eight-thousander climbing in 2012.
Barry Chapman Bishop was an American mountaineer, scientist, photographer and scholar. With teammates Jim Whittaker, Lute Jerstad, Willi Unsoeld and Tom Hornbein, he was a member of the first American team to summit Mount Everest on May 22, 1963. He worked for the National Geographic Society for most of his life, beginning as a picture editor in 1959 and serving as a photographer, writer, and scientist with the society until his retirement in 1994. He was killed in an automobile accident near Pocatello, Idaho later that year.
John Roskelley is an American mountain climber and author. He made first ascents and notable ascents of 7,000-meter and 8,000-meter peaks in Nepal, India, and Pakistan. In 2014, he became the 6th winner of the Piolet d'Or Lifetime Achievement Award.
Dunagiri is one of the high peaks of the Chamoli District Himalayas in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand. It lies at the northwest corner of the Sanctuary Wall, A ring of peaks surrounding Nanda Devi and enclosing the Nanda Devi Sanctuary.
The Three Pinnacles are a formation of steep rocks along the northeast ridge on Mount Everest. They were one of the longest unsolved challenges in high-level mountaineering, but have now been successfully climbed.
Greg Mortimer is an Australian mountaineer. Mortimer is notable as one of the first two Australians to successfully climb Mount Everest, on 3 October 1984. Their ascent, without supplemental oxygen, was the first via the North Face and Norton Couloir. It is one of the climbing routes that has not been repeated often.
Ang Dorje (Chhuldim) Sherpa is a Nepali sherpa mountaineering guide, climber, and porter from Pangboche, Nepal, who has climbed to the summit of Mount Everest 21 times. He was the climbing Sirdar for Rob Hall's Adventure Consultants expedition to Everest in spring 1996, when a freak storm led to the deaths of eight climbers from several expeditions, considered one of the worst disasters in the history of Everest mountaineering.
Philip James Crampton, commonly known as Phil Crampton, is a British born mountaineer and expedition leader, and owner of the mountaineering company Altitude Junkies.