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|Treaty of Amiens|
|Context||Hundred Years' War|
|Signed||13 April 1423|
|Location||Amiens, Picardy, France|
The Treaty of Amiens, signed on 13 April 1423, was a defensive agreement between Burgundy, Brittany, and England during the Hundred Years' War. The English were represented by John, Duke of Bedford, the English regent of France, the Burgundians by Duke Philip the Good himself, and the Bretons by Arthur de Richemont, on behalf of his brother the Duke of Brittany. By the agreement, all three parties acknowledged Henry VI of England as King of France, and agreed to aid each other against the Valois claimant, Charles VII.  It also stipulated the marriage of Bedford and Richemont to Burgundy's sisters, in order to cement the alliance.
The Treaty of Amiens was formed in the aftermath of the Treaty of Troyes. It helped maintain the Anglo-Burgundian alliance until 1435, and the basis of the dual-monarchy of the two kingdoms of England and France first formed by King Henry V of England at Troyes.
The Treaty of Amiens was a tripartite alliance between England, Burgundy and Brittany. It arranged the marriage of the John, Duke of Bedford to the Duke of Burgundy's younger sister, Anne of Burgundy, and the marriage of Arthur, Earl of Richmond, to the Duke of Burgundy's older sister Margaret of Burgundy, widow of Louis, Dauphin of France. Furthermore, the treaty stated that all three of the parties would willingly acknowledge Henry VI of England as King of France, as had been promised by their oaths taken at the Treaty of Troyes two years before. 
As formalised by the Treaty of Troyes, Henry V and his heirs would inherit the Kingdom of France after Charles VI's death. However Henry V died four weeks before the death of Charles VI, and so never inherited the French throne.
Henry V's son, though still an infant, became Henry VI, King of England, on his father's death, and shortly thereafter became King of France as well. The accession of an infant king made it easier for the French nobility to refuse him and support the Valois heir, Charles. The infant king of the dual-monarchy thus required a regent. John, Duke of Bedford, who was governor of Normandy and younger brother of Henry V, was made regent of France, and ruled with a joint French administration in Paris until the king came of age to rule his two kingdoms.
Anglo-Burgundian relations now centred on the two personal figures of the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Burgundy, who was as strong as any other monarch. In 1422, Bedford had sought to bind Brittany and Burgundy more to his young nephew's interest.  Bedford had concluded with a marriage contract in which he would marry Anne of Burgundy, younger sister of Philip, while Arthur, Earl of Richmond, would marry Margaret of Burgundy, older sister of Philip. 
In February 1423, Bedford appealed for a formal alliance, suggesting that both dukes would come to Amiens for negotiation. The talks ended in April when they signed a personal alliance that would lapse on the signatories' death. The military commitment was that each individual would aid with five-hundred men-at-arms and archers in time of need. The main part of the agreement was the signatories commitment to work for "the good of our lord the king and his kingdom of France and England", a clause that recognised Henry VI's title to the French throne, and rejected the authority of Charles. 
The treaty also gave an unusual clause in which the three dukes would give relief to the poor and those suffering. Despite being fifteen years her senior, Bedford's marriage to Anne of Burgundy turned out to be a love match. 
The Treaty of Amiens was almost immediately undermined. On 18 April 1423, the Bretons and the Burgundians held a secret meeting in which the two agreed to remain friends if either duke would reconcile himself with Charles.  Although for the time being both recognised Henry VI as their sovereign, adherence to the Treaty of Amiens wavered for their own personal interests. 
The English and Burgundians were masters on the battlefield. They won the Battle of Cravant in 1423, a victory celebrated by the people of Paris, and their victory at Verneuil in 1424 was known as the second Agincourt to many of the Armagnacs (supporters of Charles) who were fighting against the English. This important victory meant there was a smaller need for important administration in Paris.
However, a quarrel between Bedford and Richmond caused the latter to offer his services to the Dauphin in 1424 despite having been created Count of Touraine by Bedford. The same year, Anglo-Burgundian strain had been shown when Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester (the brother of Bedford), attacked the County of Hainault in favour of his wife's right there, thus bringing Anglo-Burgundian confrontation.
Anne of Burgundy, the Duchess of Bedford, was the primary mediator between her brother and her husband. Her death in 1432 deeply shook the relations between the two. Henry VI's French coronation and consecration at Notre Dame in Paris could do nothing to stop the French from pushing further into English territories. By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy opened negotiations with Charles, and, having only agreed with a small peace settlement near Burgundian-Valois territory, he now started reflecting on a possibility of a Franco-Burgundian reconciliation.
At the Treaty of Arras in 1435, the Duke of Burgundy withdrew from the alliance and withdrew his recognition of Henry VI as King of France. Burgundy had a Papal legate which enabled him to break the oath he had made at Troyes, and reconciled with and recognised Charles as King of France. Brittany had always stuck to its tradition of joining the strongest side. When it declared war on England in 1426, Brittany's eastern frontier remained unprotected, besides sending raids into English held territory. In 1427, Brittany was forced to a previous status quo as vassal. Even after the expulsion of Henry VI from France in 1453, the English kings continued to style themselves as Kings of France.
The Capetian house of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.
Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461.
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French throne upon the death of King Charles VI of France. It was formally signed in the French city of Troyes on 21 May 1420 in the aftermath of Henry's successful military campaign in France. It forms a part of the backdrop of the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War finally won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, and in which various English kings tried to establish their claims to the French throne.
Pierre Cauchon was Bishop of Beauvais from 1420 to 1432. He was a strong partisan of English interests in France during the latter years of the Hundred Years' War. He was the judge in the trial of Joan of Arc and played a key role in her execution. The Catholic Church overturned his verdict in 1456.
Anne of Burgundy, Duchess of Bedford was a daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (1371–1419) and his wife Margaret of Bavaria (1363–1423).
Philip III was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty, to which all 15th-century kings of France belonged. During his reign, the Burgundian State reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige, and became a leading centre of the arts. Philip is known historically for his administrative reforms, his patronage of Flemish artists such as van Eyck and Franco-Flemish composers such as Guillaume Du Fay, and perhaps most significantly the seizure of Joan of Arc, whom Philip ransomed to the English after his soldiers captured her, resulting in her trial and eventual execution. In political affairs, he alternated between alliances with the English and the French in an attempt to improve his dynasty's powerbase. Additionally, as ruler of Flanders, Brabant, Limburg, Artois, Hainaut, Holland, Luxembourg, Zeeland, Friesland and Namur, he played an important role in the history of the Low Countries.
John I was a scion of the French royal family who ruled the Burgundian State from 1404 until his death in 1419. He played a key role in French national affairs during the early 15th century, particularly in the struggles to rule the country for the mentally ill King Charles VI, his cousin, and the Hundred Years' War with England. A rash, ruthless and unscrupulous politician, John murdered the King's brother, the Duke of Orléans, in an attempt to gain control of the government, which led to the eruption of the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War in France and in turn culminated in his own assassination in 1419.
John V, sometimes numbered as VI, bynamed John the Wise, was Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort from 1399 to his death. His rule coincided with the height of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. John's reversals in that conflict, as well as in other internal struggles in France, served to strengthen his duchy and to maintain its independence.
Arthur III, more commonly known as Arthur de Richemont, was briefly Duke of Brittany from 1457 until his death. He is noted primarily, however, for his role as a leading military commander during the Hundred Years' War. Although Richemont briefly sided with the English once, he otherwise remained firmly committed to the House of Valois. He fought alongside Joan of Arc, and was appointed Constable of France. His military and administrative reforms in the French state were an important factor in assuring the final defeat of the English in the Hundred Years' War.
Yolande of Aragon was Duchess of Anjou and Countess of Provence by marriage, who acted as regent of Provence during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of Joan I of Aragon and his wife Violant of Bar. Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc's army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Yolanda de Aragón and Violant d'Aragó. Tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours.
The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years' War. The term "Burgundians" refers to the supporters of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, that formed after the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. Their opposition to the Armagnac party, the supporters of Charles, Duke of Orléans, led to a civil war in the early 15th Century, itself part of the larger Hundred Years' War.
The Congress of Arras was a diplomatic congregation established at Arras in the summer of 1435 during the Hundred Years' War, between representatives of England, France, and Burgundy. It was the first negotiation since the Treaty of Troyes and replaced the 15 year agreement between Burgundy and England that would have seen the dynasty of Henry V inherit the French crown.
The Treaty of Picquigny was a peace treaty negotiated on 29 August 1475 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. It followed from an invasion of France by Edward IV of England in alliance with Burgundy and Brittany. It left Louis XI of France free to solve the threat posed by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
The Lancastrian War was the third and final phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War. It lasted from 1415, when King Henry V of England invaded Normandy, to 1453, when the English lost Bordeaux. It followed a long period of peace from the end of the Caroline War in 1389. The phase is named after the House of Lancaster, the ruling house of the Kingdom of England, to which Henry V belonged.
Margaret of Nevers, also known as Margaret of Burgundy, was Dauphine of France and Duchess of Guyenne as the daughter-in-law of King Charles VI of France. A pawn in the dynastic struggles between her family and in-laws during the Hundred Years' War, Margaret was regarded as the future Queen of France at two separate times, as a result of her two marriages: first to the Dauphin and second to the Duke of Brittany.
The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.
Events from the 1420s in England.
The Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War was a conflict between two cadet branches of the French royal family — the House of Orléans and the House of Burgundy from 1407 to 1435. It began during a lull in the Hundred Years' War against the English and overlapped with the Western Schism of the papacy.
The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France. It commenced on 21 October 1422 upon the death of King Charles VI of France, who had signed the Treaty of Troyes which gave the French crown to his son-in-law Henry V of England and Henry's heirs. It excluded King Charles's son, the Dauphin Charles, who by right of primogeniture was the heir to the Kingdom of France. Although the Treaty was ratified by the Estates-General of France, the act was a contravention of the French law of succession which decreed that the French crown could not be alienated. Henry VI, son of Henry V, became king of both England and France and was recognized only by the English and Burgundians until 1435 as King Henry II of France. He was crowned King of France on 16 December 1431.
The Burgundian State is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy.