The year 2015 is the 234th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 70th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), and is reckoned as year 2558 in the Buddhist Era.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.
Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946 he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-reigning head of state, the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history and the longest-reigning monarch having reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha.
The monarchy of Thailand refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand. The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri.
The Crown Prince of Thailand is a title held by the heir apparent to the Thai throne. First created by King Chulalongkorn in 1886, for his son Prince Maha Vajirunhis, the king's eldest son by a royal wife Queen Savang Vadhana. Prior to this, the Siamese throne did not have a law or formal system regulating the royal succession. In 1688 King Petracha of Ayutthaya created the title of Front Palace, which by the Rattanakosin period had become the main title granted to the heir presumptive to the throne. However few Front Palaces have succeeded to the throne this way, with the exception of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai in 1809. After the Front Palace crisis in 1875, the title of Front Palace was abolished and replaced with the title of Crown Prince, who became heir apparent to the throne.
Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun has been the King of Thailand since 2016. He is the only son of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit. In 1972, at the age of 20, he was made crown prince by his father. After his father's death on 13 October 2016, he was expected to accede to the throne of Thailand but asked for time to mourn before taking the throne.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab. The city is unique as it is not a part of either of the two states but is governed directly by the Union Government, which administers all such territories in the country.
The Prime Minister of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand. The prime minister is also the chair of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy.
Yingluck Shinawatra, nicknamed Pou, is a Thai businesswoman and politician. She is a member of the Pheu Thai Party who became the 28th Prime Minister of Thailand following the 2011 election. Yingluck was Thailand's first female Prime Minister and its youngest in over 60 years. Also, she holds the distinction as the world's first female of Chinese descent to have had led the government of a UN member state. She was removed from office on 7 May 2014 by a controversial Constitutional Court decision. She is the third Pheu Thai Prime minister removed from office by the Constitution Court.
The 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis refers to the mass migration of people from Myanmar in 2015, collectively dubbed "boat people" by international media. Nearly all who fled traveled to Southeast Asian countries including Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand by rickety boats via the waters of the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea.
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand in the north and maritime borders with Singapore in the south, Vietnam in the northeast, and Indonesia in the west. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan ethnic group who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar. There were an estimated 1 million Rohingya living in Myanmar before the 2016–17 crisis. By December 2017, an estimated 625,000 refugees from Rakhine, Myanmar, had crossed the border into Bangladesh since August 2017. The majority are Muslim while a minority are Hindu. Described by the United Nations in 2013 as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world, the Rohingya population is denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law. According to Human Rights Watch, the 1982 laws "effectively deny to the Rohingya the possibility of acquiring a nationality". Despite being able to trace Rohingya history to the 8th century, Myanmar law does not recognize the ethnic minority as one of the eight "national indigenous races". They are also restricted from freedom of movement, state education and civil service jobs. The legal conditions faced by the Rohingya in Myanmar have been widely compared to apartheid by many international academics, analysts and political figures, including Nobel laureate Bishop Desmond Tutu, a South African anti-apartheid activist.
Prem Tinsulanonda is a retired Thai military officer who served as Prime Minister of Thailand from 3 March 1980 to 4 August 1988, during which time he was credited with ending a communist insurgency and presiding over accelerating economic growth and statesman of Thailand. As president of the Privy Council, he served as Regent of Thailand from the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej on 13 October 2016, until the 1 December 2016 proclamation of Vajiralongkorn as King. At age 98, Prem is currently the oldest living former Thai Prime Minister.
The 2006 sale of the Shinawatra family's share of Shin Corporation (ShinCorp) to Temasek Holdings caused great controversy in Thailand. The sale was in response to long-standing criticisms that the Shinawatra family's holdings created a conflict of interest for Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Criticisms of the sale focused on the insistence by Thaksin and a compliant government that the transaction was exempt from capital gains tax, the fact that the Thai company was sold to a Singaporean company, and the fact that the Thai law regarding foreign investments in the telecom sector had been amended just prior to the sale. Thaksin's sale also impacted holdings, among other parties, of the Crown Property Bureau that had an investment in Siam Commercial Bank that held ShinCorp stock.
In 2005 and 2006, a series of events occurred in Thailand as a result of an unrest with Thaksin Shinawatra that was supported by Sondhi Limthongkul and his coalitions. It led a military coup that concluded in the overthrow of the Thai Rak Thai government in September 2006, the flight of Thaksin after the court verdict, and the establishment of the junta government led by Surayud Chulanont, a favourite of privy councillor and senior statesman Prem Tinsulanonda.
Police General Seripisut Temiyavet was Commissioner of the Royal Thai Police between February 2007 and April 2008. Appointed Police Commissioner of Thailand by a military junta, replacing Kowit Wattana, the Police Commissioner under deposed Premier Thaksin Shinawatra. Removed from office in April 2008 by the elected government of Samak Sundaravej under charges of corruption. He was a police officer who gained a reputation from targeting mafia leaders like "Kamnan Poh" and "Por Pratunam" . The junta also appointed him Director of the Airports of Thailand, along with Chairman General Saprang Kalayanamitr. He chairs the Friends of Seri Foundation, which was engaged in controversial loans to junta-appointed Constitution Drafting Committee and National Legislative Assembly member Thanaboon Jiranuwat. He is married to Phatsaweesiri Thepchatri Temiyavet and has 3 children.
Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra was appointed effective 5 August 2011, she handed in her cabinet list for endorsement on 9 August. Yingluck and her cabinet were sworn in at Siriraj Hospital where King Bhumibol Adulyadej resided, on 10 August.
The Philippines–Thailand relations refers to the bilateral relations between the Republic of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Thailand. The Philippines established formal diplomatic relations with Thailand on June 14, 1949. The relations between the two are described as warm and friendly. Thailand is one of the Philippines' major trade partners and one of the Philippines' sources of rice through Thai exports. Bilateral relations continues to be strengthened through talks and agreements on economic, security and cultural matters including concerns on rice trade, fight on drugs and human trafficking. Thailand has an embassy in Manila, while the Philippines maintains an embassy in Bangkok.
The history of Thailand since 2001 has been dominated by the politics surrounding the rise and fall from power of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and the subsequent conflicts between his supporters and opponents. Thaksin and his Thai Rak Thai Party came to power in 2001 and became very popular among the electorate, especially rural voters. Opponents, however, criticized his authoritarian style and accused him of corruption. Thaksin was deposed in a coup d'état in 2006, and Thailand has since been embroiled in continuing rounds of political crisis involving elections won by Thaksin's supporters, massive anti-government protests by multiple factions, removals of prime ministers and disbanding of political parties by the judiciary, and two military coups.
The National Council for Peace and Order is the military junta that has ruled Thailand since its 2014 Thai coup d'état on 22 May 2014. On 20 May 2014, the military had declared martial law nationwide in an attempt to stop the country's escalating political crisis, and to force the democratically elected government out. On 22 May, the military ousted the Yingluck Shinawatra government and formed the NCPO to take control of the country. The junta censored the broadcasting system in Thailand, suspended the constitution, and detained members of the Thai cabinet.
The year 2014 was the 233rd year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 69th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2557 in the Buddhist Era. Significant events include the continuing political crisis which led to a coup d'état on 22 May.
The year 2013 was the 232nd year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 68th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2556 in the Buddhist Era. The year saw the beginning of protests against Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra's government which led to a state of political crisis and the dissolution of government.
The year 2012 was the 231st year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 67th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2555 in the Buddhist Era.
The year 2011 was the 230th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 66th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2554 in the Buddhist Era. The year saw the election of Yingluck Shinawatra as prime minister, as well as the worst flooding in the country's history.
The year 2007 was the 226th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 62nd year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2550 in the Buddhist Era.
The year 2006 was the 225th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 61st year of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and is reckoned as the year 2549 in the Buddhist Era. Major events include the celebration of King Bhumibol's Diamond Jubilee, and the intensification of the 2005–06 Thai political crisis, which culminated in a coup d'état on 19 September.
The year 2005 was the 224th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 60th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2548 in the Buddhist Era. The year saw the re-election of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra to his second term in office, becoming the first democratically elected prime minister to complete a four-year term.
The year 2003 was the 222nd year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 58th year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2546 in the Buddhist Era. The war on drugs of Thaksin Shinawatra's government was launched this year, resulting in almost 3,000 deaths.
The year 1967 was the 186th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Thailand. It was the 22nd year in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and is reckoned as year 2510 in the Buddhist Era.
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