Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform

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The following is a timeline of the Gwangmu Reform , which was a reforms for modernize Korea from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. Although many people have the notion that this period was marked with the fight for power between Heungseon Daewongun (흥선대원군, 興宣大院君 - King Gojong's father) and Queen Min (King Gojong's wife), it was rather the era of great changes relevant to modernisation after the harsh oppressive years during the "Regency" of King Gojong's father. This reform also was one of the most successful for modernising in a short period of time during Korean history. Although the reform was mostly centred on the time period after the proclamation of the Korean Empire, it includes a number of other previous events that are closely related to the reform.

Contents

Early modernizations (1883–94)

Phase one of the Gwangmu Reform began with the first Korean delegation to America, and opening up for modernisation. Because of recurring Chinese interventions led by Li Hongzhang (이홍장,李鴻章), there was relatively less development of Chosun compared to Phase Three. The main innovator in this phase is Queen Min.

Hanseong sunbo, the first modern newspaper in Korea Hanseong Sunbo 1883.jpg
Hanseong sunbo , the first modern newspaper in Korea
A cartoon that shows a former Yangban and a commoner using the same speech level. Manhwa-Yu.Gil-jun-Yahak-01.jpg
A cartoon that shows a former Yangban and a commoner using the same speech level.

Japanese interventions (1894–97)

Kim Hong-jip (1842-96), prime minister of the Gabo Government Kim Hong-jip.jpg
Kim Hong-jip (1842–96), prime minister of the Gabo Government

This phase show much development within the Korean Peninsula. It is a brief period of an intense power struggle between Japan and Russia, competing to expand their influence in the peninsula.

Seo Jae-pil, the founder of the Independence Club. Young Philip Jaisohn.jpg
Seo Jae-pil, the founder of the Independence Club.

Later modernizations (1897–1905)

Phase two of the Gwangmu Reform began with the proclamation of the Korean Empire on 4 October 1897. Efforts for modernisation were spurred with the coronation of Gojong as Emperor but were restrained by Japan after the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. The main innovator in this phase is Emperor Gojong.

The West Gate of Seoul The West Gate of Seoul, Korean Empire (daehanjegug seodaemunyeog).jpg
The West Gate of Seoul
The Dae-han National hospital, the first national hospital opened in Korea Hospital during the Korean Empire.jpg
The Dae-han National hospital, the first national hospital opened in Korea
The modernisation of Seoul and its effects. Chongno1905.jpg
The modernisation of Seoul and its effects.
The Korean imperial battleship, KIS Gwangje KIS Guangmu.png
The Korean imperial battleship, KIS Gwangje
Japanese soldiers near Incheon, Korea during the Russo-Japanese War. Japanese soldiers near Chemulpo Korea August September 1904 Russo Japanese War.jpg
Japanese soldiers near Incheon, Korea during the Russo-Japanese War.

Japanese interventions and annexation of Korea (1905–10)

This was the darkest period of the Gwangmu Reform, ending with the annexation of Korea by Japan on the 29th of August, 1910.

The Hague Secret Emissary. Hague Secret Emissary Affair.jpg
The Hague Secret Emissary.
An Jung-geun, Lieutenant-general of the Korean Imperial Army. An Jung-geun.JPG
An Jung-geun, Lieutenant-general of the Korean Imperial Army.

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References

Further reading

References

  1. Nam, Mun-hyeon. "대한제국 근대화 정책의 상징" (PDF). Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  2. "한국사데이터베이스". db.history.go.kr. Retrieved 2022-04-17.
  3. "[그때 오늘] 대한제국 의학교 졸업 시험 … 이 땅에서 교육 받은 첫 양의 탄생". 중앙일보 (in Korean). 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2022-02-10.