|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||257.31 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
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Timoprazole is in a class of medications called proton pump inhibitors (PPI) that inhibit gastric acid secretion. While it has never come to market, it was studied early on and is considered to be the "backbone" of the PPI class that succeeded it.This medication has high anti-secretory activity, which flared interest along with its simple structure.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that cause a profound and prolonged reduction of stomach acid production. They do so by irreversibly inhibiting the stomach's H+/K+ ATPase proton pump.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the inner lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, while one in the first part of the intestines is a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain, and upper abdominal pain that improves with eating. With a gastric ulcer, the pain may worsen with eating. The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache. Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite. About a third of older people have no symptoms. Complications may include bleeding, perforation, and blockage of the stomach. Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of cases.
Heartburn, also known as pyrosis, cardialgia or acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen. Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid into the esophagus. It is the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is one of the upper gastrointestinal chronic diseases in which stomach content persistently and regularly flows up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications. Symptoms include dental corrosion, dysphagia, heartburn, odynophagia, regurgitation, non-cardiac chest pain, extraesophageal symptoms such as chronic cough, hoarseness, reflux-induced laryngitis, or asthma. In the long term, and when not treated, complications such as esophagitis, esophageal stricture, and Barrett's esophagus may arise.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RAs and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach. This decreases the production of stomach acid. H2 antagonists can be used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. They have been surpassed by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs); the PPI omeprazole was found to be more effective at both healing and alleviating symptoms of ulcers and reflux oesophagitis than the H2 blockers ranitidine and cimetidine.
Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec, among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It is also used to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people who are at high risk. Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and its effectiveness is similar to that of other PPIs. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. It is also available in the fixed-dose combination medication omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate as Zegerid and as Konvomep.
Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood. It can be confused with hemoptysis or epistaxis (nosebleed), which are more common. The source is generally the upper gastrointestinal tract, typically above the suspensory muscle of duodenum. It may be caused by ulcers, tumors of the stomach or esophagus, varices, prolonged and vigorous retching, gastroenteritis, ingested blood, or certain drugs.
Coffee ground vomitus refers to a particular appearance of vomit. Within organic heme molecules of red blood cells is the element iron, which oxidizes following exposure to gastric acid. This reaction causes the vomitus to look like ground coffee.
Clopidogrel — sold under the brand name Plavix, among others — is an antiplatelet medication used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk. It is also used together with aspirin in heart attacks and following the placement of a coronary artery stent. It is taken by mouth. Its effect starts about two hours after intake and lasts for five days.
Pantoprazole, sold under the brand name Protonix, among others, is a proton pump inhibitor used for the treatment of stomach ulcers, short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used along with other medications to eliminate Helicobacter pylori. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is available by mouth and by injection into a vein.
Esomeprazole, sold under the brand name Nexium [or Neksium] among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Its effectiveness is similar to that of other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth or injection into a vein.
Rabeprazole, sold under the brand name Aciphex, among others, is a medication that decreases stomach acid. It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and excess stomach acid production such as in Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used in combination with other medications to treat Helicobacter pylori. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia or upset stomach, is a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, nausea, belching, or upper abdominal pain. People may also experience feeling full earlier than expected when eating. Indigestion is relatively common, affecting 20% of people at some point during their life, and is frequently caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis.
Lansoprazole, sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Its effectiveness is similar to that of other PPIs. It is taken by mouth. Onset is over a few hours and effects last up to a couple of days.
Gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase, also known as H+/K+ ATPase, is an enzyme which functions to acidify the stomach. It is a member of the P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases due to its two states.
Dexlansoprazole, sold under the trade name Dexilant among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. These drugs have emerged as the treatment of choice for acid-related diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. PPIs also can bind to other types of proton pumps such as those that occur in cancer cells and are finding applications in the reduction of cancer cell acid efflux and reduction of chemotherapy drug resistance.
There are several classes of drugs for acid-related disorders, such as dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), or laryngopharyngeal reflux.
Azeloprazole is a drug under investigation for acid-related medical conditions responsive to suppressing the production of stomach acid. It is considered a member of the proton pump inhibitor class of medications.
Acid peptic diseases, such as peptic ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, are caused by distinct but overlapping pathogenic mechanisms involving acid effects on mucosal defense. Acid reflux damages the esophageal mucosa and may also cause laryngeal tissue injury, leading to the development of pulmonary symptoms.