Neuromuscular disease

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Neuromuscular disease
Congenital nemaline myopathy.jpg
Congenital nemaline myopathy (neuromuscular disorder)
Specialty Neurology, neuromuscular medicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation
CausesAutoimmune disorders, [1] genetic disorders, [2] environmental factors [3]
Diagnostic method Muscle electrophysiology tests, genetic testing
TreatmentDepends on the disorder; many currently have no cure [2]

A neuromuscular disease is any disease affecting the peripheral nervous system (PNS), [lower-alpha 1] the neuromuscular junction, or skeletal muscle, all of which are components of the motor unit. [4] Damage to any of these structures can cause muscle atrophy and weakness. Issues with sensation can also occur.

Contents

Neuromuscular diseases can be acquired or genetic. Mutations of more than 500 genes have shown to be causes of neuromuscular diseases. [5] Other causes include nerve or muscle degeneration, autoimmunity, toxins, medications, malnutrition, metabolic derangements, hormone imbalances, infection, nerve compression/entrapment, comprised blood supply, and trauma. [6]

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of neuromuscular disease may include numbness, paresthesia, muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, myalgia (muscle pain), and fasciculations (muscle twitches). [2] [7]

Causes

Neuromuscular disease can be caused by autoimmune disorders, [1] genetic/hereditary disorders [2] and some forms of the collagen disorder Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, [8] exposure to environmental chemicals and poisoning which includes heavy metal poisoning. [3] The failure of the electrical insulation surrounding nerves, the myelin, is seen in certain deficiency diseases, such as the failure of the body's system for absorbing vitamin B-12. [3]

Diseases of the motor end plate include myasthenia gravis, a form of muscle weakness due to antibodies against acetylcholine receptor, [9] [10] and its related condition Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). [11] Tetanus and botulism are bacterial infections in which bacterial toxins cause increased or decreased muscle tone, respectively. [12] Muscular dystrophies, including Duchenne's and Becker's, are a large group of diseases, many of them hereditary or resulting from genetic mutations, where the muscle integrity is disrupted, they lead to progressive loss of strength and decreased life span. [13]

Further causes of neuromuscular diseases are:

Polymyositis Polymyositis HE.jpg
Polymyositis

Inflammatory muscle disorders

Tumors

Diagnosis

Nerve conduction velocity (study) Nerve conduction velocity.jpg
Nerve conduction velocity (study)

Diagnostic procedures that may reveal muscular disorders include direct clinical observations. This usually starts with the observation of bulk, possible atrophy or loss of muscle tone. Neuromuscular disease can also be diagnosed by various blood tests and using electrodiagnostic medicine tests [19] including electromyography [20] (measuring electrical activity in muscles) and nerve conduction studies. [21] Genetic testing is an important part of diagnosing inherited neuromuscular conditions. [19]

Prognosis

Prognosis and management vary by disease.[ citation needed ]

See also

Notes

  1. Lower motor neurons originate in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, a part of the central nervous system. However, the anterior horn is also part of the motor unit. Diseases that affect the anterior horn are classified as neuromuscular.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Motor neuron disease</span> Group of neurological disorders affecting motor neurons

Motor neuron diseases or motor neurone diseases (MNDs) are a group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells which control voluntary muscles of the body. They include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive bulbar palsy (PBP), pseudobulbar palsy, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), as well as some rarer variants resembling ALS.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome</span> Medical condition

Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness of the limbs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muscular dystrophy</span> Genetic disorder

Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare neuromuscular diseases that cause progressive weakness and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ as to which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Myasthenia gravis</span> Autoimmune disease resulting in skeletal muscle weakness

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular junction disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness. The most commonly affected muscles are those of the eyes, face, and swallowing. It can result in double vision, drooping eyelids, trouble talking, and trouble walking. Onset can be sudden. Those affected often have a large thymus or develop a thymoma.

Neuromyotonia (NMT) is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability that causes spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin. NMT along with Morvan's syndrome are the most severe types in the Peripheral Nerve Hyperexciteability spectrum. Example of two more common and less severe syndromes in the spectrum are Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome and Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. NMT can have both hereditary and acquired forms. The prevalence of NMT is unknown.

Myalgia is the medical term for muscle pain. Myalgia is a symptom of many diseases. The most common cause of acute myalgia is the overuse of a muscle or group of muscles; another likely cause is viral infection, especially when there has been no trauma.

Myotonia is a symptom of a small handful of certain neuromuscular disorders characterized by delayed relaxation of the skeletal muscles after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spinal muscular atrophies</span> Group of disorders

Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare debilitating disorders characterised by the degeneration of lower motor neurons and subsequent atrophy (wasting) of various muscle groups in the body. While some SMAs lead to early infant death, other diseases of this group permit normal adult life with only mild weakness.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polyneuropathy</span> Medical condition

Polyneuropathy is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain. It usually begins in the hands and feet and may progress to the arms and legs and sometimes to other parts of the body where it may affect the autonomic nervous system. It may be acute or chronic. A number of different disorders may cause polyneuropathy, including diabetes and some types of Guillain–Barré syndrome.

Hypotonia is a state of low muscle tone, often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect motor nerve control by the brain or muscle strength. Hypotonia is a lack of resistance to passive movement, whereas muscle weakness results in impaired active movement. Central hypotonia originates from the central nervous system, while peripheral hypotonia is related to problems within the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and/or skeletal muscles. Severe hypotonia in infancy is commonly known as floppy baby syndrome. Recognizing hypotonia, even in early infancy, is usually relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the underlying cause can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's development and later life depend primarily on the severity of the muscle weakness and the nature of the cause. Some disorders have a specific treatment but the principal treatment for most hypotonia of idiopathic or neurologic cause is physical therapy and/or occupational therapy for remediation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polymyalgia rheumatica</span> Medical condition

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a syndrome with pain or stiffness, usually in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips, but which may occur all over the body. The pain can be very sudden, or can occur gradually over a period. Most people with PMR wake up in the morning with pain in their muscles; however, cases have occurred in which the person has developed the pain during the evenings or has pain and stiffness all day long.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy</span> Medical condition

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), popularly known as Kennedy's disease, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder resulting in muscle cramps and progressive weakness due to degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord and muscle wasting.

Neuromuscular medicine is a subspecialty of neurology and physiatry that focuses the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular diseases. The field encompasses issues related to both diagnosis and management of these conditions, including rehabilitation interventions to optimize the quality of life of individuals with these conditions. This field encompasses disorders that impact both adults and children. Neuromuscular disease can be caused by autoimmune disorders, genetic or hereditary disorders such as channelopathies, or neurodegenerative diseases. Because they frequently have no cure, the focus is managing the condition to provide improvements in the patients quality. Rehabilitation robotics is a new frontier for neurological rehabilitation treatments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spinal muscular atrophy</span> Rare congenital neuromuscular disorder

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disorder that results in the loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting. It is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and if left untreated it is the most common genetic cause of infant death. It may also appear later in life and then have a milder course of the disease. The common feature is progressive weakness of voluntary muscles, with arm, leg and respiratory muscles being affected first. Associated problems may include poor head control, difficulties swallowing, scoliosis, and joint contractures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fazio–Londe disease</span> Medical condition

Fazio–Londe disease (FLD), also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood, is a very rare inherited motor neuron disease of children and young adults and is characterized by progressive paralysis of muscles innervated by cranial nerves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy</span> Medical condition

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) is a name sometimes given to a group of different neuropathies which are all characterized by their impact upon both afferent and efferent neural communication. HMSN are characterised by atypical neural development and degradation of neural tissue. The two common forms of HMSN are either hypertrophic demyelinated nerves or complete atrophy of neural tissue. Hypertrophic condition causes neural stiffness and a demyelination of nerves in the peripheral nervous system, and atrophy causes the breakdown of axons and neural cell bodies. In these disorders, a patient experiences progressive muscle atrophy and sensory neuropathy of the extremities.

Neuromuscular junction disease is a medical condition where the normal conduction through the neuromuscular junction fails to function correctly.

Cramp fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder. It is more severe than the related disorder known as benign fasciculation syndrome; it causes fasciculations, cramps, pain, fatigue, and muscle stiffness similar to those seen in neuromyotonia. Patients with CFS, like those with neuromyotonia, may also experience paresthesias. Most cases of cramp fasciculation syndrome are idiopathic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monomelic amyotrophy</span> Medical condition

Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) is a rare motor neuron disease first described in 1959 in Japan. Its symptoms usually appear about two years after adolescent growth spurt and is significantly more common in males, with an average age of onset between 15 and 25 years. MMA is reported most frequently in Asia but has a global distribution. It is typically marked by insidious onset of muscle atrophy of an upper limb, which plateaus after two to five years from which it neither improves nor worsens. There is no pain or sensory loss associated with MMA. MMA is not believed to be hereditary.

References

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Further reading