|Other names||Late-onset distal myopathy, Markesbery-Griggs type|
|Zaspopathy has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.|
Zaspopathy,also called ZASP-related myofibril myopathy, is a novel autosomal dominant form of progressive muscular dystrophy, first described in 2005.
The disease encompasses multiple forms of both distal and proximal myopathies, and is caused by mutations in the gene referred to as ZASP.
The ZASP gene is located at chromosome 10, and encodes also-called Z-disk-associated protein. Mutations in this protein causes disintegration of the Z-disk of contractile elements (myofibrils) in muscle cells.[ citation needed ]
Mutations of several other Z-disk related proteins, such as desmin, alfa-B-crystallin and myotilin can cause disorders similar to zaspopathy.[ citation needed ]
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Limb–girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a genetically heterogeneous group of rare muscular dystrophies that share a set of clinical characteristics. It is characterised by progressive muscle wasting which affects predominantly hip and shoulder muscles. LGMD usually has an autosomal pattern of inheritance. It currently has no known cure or treatment.
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare form of muscular dystrophy with symptoms generally starting when an individual is 40 to 50 years old. It can be autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease or autosomal recessive. The most common inheritance of OPMD is autosomal dominant, which means only one copy of the mutated gene needs to be present in each cell. Children of an affected parent have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutant gene.
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is a rare, autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy mainly described in Japan but also identified in Turkish and Ashkenazi Jewish patients; fifteen cases were first described on 1960 by Dr. Yukio Fukuyama.
Titin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTN gene. Titin is a giant protein, greater than 1 µm in length, that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle. It comprises 244 individually folded protein domains connected by unstructured peptide sequences. These domains unfold when the protein is stretched and refold when the tension is removed.
Hereditary inclusion body myopathies (HIBM) are a group of rare genetic disorders which have different symptoms. Generally, they are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness developing in young adults. Hereditary inclusion body myopathies comprise both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant muscle disorders that have a variable expression (phenotype) in individuals, but all share similar structural features in the muscles.
Walker–Warburg syndrome (WWS), also called Warburg syndrome, Chemke syndrome, HARD syndrome, Pagon syndrome, cerebroocular dysgenesis (COD) or cerebroocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy syndrome (COD-MD), is a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. It is associated with brain and eye abnormalities. This condition has a worldwide distribution. The overall incidence is unknown but a survey in North-eastern Italy has reported an incidence rate of 1.2 per 100,000 live births. It is the most severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy with most children dying before the age of three years.
Dysferlin also known as dystrophy-associated fer-1-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYSF gene.
Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in the center of muscle cells instead of their normal location at the periphery.
Congenital muscular dystrophies are autosomal recessively-inherited muscle diseases. They are a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by muscle weakness which is present at birth and the different changes on muscle biopsy that ranges from myopathic to overtly dystrophic due to the age at which the biopsy takes place.
Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a type of muscular dystrophy, a group of heritable diseases that cause progressive impairment of muscles. EDMD affects muscles used for movement, causing atrophy, weakness and contractures. It almost always affects the heart, causing abnormal rhythms, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. It is rare, affecting 0.39 per 100,000 people. It is named after Alan Eglin H. Emery and Fritz E. Dreifuss.
Distal myopathy is a group of rare genetic disorders that cause muscle damage and weakness, predominantly in the hands and/or feet. Mutation of many different genes can be causative. Many types involve dysferlin.
Fukutin is a eukaryotic protein necessary for the maintenance of muscle integrity, cortical histogenesis, and normal ocular development. Mutations in the fukutin gene have been shown to result in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) characterised by brain malformation - one of the most common autosomal-recessive disorders in Japan. In humans this protein is encoded by the FCMD gene, located on chromosome 9q31. Human fukutin exhibits a length of 461 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 53.7 kDa.
Four and a half LIM domains protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FHL1 gene.
Myotilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOT gene. Myotilin also known as TTID is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres.
Protein O-mannosyl-transferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POMT1 gene. It is a member of the dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferases.
LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3), also known as Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif (ZASP), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LDB3 gene. ZASP belongs to the Enigma subfamily of proteins and stabilizes the sarcomere during contraction, through interactions with actin in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Mutations in the ZASP gene has been associated with several muscular diseases.
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. It is associated with variants of type VI collagen, it is commonly associated with muscle weakness and respiratory problems, though cardiac issues are not associated with this type of CMD. It is named after Otto Ullrich, who is also known for the Ullrich-Turner syndrome.
Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy, is a subgroup of the myofibrillar myopathy diseases and is the result of a mutation in the gene that codes for desmin which prevents it from forming protein filaments, instead forming aggregates of desmin and other proteins throughout the cell.
Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANO5 gene.
Muscle–eye–brain (MEB) disease, also known as muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy congenital with brain and eye anomalies A3 (MDDGA3), is a kind of rare congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), largely characterized by hypotonia at birth. Patients have muscular dystrophy, central nervous system abnormalities and ocular abnormalities. The condition is degenerative.