Anonymous elector

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An anonymous elector is generally a registered voter whose safety would be at risk if their details were available on a public electoral register.



In Australia, a voter anonymously registered is known as a silent elector. [1] To be a silent elector, a voter must satisfy the Divisional Returning Officer that their safety or that of any other person living in the same household would be at risk if their name and address were printed in the electoral register. Silent elector registration forms must be returned by post, not by fax or by e-mail.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

New Zealand

An eligible elector who believes that having their details entered on the publicly viewable electoral roll could threaten their personal safety or that of their family can apply for their details be included only on the unpublished roll. [2] The application must be accompanied by evidence, such as a copy of a protection order that is in force under the Domestic Violence Act 1995, a copy of a restraining order that is in force under the Harassment Act 1997, a statutory declaration from a member of the New Zealand Police, or a letter from either a barrister or solicitor, the employer, a justice of the peace, or the like, supporting the application on the grounds that the applicant's personal safety, or that of their family, could be prejudiced by the publication of their name and details. An elector remains on the unpublished roll until such time as their circumstances change.

The electoral roll is a list of persons who are eligible to vote in a particular electoral district and who are registered to vote, if required in a particular jurisdiction. An electoral roll has a number of functions, especially to streamline voting on election day. Voter registration is also used to combat electoral fraud by enabling authorities to verify an applicant's identity and entitlement to a vote, and to ensure a person doesn't vote multiple times. In jurisdictions where voting is compulsory, the electoral roll is used to indicate who has failed to vote. Most jurisdictions maintain permanent electoral rolls while some jurisdictions compile new electoral rolls before each election. In some jurisdictions, people to be selected for jury or other civil duties are chosen from an electoral roll.

New Zealand Police national police force

The New Zealand Police is the national police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal law, enhancing public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout New Zealand. With over 11,000 staff it is the largest law enforcement agency in New Zealand and, with few exceptions, has primary jurisdiction over the majority of New Zealand criminal law. The New Zealand Police also has responsibility for traffic and commercial vehicle enforcement as well as other key responsibilities including protection of dignitaries, firearms licensing and matters of national security.

As unpublished rolls are not made available at polling booths, voters on the unpublished roll must cast a special vote.

In New Zealand, a special vote or special declaration vote is a vote made by an elector who is unable to cast an ordinary vote because they are unable to visit a polling place in their own electorate or, the elector is not on the electoral roll.

United Kingdom

A person who qualifies to register to vote can be registered anonymously if they can satisfy the electoral registration officer that their safety or that of any other person living in the same household would be at risk if their name and address were printed in the electoral register. [3]

In the United Kingdom, an electoral registration officer (ERO) is a person who has the statutory duty to compile and maintain the electoral roll. Any expenses incurred by an electoral registration officer in the performance of his/her functions are paid by the local authority which made the appointment, except in Northern Ireland, where the Chief Electoral Officer's expenses are covered by the Northern Ireland Office.

A voter can apply to be an anonymous elector at any time by using registration forms available from local electoral registration officers or the Electoral Commission's website. [4] The applicant must state a reason about why they or someone else in the same household would be at risk should their name and address be publicly available in the electoral register. In addition, the application must be supported either by a court order or an attestation. Attestations can be made by a police officer of or above the rank of superintendent of any UK police force, the Director General of the Security Service or the National Crime Agency, a director of adult social services or children’s services in England, a director of social services in Wales, any chief social work officer in Scotland or any director of social services of a Health and Social Services Board or executive director of social work of a Health and Social Services Trust in Northern Ireland. Application forms can be returned to the local electoral registration officer by post, by fax or by e-mail as a scanned attachment. [5]

Electoral Commission (United Kingdom) an independent body set up by the UK Parliament

The Electoral Commission is the election commission of the United Kingdom. It is an independent body, set up in 2001 by the British Parliament. It regulates party and election finance and sets standards for how elections should be run.

National Crime Agency National law enforcement agency in the United Kingdom

The National Crime Agency (NCA) is a national law enforcement agency in the United Kingdom. It is the UK's lead agency against organised crime; human, weapon and drug trafficking; cyber crime; and economic crime that goes across regional and international borders, but can be tasked to investigate any crime. The NCA has a strategic role in which it looks at the bigger picture across the UK, analysing how criminals are operating and how they can be disrupted. To do this it works closely with regional organised crime units (ROCUs), the Serious Fraud Office, as well as individual police forces.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Once the anonymous elector application has been accepted by the electoral registration officer, the applicant's entry in the Electoral Register appears as an elector number and the letter N, rather than their name and address. Only the returning officer, the jury service in England and Wales, the security services and police forces have access to the name and address of anonymous electors. A certificate of anonymous registration is then issued to the anonymous elector in case they need to prove their identity and address in order to obtain credit or to donate money or loan money to a political party or candidate. The anonymous elector application lasts twelve months, after which it must be renewed.

To vote in person, an anonymous elector must take the poll card received in the post.

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Australian Electoral Commission national election commission of Australia

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Elections in France

France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may also be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question, especially one which concerns amendment to the Constitution.

Voter registration is the requirement that a person otherwise eligible to vote register on an electoral roll before they will be entitled or permitted to vote. Such enrollment may be automatic or may require application being made by the eligible voter. The rules governing registration vary between jurisdictions. Some jurisdictions have "election day registration" and others do not require registration, or may require production of evidence of entitlement to vote at time of voting. In some jurisdictions registration by those of voting age is compulsory, while in most it is optional. In jurisdictions where registration is voluntary, an effort may be made to encourage persons otherwise eligible to vote to register, in what is called as a voter registration drive.

Early voting is a process by which voters in a public election can vote prior to the scheduled election day. Early voting can take place remotely, such as via postal voting, or in person, usually in designated early voting polling stations. The availability and time periods for early voting vary among jurisdictions and types of election. The goals of early voting are usually to increase voter participation and relieve congestion at polling stations on election day.

Postal voting voting, election, ballot papers, distributed to electors or returned by post, mail

Postal voting is voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed to electors or returned by post, in contrast to electors voting in person at a polling station or electronically via an electronic voting system. Historically, postal votes must be distributed and placed in return mail before the scheduled election day, it is sometimes referred to as a form of early voting. It can also be used as an absentee ballot. However, in recent times the model in the US has morphed, in municipalities that use postal voting exclusively, to be one of ballots being mailed out to voters, but the return method taking on alternatives of return by mail or dropping off the ballot in person via secure drop boxes and/or voting centers.

Elections in Barbados

Elections in Barbados is the process of conducting general elections or by-elections and formulating election results in Barbados. An election is a process in which a vote is held to democratically elect national candidates to an office. In the case of Barbados, it is the mechanism by which the electors choose members to fill elective offices in the House of Assembly. Elections are held on Election Day. These general elections do not have fixed dates, but must be called within five years of the opening of parliament following the last election. A former minister of the DLP, Warwick Franklin summed up the general elections process in Barbados as saying it is really just, "30 by-elections on the same day."

A permanent account number (PAN) is a ten-character alphanumeric identifier, issued in the form of a laminated "PAN card", by the Indian Income Tax Department, to any "person" who applies for it or to whom the department allots the number without an application.

In the United Kingdom, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (ViSOR) is a database of records of those required to register with the police under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, those jailed for more than 12 months for violent offences, and those thought to be at risk of offending. In response to a Freedom of Information request in 2009, for example, Greater Manchester Police reported that of 16 people in their area placed on ViSOR since 2007 on their initiative and not as a result of a relevant conviction, four (25%) had clean criminal records.

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The Certified Safety Professional (CSP) is a certification offered by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP). The CSP is accredited in the United States by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies and internationally by the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission and 193 Countries Consortium.

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The National Register of Electors is a continuously-updated permanent database of eligible electors for federal elections in Canada maintained by Elections Canada. It was established in December 1996 when Bill C-63 was granted royal assent by the Governor General of Canada, and the preliminary National Register of Electors was populated with data in April 1997 during the final Canada-wide enumeration. It replaced a system which required door-to-door enumeration of eligible electors for each electoral event. The database contains basic information about electors: name, address, sex, and date of birth. An elector may register or update their personal information between elections, or may request to be excluded from it per the Canada Elections Act.

Voter Identification laws

A voter ID law is a law that requires a person to show some form of identification on election day. In many jurisdictions requiring voter IDs, voters who do not have photo ID often must sign a Challenged Voter Affidavit in order to receive a ballot to vote.

Foreigner registration is a mandatory requirement by the Government of India under which all foreign nationals visiting India on a long term visa are required to register themselves with a Registration Officer within 14 days of arriving in India. Pakistani nationals visiting India are required to register within 24 hours of arrival regardless of the duration of their stay. Foreign children below the age of 16 are exempt from registration requirements.

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a register maintained by the Government of India containing names & certain relevant information for identification of Indian citizens of Assam state. The register was specifically made for Assam state. The register was first prepared after the 1951 Census of India and since then it has not been updated till recently.


  1. "Silent Electors - Australian Electoral Commission". 2011-01-11. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  2. EEC (2005-03-01). "How to enrol on the unpublished roll | Elections New Zealand". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  3. "Part C" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  4. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2011-04-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. Representation of the People Regulations 2001, Regulation 6 (also, Regulation 31I(2) states that copies – rather than the original – of the court order/attestation is acceptable as evidence)