Al Jean

Last updated

Al Jean
Al Jean by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Al Jean at the 2015 Comic Con in San Diego
BornAlfred Ernest Jean III
(1961-01-09) January 9, 1961 (age 59)
Farmington Hills, Michigan, U.S.
OccupationScreenwriter, producer
Residence Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Alma mater Harvard University
Spouse
Stephanie Gillis (m. 2002)
Children2

Alfred Ernest Jean III (born January 9, 1961) is an American screenwriter and producer. [1] Jean is well known for his work on The Simpsons . He was born and raised near Detroit, Michigan, and graduated from Harvard University in 1981. Jean began his writing career in the 1980s with fellow Harvard alum Mike Reiss. Together, they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson , ALF and It's Garry Shandling's Show .

Contents

Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons in 1989, alongside Reiss, and together they became the first members of the original writing staff of the show. They served as showrunners during the show's third (1991) and fourth (1992) seasons, though they left The Simpsons after season four to create The Critic , an animated show about film critic Jay Sherman. It was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994 (then aired its second season on Fox in March 1995) and was well received by critics, but did not catch on with viewers and only lasted for two seasons.

In 1994, Jean and Reiss signed a three-year deal with The Walt Disney Company to produce other television shows for ABC, and the duo created and executive-produced Teen Angel , which was canceled in its first season. Jean returned full-time to The Simpsons during the tenth season (1998). He became showrunner again with the start of the thirteenth season in 2001, without Reiss, and has held that position since. Jean was also one of the writers and producers who worked on The Simpsons Movie , a feature-length film based on the series, released in 2007.

Personal life and education

"At college, I was privileged to meet and work with some very talented writers who went on to work for Saturday Night Live , Seinfeld , Late Night with David Letterman and The Simpsons . No doubt my exposure to them at a very young age has been enormously helpful to my writing career."

— Al Jean on his time at Harvard University [2]

Al Jean was born Alfred Ernest Jean III on January 9, 1961. [3] He was born and raised in Farmington Hills, Michigan, [3] [4] graduated from Farmington Hills Harrison High School, and is of Irish ancestry. [5] After working at his father's hardware store, [6] Jean arrived at Harvard University when he was sixteen years old and graduated in 1981 [7] with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. [8] Daryl Libow, one of Jean's freshman roommates, said he was a "math whiz" when he arrived at Harvard but "soon blossomed and found his comedic feet." [9] In Holworthy Hall at Harvard, Jean met fellow freshman Mike Reiss; they befriended one another and collaborated their writing efforts for the humor publication Harvard Lampoon . Jeff Martin, another writer for the Lampoon, said "they definitely loomed large around the magazine. They were very funny guys and unusually polished comedy writers for that age. We were never surprised that they went on to success." [9] Jean has also stated that the duo spent most of their time at the Lampoon, adding that "it was practically my second dorm room." [9] He eventually became vice-president of the publication. [2]

Jean currently lives in Los Angeles, California, with his wife, [4] television writer Stephanie Gillis. [10] The two were wed in Enniskerry, Ireland, in 2002. [11] Jean also has two daughters. [12] [13] [14]

Career

Early career and The Simpsons

The humor magazine National Lampoon hired Jean and Reiss after they graduated in 1981. [9] During the 1980s, the duo began collaborating on various television material. [12] [15] During this period, they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson , ALF , Sledge Hammer! and It's Garry Shandling's Show . [2] [16] In 1989, Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons , [17] a show created by Matt Groening, James L. Brooks and Sam Simon that continues to air today. [5] Many of Jean's friends were not interested in working on The Simpsons because it was a cartoon and they did not think it would last long. [16] Jean, however, was a fan of the work of Groening, Brooks and Simon, and therefore took the job together with Reiss. [5] [16]

The duo became the first members of the original Simpsons writing staff and worked on the thirteen episodes of the series' first season (1989). [16] While watching the first episode of the show, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", premiering on television in December 1989, Jean opined to himself that the series was the greatest project he had been involved with and desired to continue working on it for the rest of his professional career. [5] What he enjoyed most about The Simpsons at the time was something he recognized from Brooks' previous work: although the show was largely based on humor, it had depth and warmth. [5]

Mike Reiss and Jean worked as show runners of The Simpsons together. Mikereiss.jpg
Mike Reiss and Jean worked as show runners of The Simpsons together.

Although Jean has been credited as the sole writer of several episodes, he considers the process to be mainly collaborative: "the principal writer [of an episode] has, at most, written 40% of the script. It's a real team effort." [16] The writer credited in the episode's opening credits is the person that came up with the idea for the episode and wrote the first draft, even if he or she only contributed to a small part of the final script. [16] Jean has stated that Lisa Simpson is one of his favorite characters to write for. [18] She is the character he relates to the most because of their similar childhoods and the fact that he has a daughter. [19]

Jean became showrunner of The Simpsons at the start of the third season (1991) together with Reiss. [19] A showrunner has the ultimate responsibility of all the processes that an episode goes through before completion, including the writing, the animation, the voice acting and the music. [16] When Jean began his tenure as showrunner, the only thing he thought to himself every day was "Don't blow it and screw up this thing everyone loves." [19] The first episode Jean and Reiss ran was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" (aired September 19, 1991), and they felt pressured to make it good, so much so that they did six to seven rewrites of the script in order to improve its humor. Jean said he "kept thinking 'It's not good enough. It's not good enough.'" [20] Reiss added that "we were definitely scared. We had never run anything before, and they dumped us on this." [21]

Jean and Reiss served as showrunners until the end of the fourth season in 1993. [20] Since the show had already established itself in the first two seasons, they were able to give it more depth during their tenure. Jean believes this is one of the reasons that many fans and critics regard season three and four as the best seasons of The Simpsons. [19] Bill Oakley, another Simpsons writer, has commented that "Mike and Al are responsible for the best thing that ever appeared on television, which was the third season of The Simpsons." [9] Comedy writer Jay Kogen has said that "those years with Al Jean and Mike Reiss running it were pretty darn good. And then the ones after that maybe not so much. Some people ran it better than others." [22]

The Critic and Disney

Jean and former Simpsons executive producer David Mirkin at the 2007 Comic Con. Mirkinjean.jpg
Jean and former Simpsons executive producer David Mirkin at the 2007 Comic Con.

Jean and Reiss left The Simpsons after its fourth season in order to create The Critic , an animated show about film critic Jay Sherman (voiced by Jon Lovitz); the show was executive produced by Brooks. [23] [24] It was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994 and was well received by critics, [25] [26] but did not catch on with viewers and was put on hiatus after six weeks. It returned in June 1994 and completed airing its initial production run. [27] The Critic was moved to the Fox network for its second season. [28] Since The Simpsons also aired on that network, Brooks was able to create a crossover between it and The Critic. [29]

Said crossover occurred through the Simpsons episode "A Star Is Burns" (1995). Groening was not fond of the crossover, publicly citing it as a thirty-minute advertisement for The Critic. [29] Brooks said, "for years, Al and Mike were two guys who worked their hearts out on this show, staying up until 4 in the morning to get it right. The point is, Matt's name has been on Mike's and Al's scripts and he has taken plenty of credit for a lot of their great work. In fact, he is the direct beneficiary of their work. The Critic is their shot and he should be giving them his support." Reiss stated that he was a "little upset" by Groening's actions and that "this taints everything at the last minute. [...] This episode doesn't say 'Watch The Critic' all over it." [29] Jean added "What bothers me about all of this, is that now people may get the impression that this Simpsons episode is less than good. It stands on its own even if The Critic never existed." [29] On Fox, The Critic was again short-lived, broadcasting ten episodes before its cancellation. A total of only 23 episodes were produced, and it returned briefly in 2000 with a series of ten Internet broadcast webisodes. The series has since developed a cult following thanks to reruns on Comedy Central and its complete series release on DVD. [30]

In 1994, Jean and Reiss signed a three-year deal with The Walt Disney Company to produce other television shows for ABC. The duo created and executive produced Teen Angel , which was canceled in its first season. Reiss said "It was so compromised and overworked. I had 11 executives full-time telling me how to do my job." [31] The pair periodically returned to work on The Simpsons— for example, while under contract at Disney they were allowed to write and produce four episodes of the show, including season eight's "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious" (1997). [32]

Further work on The Simpsons

"What has defined the Al Jean era is the show's definitive move into the mainstream of American TV and culture. By now The Simpsons is the most successful show in the history of television—it's a long way from the young, mouthy, experimental series on the upstart network [Fox]. With the show's popularity such a shift was inevitable, and for many reasons it's unfair to compare today's episodes with those from the show's heyday."

— John Ortved in The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History [33]

Jean returned full-time to The Simpsons during the tenth season (1998). [5] He once again became showrunner with the start of the thirteenth season in 2001, [20] this time without Reiss. [16] Jean called it "a great job with a lot of responsibility," and cited "the fact that people love it so much" as "great." [19] He adds, however, that "the hardest thing at this point is just thinking of fresh ideas. People are so on top of things that we've done before, so the challenge now is to think of an idea that's good, but hasn't been seen." [16] Jean's return was initially welcomed, with MSNBC's Jon Bonné stating: "Jean, who took the show's helm from executive producer Mike Scully in 2001, has guided the show away from its gag-heavy, Homer-centric incarnation...these are certainly brighter days for the show's long-time fans." [34] However, some critics have argued that the quality of the show has declined in recent years during Jean's tenure. Jean has responded to this criticism by saying: "Well, it's possible that we've declined. But honestly, I've been here the whole time and I do remember in season two people saying, 'It's gone downhill.' If we'd listened to that then we would have stopped after episode 13. I'm glad we didn't." [35]

Jean was one of the writers and producers who worked on The Simpsons Movie , a feature-length film released in 2007. [18] The show's voice cast was signed on to do the film in 2001, [36] and work then began on the script. [37] The Simpsons producers were initially worried that creating a film would have a negative effect on the show, as they did not have enough crew to focus their attention on both projects. As the show progressed, additional writers and animators were hired so that both the show and the film could be produced at the same time. [38] Groening and Brooks were therefore able to invite Jean (who continued to work as show runner on the television show) to produce the film with them. [39]

Jean frequently appears on the Simpsons DVD audio commentaries for episodes which he has collaborated on. He told IGN that he enjoys doing them because he has not seen some of the episodes in ten to fifteen years, and "it's kind of like a reunion to see some of the people that I worked with before, so it's a really pleasant experience." [18]

Awards

Jean has received nine Emmy Awards and a Peabody Award for his work on The Simpsons. [2] [16] [40] In 1997, he and Reiss won an Annie Award in the "Best Producing in a TV Production" category for the Simpsons episode "The Springfield Files". [41] In 1991 they shared the Writing A Comedy Series CableAce Award for the It's Garry Shandling's Show Episode "My Mother The Wife". In 2006, the duo was given the Animation Writers Caucus Animation Award which is given by the Writers Guild of America to writers that "advanced the literature of animation in film and/or television through the years and who has made outstanding contributions to the profession of the animation writer." [42]

Related Research Articles

<i>The Simpsons</i> American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening

The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society, television, and the human condition.

Barney Gumble fictional character from The Simpsons franchise

Barnard Arnold "Barney" Gumble is a recurring character in the American animated TV series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared in the series premiere episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire".

<i>The Critic</i> American animated sitcom television series

The Critic was an American prime time animated series revolving around the life of New York film critic Jay Sherman, voiced by actor Jon Lovitz. It was created by writing partners Al Jean and Mike Reiss, who had previously worked as writers and showrunners on The Simpsons. The Critic had 23 episodes produced, first broadcast on ABC in 1994, and finishing its original run on Fox in 1995. According to PopMatters, "the creators [said] they intended the series as their 'love letter to New York.'"

<i>The Itchy & Scratchy Show</i> Fictional TV show on The Simpsons

The Itchy & Scratchy Show is a fictional animated television series featured in the American animated television series The Simpsons. It appears as a part of The Krusty the Clown Show. Itself an animated cartoon, The Itchy & Scratchy Show depicts a blue mouse, Itchy, who repeatedly kills a black cat, Scratchy. The cartoon first appeared in The Tracey Ullman Show short "The Bart Simpson Show", which aired November 20, 1988. The cartoon's first appearance in The Simpsons was in the 1990 episode "There's No Disgrace Like Home". Typically presented as 15- to 60-second-long cartoons, the show is filled with gratuitous violence that almost invariably prompts uproarious laughter from Bart and Lisa. The Simpsons also occasionally features characters who are involved with the production of The Itchy & Scratchy Show, including Roger Meyers Jr., who runs the studio and produces the show.

Bill Oakley American writer and producer

William Lloyd Oakley is an American television writer and producer, known for his work on the animated comedy series The Simpsons. Oakley and Josh Weinstein became best friends and writing partners at high school; Oakley then attended Harvard University and was Vice President of the Harvard Lampoon. He worked on several short-term media projects, including writing for the variety show Sunday Best, but was then unemployed for a long period.

"Lisa's First Word" is the tenth episode of The Simpsons' fourth season. It was first broadcast on the Fox network in the United States on December 3, 1992. In the episode, as the Simpson family gathers around Maggie and tries to encourage her to say her first word, Marge reminisces and tells the story of Lisa's first word. Elizabeth Taylor appeared for the voicing of Maggie's first word.

Mike Reiss American writer and producer

Michael L. Reiss is an American television comedy writer and author. He served as a show-runner, writer and producer for the animated series The Simpsons and co-created the animated series The Critic. He created and wrote the webtoon Queer Duck and has also worked on screenplays including: Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, The Simpsons Movie and My Life in Ruins.

Sam Simon American director, producer, writer, boxing manager and philanthropist

Samuel Michael Simon was an American director, producer, writer, animal rights activist and philanthropist, who co-developed the television series The Simpsons.

"The Front" is the nineteenth episode of The Simpsons' fourth season. It originally aired in the United States on the Fox network on April 15, 1993. In the episode, Bart and Lisa decide to write an episode of The Itchy & Scratchy Show; after their script is rejected, they resubmit it under the name of their grandfather Abraham Simpson, resulting in Grampa being hired as a staff writer. Meanwhile, Homer returns to high school to retake a failed science course.

Mike Scully American writer and producer

Michael Scully is an American television writer and producer. He is known for his work as executive producer and showrunner of the animated sitcom The Simpsons from 1997 to 2001. Scully grew up in West Springfield, Massachusetts and long had an interest in writing. He was an underachiever at school and dropped out of college, going on to work in a series of jobs. Eventually, in 1986, he moved to Los Angeles where he worked as a stand-up comic and wrote for Yakov Smirnoff.

"'Round Springfield" is the 22nd episode of The Simpsons' sixth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 30, 1995. In the episode, Bart is hospitalized after eating a piece of jagged metal in his Krusty-O's cereal and sues Krusty the Clown. While visiting Bart, Lisa discovers her old mentor, jazz musician Bleeding Gums Murphy, is also in the hospital. When he dies suddenly, she resolves to honor his memory. Steve Allen and Ron Taylor guest star, each in their second appearance on the show. Dan Higgins also returns as the writer and performer of all of Lisa and Bleeding Gums' saxophone solos.

Media is a recurring theme of satire on The Simpsons. The show is known for its satire of American popular culture and especially television culture, but has since its inception covered all types of media such as animation, journalism, commercials, comic books, movies, internet, and music. The series centers on a family and their life in a typical American town but the town of Springfield acts as a complete universe. The town features a vast array of media channels—from kids' television programming to local news, which enables the producers to make jokes about themselves and the entertainment industry.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 13) Episode list for season of animated series

The Simpsons' thirteenth season originally aired on the Fox network between November 6, 2001 and May 22, 2002 and consists of 22 episodes. The show runner for the thirteenth production season was Al Jean who executive-produced 17 episodes. Mike Scully executive-produced the remaining five, which were all hold-overs that were produced for the previous season. The Simpsons is an animated series about a working-class family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional city of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society, television and many aspects of the human condition.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 10) Episode list for season of animated series

The Simpsons' tenth season was originally broadcast on the Fox network in the United States between August 23, 1998, and May 16, 1999. It contains twenty-three episodes, starting with "Lard of the Dance". The Simpsons is a satire of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie. Set in the fictional city of Springfield, the show lampoons American culture, society, television, and many aspects of the human condition.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 6) Episode list for season of animated series

The Simpsons' sixth season originally aired on the Fox network between September 4, 1994, and May 21, 1995, and consists of 25 episodes. The Simpsons is an animated series about a working class family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional city of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society, television and many aspects of the human condition. Season 6 was the highest rated season of the series.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 5) Episode list for season of animated series

The Simpsons' fifth season originally aired on the Fox network between September 30, 1993 and May 19, 1994. The showrunner for the fifth production season was David Mirkin who executive produced 20 episodes. Al Jean and Mike Reiss executive produced the remaining two, which were both hold overs that were produced for the previous season. The season contains some of the series' most acclaimed and popular episodes, including "Cape Feare", "Homer Goes to College" and "Rosebud". It also includes the 100th episode, "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song". The season was nominated for two Primetime Emmy Awards and won an Annie Award for Best Animated Television Program as well as an Environmental Media Award and a Genesis Award. The DVD box set was released in Region 1 on December 21, 2004, Region 2 on March 21, 2005, and Region 4 on March 23, 2005.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 4) Episode list for season of animated series

The fourth season of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons originally aired on the Fox network between September 24, 1992 and May 13, 1993, beginning with "Kamp Krusty". The showrunners for the fourth production season were Al Jean and Mike Reiss. The aired season contained two episodes which were hold-over episodes from season three, which Jean and Reiss also ran. Following the end of the production of the season, Jean, Reiss and most of the original writing staff left the show. The season was nominated for two Primetime Emmy Awards and Dan Castellaneta would win one for his performance as Homer in "Mr. Plow". The fourth season was released on DVD in Region 1 on June 15, 2004, Region 2 on August 2, 2004 and in Region 4 on August 25, 2004.

<i>The Simpsons</i> (season 3) Episode list for season of animated series

The Simpsons' third season originally aired on the Fox network between September 19, 1991 and August 27, 1992. The showrunners for the third production season were Al Jean and Mike Reiss who executive produced 22 episodes for the season, while two other episodes were produced by James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, and Sam Simon. An additional episode, "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?", aired on August 27, 1992 after the official end of the third season and is included on the Season 3 DVD set. Season three won six Primetime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" and also received a nomination for "Outstanding Animated Program" for the episode "Radio Bart". The complete season was released on DVD in Region 1 on August 26, 2003, Region 2 on October 6, 2003, and in Region 4 on October 22, 2003.

<i>Treehouse of Horror</i> Series of Halloween specials in The Simpsons

Treehouse of Horror, also known as The Simpsons Halloween specials, are a series of Halloween-themed episodes of the animated series The Simpsons, each consisting of three separate, self-contained segments. These segments usually involve the Simpson family in some horror, science fiction, or supernatural setting. They take place outside the show's normal continuity and completely abandon any pretense of being realistic, being known for their far more violent and much darker nature than an average Simpsons episode. The first, entitled "Treehouse of Horror", aired on October 25, 1990, as part of the second season and was inspired by EC Comics horror tales. Since then, there have been 30 other Treehouse of Horror episodes, with one airing every year.

History of <i>The Simpsons</i> aspect of history

The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom starring the animated Simpson family, which was created by Matt Groening. He conceived of the characters in the lobby of James L. Brooks's office and named them after his own family members, substituting "Bart" for his own name. The family debuted as shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show called The Simpsons, which debuted on December 17, 1989. The show was an early hit for Fox, becoming the first Fox series to land in the top 30 ratings in a season (1990).

References

  1. "The Simpsons – Al Jean". Channel 4. 2005-04-01. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Cartwright, Nancy (2007-10-12). "Nancy Cartwright Chats with Simpsons Showrunner Al Jean". Animation World Network . Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  3. 1 2 Al Jean. Archive of American Television (Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation). March 13, 2013. Event occurs at 00:28. Retrieved on 2014-06-02.
  4. 1 2 "They're the Simpsons, man, but who the hell is Al Jean?". Canberra Times . 2005-07-30.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "'Fresh Air' Reflects: 'Simpsons' Writer Al Jean (audio interview)". Fresh Air . National Public Radio. 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  6. Chavez, Danette (April 15, 2020). "Al Jean Knows Which Simpsons Episodes You Think Are the Best—and Worst". The A.V. Club . Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  7. Schulins, Nancy (1992-09-23). "The Joke's on Harvard". The Plain Dealer . Associated Press. pp. 12E.
  8. Halpern, Paul (2007). What's Science Ever Done For Us? What the Simpsons Can Teach Us About Robots, Life, and the Universe. John Wiley and Sons. p. 9. ISBN   978-0-470-11460-5 . Retrieved 2010-03-17.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Teller, Sam (2006-06-05). "Al Jean & Mike Reiss". The Harvard Crimson . Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  10. Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History . Greystone Books. p. 228. ISBN   978-1-55365-503-9.
  11. "Simpsons' producer Al Jean got married". Daily Mail . 2009-03-21.
  12. 1 2 Brown, Elisabeth A. (1992-01-09). "Harvard link binds 'Simpsons' writers". The Tampa Tribune . p. 4.
  13. "'The Simpsons' Executive Producer Al Jean Looks Back at 20 Years in Springfield". Seattle Post-Intelligencer . 2010-01-08.
  14. Fenech, Stephen (2010-01-14). "Inside Story – They're still making plenty of D'oh!". The Advertiser . p. D03.
  15. "He gets the credit for the birth of Bart". The Milwaukee Journal . 1992-12-13. p. 3.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Suarez, Greg (2001-02-10). "Greg Suarez talks Simpsons with Al Jean". The Digital Bits. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  17. Chaney, Jen (2003-08-11). "A Q&A With Al Jean". The Washington Post . Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  18. 1 2 3 Goldman, Eric (2006-09-01). "IGN Interview: The Simpsons's Al Jean". IGN . Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 Epstein, Daniel Robert. "Al Jean interview". UGO. Archived from the original on 2003-08-28. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  20. 1 2 3 Jean, Al (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  21. Reiss, Mike (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  22. Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History . Greystone Books. p. 207. ISBN   978-1-55365-503-9.
  23. Jean, Al (2004). The Simpsons season 5 DVD commentary for the episode "Cape Feare" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  24. Svetkey, Benjamin (1994-02-11). "Gotta Lovitz". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  25. Boedecker, Hal (1994-01-26). "The Critic Is Worthy Follow-up to The Simpsons Animated Series Gets Two Thumbs-up". The Gazette .
  26. Carter, Bill (1994-01-13). "Reporter's Notebook; Top Hollywood Agency Reaches for the Stars Of Television News". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  27. "ABC-TV returns The Critic tonight". Toronto Star . 1994-06-01.
  28. Shister, Gail (1994-05-02). "The Critic finds new life, love on Fox". Toronto Star.
  29. 1 2 3 4 Brennan, Judy (1995-03-03). "Matt Groening's Reaction to The Critic's First Appearance on The Simpsons". Los Angeles Times . The Times Mirror Company.
  30. Uhlich, Keith (2004-02-03). "The Critic: The Complete Series". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  31. Dicker, Ron (2009-05-31). "His Own Divine Comedy - 'Simpsons' Co-writer Moves Into Writing For Real Humans on the Big Screen Bristol Native Mike Reiss". The Courant. p. G3.
  32. Jean, Al (2006). The Simpsons season 8 DVD commentary for the episode "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  33. Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History . Greystone Books. p. 226. ISBN   978-1-55365-503-9.
  34. Bonné, Jon (2003-11-07). "The Simpsons,' back from the pit". Today.com. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
  35. Wilson, Benji (2010-01-09). "The writer". Radio Times . p. 16.
  36. Richards, Olly (2007-05-24). "Homer's Odyssey". Empire . pp. 72–78.
  37. Bowles, Scott (2006-04-02). "Mmmm, popcorn: A 'Simpsons' film in '07". USA Today . Retrieved 2006-04-02.
  38. "About the DVD". The Simpsons Movie.com. 20th Century Fox. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29. On the main page, click on "About the DVD" then on "Production Notes".
  39. Snierson, Dan (2007-07-20). "Homer's Odyssey". Entertainment Weekly . Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
  40. "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
  41. "Legacy: 25th Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1997)". Annie Awards. Archived from the original on 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
  42. "Animation Writers Caucus Animation Award". Writers Guild of America. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-06.