1967 Newark riots

Last updated

1967 Newark riots
DateJuly 12–17, 1967
Location
Caused byBeating of a black man by police
Methods Rioting, arson, shooting, assault, rock throwing
Parties to the civil conflict
Rioters, residents of Newark, NJ
Casualties
Death(s)26
Injuries727
Arrested 1,465

The 1967 Newark riots was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967". This riot occurred in Newark, New Jersey, between July 12 and July 17, 1967. Over the four days of rioting, looting, and property destruction, 26 people died and hundreds were injured.

Newark, New Jersey City in Essex County, New Jersey, U.S.

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 282,090 in 2018, making it the nation's 73rd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000.

Contents

Background

In the decades leading up to the riots, deindustrialization and suburbanization were major contributors to changes in Newark's demographics. White middle-class residents left for other towns across North Jersey, in one of the largest examples of white flight in the country. Due to the legislation of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, white veterans, who had just returned from fighting in World War II, began to emigrate from Newark to the suburbs where there was improved access to interstate highways, low-interest mortgages, and colleges. [1] The outflow suburban sprawl of white veterans from Newark was rapidly replaced with an influx of black people moving into the Central Ward; the black people, however, faced discrimination in jobs and housing, [1] ultimately making their lives more likely to fall into a cycle of poverty. By 1967, Newark was one of the United States' first majority-black cities, but was still controlled by white politicians. [2]

Deindustrialization

De-industrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially of heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of industrialisation.

Suburbanization growth of areas on the fringes of cities

Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl.

North Jersey northern half of New Jersey

North Jersey comprises the northern portions of the U.S. state of New Jersey between the upper Delaware River and the Atlantic Ocean. The designation of northern New Jersey with a distinct toponym is a colloquial one rather than an administrative one, reflecting not only geographical but also perceived cultural differences from the southern part of the state, with no official definition. The region is characterized by a high level of economic output, emanating from economic engines including Paramus in Bergen County, which has become the top retail ZIP code (07652) in the United States, with the municipality generating over US$6 billion in annual retail sales; Jersey City, whose financial district has been nicknamed Wall Street West; Newark Liberty International Airport; and the Newark-Elizabeth Seaport. Bergen County is New Jersey's most populous county and serves as the western terminus for the George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Fort Lee, New Jersey to Upper Manhattan in New York City.

Racial profiling, redlining, and lack of opportunity in education, training, and jobs led the city's African-American residents to feel powerless and disenfranchised. In particular, many felt they had been largely excluded from meaningful political representation and often subjected to police brutality. [3]

Redlining

In the United States and Canada, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices. While the best known examples of redlining have involved denial of financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care or even supermarkets have been denied to residents. In the case of retail businesses like supermarkets, purposely locating impractically far away from said residents results in a redlining effect. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer targets particular neighborhoods that are predominantly nonwhite, not to deny residents loans or insurance, but rather to charge them more than in a non-redlined neighborhood where there is more competition.

Police brutality crime

Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in many countries and territories, even those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law.

Unemployment and poverty were very high, with the traditional manufacturing base of the city having been fully eroded and withdrawn by 1967. Further fueling tensions was the decision by the state of New Jersey to clear tenement buildings from a vast tract of land in the Central Ward to build the new University of Medicine and Dentistry. Thousands of low-income African American residents were displaced at a time when housing in Newark was aging and subjected to high tax rates.[ citation needed ]

Tenement multi-occupancy building

A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort. In Scotland it refers to flats divided horizontally in an established building type, including desirable properties in affluent areas, but in other countries the term often refers to a run-down apartment building or slum building.

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) was a state-run health sciences institution of New Jersey, United States.

Many African Americans, especially younger community leaders, felt they had remained largely disenfranchised in Newark, despite massive changes in the city's demographic makeup. Mayor Hugh Addonizio, to date the last white mayor of the city, took few steps to adjust to the changes and provide African Americans with civil leadership positions and better employment opportunities.[ citation needed ]

Despite being one of the first cities in the country to hire black police officers, the department's demographics remained at odds with the city's population, leading to poor relations between black people and the police department. Only 145 of the 1,322 police officers in the city were black (11%), mirroring national demographics, [4] [5] while the city grew to be over 50% black. Black leaders were increasingly upset that the Newark Police Department remained dominated by white officers, who would routinely stop and question black youths with or without provocation. [6]

Inciting incident

The riots in Newark occurred 2 years after riots in Los Angeles [7] and came at a time when racial tensions were high. Historians believe that the shrinking of the economy, increased unemployment, and a city with a majority African American population which was being run by white politicians increased tensions during that era. [2]

This unrest and social change came to a head when two white Newark police officers, John DeSimone and Vito Pontrelli, arrested a black cab driver, John William Smith, on the evening of July 12. [8] After signaling, Smith passed the double parked police car, after which he was pursued and pulled over by the officers. He was arrested, beaten by the officers and taken to the 4th Police Precinct, where he was charged with assaulting the officers [9] and making insulting remarks.

Residents of Hayes Homes, a large public housing project, saw an incapacitated Smith being dragged into the precinct, and a rumor was started that he had been beaten to death while in police custody. The rumor spread quickly, and a large crowd soon formed outside the precinct. At this point, accounts vary, with some saying that the crowd threw rocks through the precinct windows and police then rushed outside wearing hard hats and carrying clubs. [2] Others say that police rushed out of their station first to confront the crowd, and then they began to throw bricks, bottles, and rocks. [10]

A person who had witnessed the arrest of Smith contacted members of the Congress of Racial Equality, the United Freedom Party, and the Newark Community Union Project for further investigation; they were subsequently granted access to Smith's 4th Precinct holding cell. [11] After seeing the injuries Smith sustained from the police, they demanded him to be moved to Beth Israel Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, and were granted their request. [11]

At least five police officers were struck by stones, according to one officer. Some residents went to City Hall and shouted angry protests. After midnight false alarms caused fire engines to race around a six-block area along Belmont Avenue. Looters smashed windows of a few stores and threw merchandise onto sidewalks. According to police, liquor stores were the main target of looters. [12] As the rumors were dispelled, things calmed.

Riots

On July 12, a march was organized to protest about Smith's beatings and police brutality in the city. During the rally, an unknown woman smashed the windows of the 4th Precinct with a metal bar. [2] Looting began soon after and spread quickly along Springfield Avenue, the neighborhood's business district. Molotov cocktails were thrown into shops and entire buildings soon caught fire. A car was burned and shortly after a policeman was injured by a flying brick. In response, shotguns were issued to some police officers. By midnight, looting spread to other areas in proximity to the march and all police were placed on emergency duty. At 1:00 A.M. police were told to "fire if necessary." Within the next two hours, National Guard and state troopers were dispatched to deal with the crowds. [13]

Early in the evening of July 15, a woman named Rebecca Brown was killed in a fusillade of bullets directed at the window of her second-floor apartment. Rebecca Brown's death instigated even greater backlash and discord. By the sixth day, riots, looting, violence, and destruction left a total of 16 civilians, 8 suspects, a police officer, and a firefighter dead; 353 civilians, 214 suspects, 67 police officers, 55 firefighters, and 38 military personnel injured; and 689 civilians and 811 suspects arrested and property damage is expected to have exceeded $10 million. [14]

The riots elicited a strong response from law enforcement organizations. 7,917 members of police and National Guard were deployed leading to 1,465 arrests and 26 deaths. [2] In an effort to contain the riots, every evening at 6 p.m. the Bridge Street and Jackson Street Bridges, both of which span the Passaic River between Newark and Harrison, were closed until the next morning. [15]

The 1967 Plainfield riots occurred during the same period in Plainfield, New Jersey, a city about 12 miles southwest of Newark during which a police officer was beaten to death. Plainfield native and author Isaiah Tremaine published Insurrection in 2017 as a mournful accounting of the Plainfield riots, and subsequent racial tensions at Plainfield High School, from his perspective as a black teenager living in the city with both white and black friends at the time. [16] [17]

Aftermath and impact

While the riots are often cited as a major factor in the decline of Newark and its neighboring communities, longer-term racial, economic, and political forces contributed towards generating inner city poverty. [18] By the 1960s and 1970s, as industry fled the city, so did the white middle class, leaving behind a poor population. [18] During this same time, the population of many suburban communities in northern New Jersey expanded rapidly. [18]

The riots caused about $10 million in damages ($75 million today) and destroyed multiple plots, several of which are still covered in decay as of 2017. [19]

The ratio of Newark officers respective to their ethnicity has increased as of 2000, when Newark was 52% black, 34% Latino, and 14% white, [20] the Newark Police Department was 37% black, 27% Hispanic and 36% white. [21] As of 2016, the force was still 35% black, while the Latino portion had increased to 41%. [22]

The riots were depicted in the 1997 Philip Roth novel American Pastoral as well as its 2016 film adaptation, directed by and starring Ewan McGregor, alongside Jennifer Connelly and Dakota Fanning.

The events are the setting of one section of the 2017 novel 4 3 2 1 by Paul Auster.

Revolution '67 is a feature-length documentary about the riots by Emmy-nominated, Newark-based filmmakers Marylou and Jerome Bongiorno. It premiered on PBS in 2007 as part of its series POV and examines the causes and outcome of the Newark 1967 riots. [23] [24]

The Sopranos episode Down Neck features a flashback in which Tony Soprano's mother, Olivia Soprano, is watching the riots live on television.

In March 2018, New Line Cinema and David Chase announced a prequel for The Sopranos set during the riots tentatively titled The Many Saints of Newark. [25]

See also

Related Research Articles

Mass racial violence in the United States, also called race riots, can include such disparate events as:

1967 Detroit riot

The 1967 Detroit riot, also known as the 1967 Detroit Rebellion or 12th Street riot was the bloodiest incident in the "Long, hot summer of 1967". Composed mainly of confrontations between black residents and the Detroit Police Department, it began in the early morning hours of Sunday July 23, 1967, in Detroit, Michigan. The precipitating event was a police raid of an unlicensed, after-hours bar then known as a blind pig, on the city's Near West Side. It exploded into one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in American history, lasting five days and surpassing the violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot 24 years earlier.

The Philadelphia race riot took place in the predominantly black neighborhoods of North Philadelphia from August 28 to August 30, 1964. Tensions between black residents of the city and police had been escalating for several months over several well-publicized allegations of police brutality.

1968 Washington, D.C. riots

The Washington, D.C. riots of 1968 were 4 days of riots in Washington, D.C. that followed the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968. The King assassination riots affected at least 110 U.S. cities; Washington, along with Chicago and Baltimore, was among the most affected.

The Plainfield riots was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967". This riot was a series of racially charged violent disturbances that occurred in Plainfield, New Jersey, which mirrored the 1967 Newark riots in nearby Newark.

The 1943Detroit race riot took place in Detroit, Michigan, of the United States, from the evening of June 20 through the early morning of June 22. The race riot was ultimately suppressed by the use of 6,000 federal troops. It occurred in a period of dramatic population increase and social tensions associated with the military buildup of World War II, as Detroit's automotive industry was converted to the war effort. Existing social tensions and housing shortages were exacerbated by the arrival of nearly 400,000 migrants, both African-American and White Southerners, from the Southeastern United States between 1941 and 1943. The new migrants competed for space and jobs, as well as against white European immigrants and their descendants.

Chicago race riot of 1919 August 1919 racial tensions in Chicago, Illinois, USA

The Chicago race riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict of violence committed by ethnic white Americans against black Americans that began in Chicago, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson, looting, and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois.

Riots often occur in reaction to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. Riots may be the outcome of a sporting event, although many riots have occurred due to poor working or living conditions, government oppression, conflicts between races or religions.

Avondale, Cincinnati Neighborhood of Cincinnati in Hamilton, Ohio, United States

Avondale is a neighborhood in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio. It is home to the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden. The population was 12,466 at the 2010 census.

The Cambridge Riots of 1963, were race riots that occurred during the summer of 1963 in Cambridge, Maryland, a small town on the Eastern Shore. The riots emerged during the Civil Rights Movement, led by Gloria Richardson and the local chapter of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and its opposition by pro-segregationist civilians and police.

The 1969 York race riot refers to a period of racial unrest in York, Pennsylvania in July 1969.

In 1981, England suffered serious riots across many major cities. They were perceived as race riots between communities, in all cases the main motives for the riots were related to racial tension and inner city deprivation. The riots were caused by a distrust of the police and authority. The four most serious riots that occurred were the Brixton riot in London, the Handsworth riots in Birmingham, the Chapeltown riot in Leeds and the Toxteth riots in Liverpool. There were also a series of less serious riots in other towns and cities.

Long, hot summer of 1967 refers to the 159 race riots that erupted across the United States in 1967. In June there were riots in Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati, Buffalo, and Tampa. In July there were riots in Birmingham, Chicago, New York City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Britain, Rochester, and Plainfield.

The American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey (ACLU-NJ) is a nonpartisan, not-for-profit civil rights organization in Newark, New Jersey, and an affiliate of the national American Civil Liberties Union. According to the ACLU-NJ's stated mission, the ACLU-NJ operates through litigation on behalf of individuals, lobbying in state and local legislatures, and community education.

The Knoxville riot of 1919 was a race riot that took place in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States, on August 30–31, 1919. The riot began when a lynch mob stormed the county jail in search of Maurice Mays, a biracial man who had been accused of murdering a white woman. Unable to find Mays, the rioters looted the jail and fought a pitched gun battle with the residents of a predominantly black neighborhood. The Tennessee National Guard, which at one point fired two machine guns indiscriminately into this neighborhood, eventually dispersed the rioters. Newspapers placed the death toll at just two, though eyewitness accounts suggest it was much higher.

The Cambridge riot of 1967 was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967". This riot occurred on July 24, 1967 in Cambridge, Maryland, a county seat on the Eastern Shore. For years racial tension had been high in Cambridge, where blacks had been limited to second-class status. Activists had conducted protests since 1961, and there was a riot in June 1963 after the governor imposed martial law. "The Treaty of Cambridge" was negotiated among federal, state, and local leaders in July 1963, initiating integration in the city prior to passage of federal civil rights laws. The events of 1967 were much more destructive to the city.

Alexander J. Matturri was an American Republican Party politician and jurist who served in the New Jersey State Senate from 1968 to 1972.

The 1967 Milwaukee riot was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967". In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, African American residents, outraged by the slow pace in ending housing discrimination and police brutality, began to riot on the evening of July 30, 1967. The inciting incident was a fight between teenagers, which escalated into full-fledged rioting with the arrival of police. Within minutes, arson, looting, and sniping was ravaging the North Side of the city, primarily the 3rd Street Corridor.

References

  1. 1 2 Solomon, Nancy (July 14, 2007). "40 Years On, Newark Re-Examines Painful Riot Past". NPR.org. National Public Radio, Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "50 years ago Newark burned". NJ.com. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  3. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Bantam Books, New York, 1968, pg. 57, which states that 7 of the 9 members of the elected City Council and a majority of the Board of Education were white, although the president was black. The city had an estimated 52% black population at the time, although a majority were too young to vote. The report in the same section refers to the strains that had occurred in the long-standing Italian-African American political alliance over the issues of government positions, economic development and police brutality. Ibid.
  4. United States Census-1970
  5. Dr. Max Herman. dead link 6.22.2016 [ permanent dead link ] Ethnic Succession and Urban Unrest in Newark and Detroit During the Summer of 1967.
  6. Max A. Herman, ed. The Detroit and Newark "Riots" of 1967. Archived 2008-04-29 at the Wayback Machine Rutgers-Newark Department of Sociology and Anthropology.
  7. "A Walk Through Newark. History. The Riots | Thirteen/WNET". www.thirteen.org. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
  8. "Crossroads Pt. 2: 5 days that changed a city". Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
  9. Racial Violence Erupts in Newark. New York Times. July 13, 1967. page 1
  10. Diary of a Riot: The Where, The How And Little of the Why. Lee Linder Newark, N.J. (Associated Press) Danville Register July 23, 1967 page 5
  11. 1 2 Wang, Tabitha C. "Newark Riot (1967) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". www.blackpast.org. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  12. Racial Violence Erupts in Newark. New York Times. July 13, 1967. page 1, 26
  13. Diary of a Riot: The Where, The How And Little of the Why. Lee Linder Newark, N.J. (Associated Press) Danville Register July 23, 1967 pages 1, 5
  14. http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/new-jersey/newark-nj-race-riots/
  15. http://www.rarenewspapers.com/view/564011
  16. https://www.mycentraljersey.com/story/news/history/new-jersey/2017/07/14/recalling-1967-plainfield-riots/464715001/
  17. http://www.isaiahtremainebooks.com/insurrection.html
  18. 1 2 3 Mumford, Kevin (2007). Newark: A History of Race, Rights, and Riots in America. NYU Press. ISBN   0-8147-5717-0.
  19. "Five Days of Unrest That Shaped, and Haunted, Newark" . Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  20. DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Newark city, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 15, 2013.
  21. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers Archived 2006-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Cobb, Jelani (June 28, 2016). "Policing the Police in Newark" . Retrieved November 15, 2017 via www.NewYorker.com.
  23. POV. "Revolution '67 - POV - PBS". POV - American Documentary Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  24. POV. "Revolution '67 - POV - PBS". POV - American Documentary Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  25. Fleming Jr., Mike (March 8, 2018). "David Chase Revives 'The Sopranos' With New Line Prequel Movie 'The Many Saints Of Newark'". Deadline. Retrieved March 8, 2018.

Further reading