|Leader|| Pierpont Edwards |
Oliver Wolcott Jr.
|Split from||Democratic-Republican Party|
|Merged into||Democratic Party|
|Headquarters||New Haven, Connecticut|
|Ideology|| Anti-clericalism |
The Toleration Party, also known as the Toleration-Republican Party and later the American Party or American Toleration and Reform Party, was a political party that dominated the political life of Connecticut from 1817 to 1827. The American name referred not to nativism or the later Know Nothing, which was also known as the American Party, but to the party's national orientation.The party was formed by an alliance of the more conservative Episcopalians with the Democratic-Republicans, as a result of the discrimination of the Episcopal Church by the Congregationalist state government. In the 1817 elections, the Toleration Party swept control of the General Assembly. At the Connecticut Constitutional convention in 1817, 111 of the 201 convention delegates belonged to the Toleration Party. The resulting Constitution of 1818 generally adhered to the Tolerationist platform, especially their two major issues: increasing the electorate and the democratic nature of the government and disestablishing the Congregational Church. By the end of the 1820s the Tolerationists had developed into the Jacksonian branch of the Connecticut Democratic Party.
The Federalist Party had been dominant in Connecticut, holding a near-monopoly on power, since its foundation. The Democratic-Republican Party was established in Connecticut in 1801 but succeeded in winning merely 33 of 200 seats in the Connecticut General Assembly at best. After the War of 1812 (which saw the Hartford Convention and the blue lantern affair in the state), however, Federalist power began to wane. The Federalists were closely aligned with the Congregational church, which was still the established church of Connecticut (Connecticut was one of the last States to disestablish its state church; most States had done so by the 1790s, although the Congregational church effectively remained established in New Hampshire until 1819 and in Massachusetts until 1833). All residents of the state had to pay a tithe, which irritated members of other denominations, especially the Episcopalians. Episcopalians in Connecticut were lately wealthy and at odds with the Federalists and pre-Federalists dating back to discrimination that took place before the American Revolution. However, they avoided joining the Democratic-Republicans, partly due to the party being too radical for some of them, and partly because leading Episcopalians strongly supported the Federalists: the first Episcopalian to be appointed to the state upper house was William Samuel Johnson, who later became the head of the Committee of Style that wrote the U.S. Constitution. Among other irritations, a group of Episcopals had put up bonds for a state bank in 1814 in order to fund an Episcopal college in Cheshire to rival Congregationalist Yale; the Phoenix Bank in Hartford received state funds for Yale College but the Assembly gave nothing to the Episcopal "Bishop's Fund" that was raising money for an Episcopal college and refused the college a charter.This was the immediate impetus that led to the creation of the Toleration Party.
The Toleration Party was established at a state convention held at New Haven on February 21, 1816. The party was formed by an alliance of the more conservative Episcopalians with the Democratic-Republicans, along with a number of former Federalists and other religious dissenters, specifically Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, and Universalists. Pierpont Edwards played a large part in the party's creation, and the party nominated Oliver Wolcott Jr. (who formerly was a Federalist), for governor and Judge Jonathan Ingersoll (earlier, a Democratic-Republican) for lieutenant-governor. Wolcott was a Congregationalist, but Ingersoll, a well-respected Judge, was a Warden of the Episcopal Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven.
In the 1817 elections, the Toleration Party swept control of the General Assembly, with Wolcott and Ingersoll winning election to their executive branch positions, though only by 600 votes.This gave them the political capital to call a convention to draft a new state constitution. But Federalists were still strong and it was clear that a two-thirds majority could not be raised to pass a new constitution. Governor Wolcott appointed the Rev. Harry Croswell, of Trinity Episcopal Church on the Green, New Haven, to deliver the Annual Anniversary Sermon on May 14, 1818. The notorious Croswell, a political opponent of President Jefferson and a former Federalist, had renounced politics for religion. His sermon, strongly advocating the strict separation of church and state, was a success: shortly afterwards, the General Assembly voted 81-80 to allow ratification by a simple majority vote. Croswell's sermon was reprinted in four editions.
The most fateful vote in the General Assembly was that whatever constitution was proposed need be ratified by only a majority of the voters. The vote on this point was 81 to 80, with the dissenters favoring anywhere from 60 to 80 percent affirmative vote of the voters or towns. If any of the dissenters' proposals had carried, the constitution, which passed by a vote of 13,918 to 12,364, would have failed.
At the Connecticut Constitutional convention in October, 111 of the 201 convention delegates belonged to the Toleration Party. The resulting Constitution of 1818 generally adhered to the Tolerationist platform, especially their two major issues: increasing the electorate and the democratic nature of the government and disestablishing the Congregational Church. The party was eventually ratified by a small majority of voters in the state: it would not have passed had the simple majority rule not been passed in May by one vote. The Tolerationist constitution was used in Connecticut until 1965. In the end, "The separation of church and state, and the overthrow of the last theocracy in America would be accomplished by a former printer's devil, scandalmonger, and twice-convicted felon, the Rev. Harry Croswell."
The Tolerationist Party, although generally independent of the national Democratic-Republican Party, was allied to them. Wolcott was the only governor elected by the ticket; he was in office until 1827, and his successor, Gideon Tomlinson, was nominated by the Democratic-Republican Party itself. By the end of the 1820s the Tolerationists had developed into the Jacksonian branch of the Connecticut Democratic Party, while the Connecticut Federalists and more orthodox Democratic-Republicans had become the state Whig Party.
The Federalist Party was a conservative political party which was the first political party in the United States. As such, under Alexander Hamilton, it dominated the national government from 1789 to 1801. Defeated by the Jeffersonian Republicans in 1800, it became a minority party while keeping its stronghold in New England and made a brief resurgence by opposing the War of 1812. It then collapsed with its last presidential candidate in 1816. Remnants lasted for a few years afterwards. The party appealed to businesses and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government, manufacturing, an army and navy, and in world affairs preferred Great Britain and strongly opposed the French Revolution. The party favored centralization, federalism, modernization, industrialization and protectionism.
The U.S. state of Connecticut began as three distinct settlements of Puritans from Massachusetts and England; they combined under a single royal charter in 1663. Known as the "land of steady habits" for its political, social and religious conservatism, the colony prospered from the trade and farming of its ethnic English Protestant population. The Congregational and Unitarian churches became prominent here. Connecticut played an active role in the American Revolution, and became a bastion of the conservative, business-oriented, Constitutionalism Federalist Party.
Jared Ingersoll was an American Founding Father, lawyer, and statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the United States Constitution. He served as DeWitt Clinton's running mate in the 1812 election, but Clinton and Ingersoll were defeated by James Madison and Elbridge Gerry.
The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings from December 15, 1814 to January 5, 1815, in Hartford, Connecticut, United States, in which the New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power.
Charles Miller Croswell was the 17th Governor of Michigan from 1877 to 1881.
The following is a list of lieutenant governors of the State of Connecticut.
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party, formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, usually called at the time the Republican Party. The Federalists were dominant until 1800, while the Republicans were dominant after 1800. Both parties originated in national politics, but soon expanded their efforts to gain supporters and voters in every state. The Federalists appealed to the business community and the Republicans to the planters and farmers. By 1796, politics in every state was nearly monopolized by the two parties, with party newspapers and caucuses becoming effective tools to mobilize voters.
Alexander Wolcott was a United States politician, customs inspector, and nominee to the Supreme Court of the United States. Nominated by James Madison in 1811, to replace the late William Cushing, he was rejected by the United States Senate by a vote of 9–24. He was later a delegate to the 1818 convention that drafted the Constitution of Connecticut.
Connecticut is known as "The Constitution State". The origin of this title is uncertain, but the nickname is assumed to be a reference to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39 which represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. Connecticut's government has operated under the direction of five separate documents in its history. The Connecticut Colony at Hartford was governed by the Fundamental Orders, and the Quinnipiac Colony at New Haven had its own Constitution in The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony which was signed on June 4, 1639.
The 1806 and 1807 United States Senate elections were elections that had the Democratic-Republican Party increase its overwhelming control of the Senate by one additional Senator. The Federalists went into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats that even if they had won every election, they would still have remained a minority caucus. As it was, however, they lost one of the two seats they were defending and picked up no gains from their opponents.
Trinity Church on the Green or Trinity on the Green is a historic, culturally and community-active parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut in New Haven, Connecticut of the Episcopal Church. It is one of three historic churches on the New Haven Green.
Harry Croswell was a crusading political journalist, a publisher, author, and an Episcopal Church clergyman. Though largely self-educated, he received an honorary degree of A. M. from Yale College in 1817, an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut in 1831 – an institution he co-founded – established the first public lectures in New Haven, and founded an evening school for the education of adult African-Americans in the city. He was a key figure in first amendment battles over freedom of the press and religious freedom. After abandoning politics for religion, he became the much respected Rector of Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven, Connecticut, for forty-three years, growing his church and establishing seven new churches within the original limits of his parish. Though he published fourteen books, and wrote newspaper articles as an editor and journalist weekly for eleven years, he is best known as an author for being the first person to define the word cocktail in print.
The 1826 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 13, 1826. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. defeated former senator and Federalist Party candidate David Daggett, winning with 56.77% of the vote.
The 1825 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 14, 1825. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. defeated Federalist Party candidates former senator David Daggett, former delegate Nathan Smith and former congressman Timothy Pitkin, winning with 68.82% of the vote.
The 1824 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 8, 1824. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. defeated former congressman and Federalist Party candidate Timothy Pitkin, winning with 88.81% of the vote.
The 1823 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 10, 1823. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. won re-election with 88.96% of the vote.
The 1822 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 11, 1822. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. defeated former congressman and Federalist Party candidate Zephaniah Swift, winning with 86.59% of the vote.
The 1820 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 13, 1820. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. was re-elected, defeating Federalist Party candidates former delegate Nathan Smith and former congressman and state legislator Timothy Pitkin with 76.14% of the vote.
The 1819 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 8, 1819. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. was re-elected, winning with 86.85% of the vote.
The 1818 Connecticut gubernatorial election was held on April 9, 1818. Incumbent governor and Toleration Party candidate Oliver Wolcott Jr. was re-elected, defeating congressman and Federalist Party candidate Timothy Pitkin with 86.32% of the vote.