List of the most recent elections by country

Last updated

CountryPresidentParliament
Lower HouseUpper House
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg  Abkhazia 2020 2022
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan Elective  autocracy [1] [2] [3]
(2016; installed 2021)
Appointed [4]
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Indirectly-elected (2022) 2021
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 2019 2021 Appointed/indirectly-elected (2022)
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra Monarchy 2019
Flag of Anguilla.svg  Anguilla Monarchy 2020
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola Indirectly-elected 2022
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy 2018 Appointed
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 2019 2021 2021
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Indirectly-elected (2022) 2021
Flag of Artsakh.svg  Artsakh 2020 2020
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Monarchy 2022 2022
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 2022 2019 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 2018 2020
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas Monarchy 2021 Appointed
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Monarchy 2018 Appointed
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Indirectly-elected 2018
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados Indirectly-elected 2022 Appointed
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 2020 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Monarchy 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize Monarchy 2020 Appointed
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin 2021 2019
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda Monarchy 2020
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan Monarchy 2018 2018
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg  Bolivia 2020 2020 2020
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2022 2022 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Indirectly-elected 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2022 2022 2022
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands Monarchy 2019
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei MonarchyAppointed
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 2021 2022
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 2020 2020
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi 2020 2020 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Monarchy 2018 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 2018 2020 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Monarchy 2021 Appointed
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde 2021 2021
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands Monarchy 2021
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 2020 2020–21
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 2021 2011
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 2021 2021 2021
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China Indirectly-elected (2018)Indirectly-elected (2018)
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 2020 2020
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 2022 2022 2022
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 2019 2020
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2018 2018 Indirectly-elected
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 2021 2022 Indirectly-elected
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands Monarchy 2022
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 2022 2022
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 2019–2020 2020
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Indirectly-elected 2018
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 2018 2021
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 2018 2021 2022
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Monarchy 2019
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 2021 2018
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 2020 2020 2020
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor 2022 2018
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 2021 2021
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 2018 2020 2020
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 2019 2021
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 2016 2017 2017
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea NoneNone
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini Monarchy 2018 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Indirectly-elected 2021 Indirectly-elected
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg  Falkland Islands Monarchy 2021
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Indirectly-elected 2018
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 2018 2019
Flag of France.svg  France 2022 2022 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 2016 2018 Indirectly-elected
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia 2021 2022
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia 2018 2020
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Indirectly-elected (2022) 2021 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 2020 2020
Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar Monarchy 2019
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada Monarchy 2022 Appointed
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 2019 2019
Flag of Guernsey.svg  Guernsey Monarchy 2020
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 2020 2020
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau 2019 2019
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana Indirectly-elected 2020
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 2016–17 2015–16 2016–17
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras 2021 2021
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionIndirectly-elected (2022) 2021
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Indirectly-elected (2022) 2018
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 2020 2021
Flag of India.svg  India Indirectly-elected (2022) 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 2019 2019 2019
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 2021 2020
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Indirectly-elected (2022) 2021
Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland 2018 2020 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Indirectly-elected 2021
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Indirectly-elected (2022) 2022 2022
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 2020 2021
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Monarchy 2020 Appointed
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Monarchy 2021 2022
Flag of Jersey.svg  Jersey Monarchy 2018
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Monarchy 2020 Appointed
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2019 2021 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 2022 2022 2022
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 2020 2020
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 2022 2020
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Republic of Kosovo Indirectly-elected 2021
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait Monarchy 2022
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 2021 2021
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos Indirectly-elected 2021
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Indirectly-elected 2022
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Indirectly-elected 2022
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Monarchy 2022 Appointed
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia 2017 2017 2020
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Provisional 2014
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein Monarchy 2021
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 2019 2020
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Monarchy 2018
Flag of Macau.svg  Macao Special Administrative RegionIndirectly-elected (2019) 2021
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 2018 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi 2020 2019
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Monarchy 2018 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives 2018 2019
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 2018 2020
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Indirectly-elected 2022
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg  Isle of Man Monarchy 2021
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 2019 2018 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 2018 2021
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg Micronesia Indirectly-elected 2021
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 2020 2021
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco Monarchy 2018
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 2021 2020
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat Monarchy 2019
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro 2018 2020
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Monarchy 2021 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique 2019 2019
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Indirectly-elected 2020 2020
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 2019 2019 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru Indirectly-elected (2022) 2022
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Indirectly-elected 2017 Indirectly-elected (2022)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Monarchy 2021 Indirectly-elected
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Monarchy 2020
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 2021 2021
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 2020–21 2020–21
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 2019 2019 2019
Flag of Niue.svg  Niue Monarchy 2020
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus 2020 2022
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 2019 2020
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Monarchy 2021
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman Monarchy 2019 Appointed
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Indirectly-elected 2018 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 2020 2020 2020
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine 2005 2006
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 2019 2019
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea Monarchy 2022
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 2018 2018 2018
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 2021 2021
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 2022 2022 2022
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg  Pitcairn Islands Monarchy 2019
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 2020 2019 2019
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 2021 2022
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Monarchy 2021
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 2019 2020 2020
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2018 2021 Indirectly-elected
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda 2017 2018 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Saint Helena.svg  Saint Helena Monarchy 2021
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarchy 2022
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia Monarchy 2021 Appointed
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy 2020
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa Indirectly-elected (2022) 2021
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Indirectly-elected 2019
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe 2021 2022
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia MonarchyAppointed
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 2019 2022 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2022 2022
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 2020 2020
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 2018 2018
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 2017 2020
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 2019 2020
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 2017 2022
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands Monarchy 2019
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Indirectly-elected (2022)Indirectly-elected (2021–2022)
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland 2017 2021 Appointed
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Indirectly-elected 2019 Indirectly-elected
Flag of South Ossetia.svg  South Ossetia 2022 2019
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan 2010 2010 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Monarchy 2019 2019
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 2022 2020
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan ProvisionalProvisional
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname Indirectly-elected 2020
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Monarchy 2022
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Indirectly-elected 2019 2019
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 2021 2020
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 2020 2020 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 2020 2020
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Monarchy 2019 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 2020 2018
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Monarchy 2021
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg  Transnistria 2021 2020
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago Indirectly-elected 2020 Appointed
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 2019 2019
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 2018 2018
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 2022 2018
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands Monarchy 2021
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu Monarchy 2019
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 2021 2021
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 2019 2019
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates Monarchy 2019
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Monarchy 2019 Appointed
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2020 2020 2020
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 2019 2019 2019
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 2021 2019–2020 Appointed/indirectly-elected
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu Indirectly-elected (2022) 2022
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City Elective monarchy
(2013)
Appointed
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 2018 2020
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Indirectly-elected 2021
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Western Sahara Indirectly-elected 2012
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 2012 2003
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 2021 2021
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 2018 2018

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Taliban, which also refers to itself by its state name, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a Deobandi Islamic fundamentalist, militant Islamist, jihadist, and pro-Pashtun political movement in Afghanistan. It ruled approximately three-quarters of the country from 1996 to 2001, before being overthrown following the United States invasion. It recaptured Kabul on 15 August 2021 after years of insurgency, and currently controls all of the country, although its government is not recognized by any country yet. The Taliban government has been criticized for restricting human rights in Afghanistan, including the right of women and girls to work and education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mullah Omar</span> Founder of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Mullah Muhammad Omar Mujahid was an Afghan cleric, Islamist partisan fighter and political leader. He founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) in 1994 and served as its first leader until his death, including as the head of its government from 1996 to 2001. His death, however, remained concealed until July 2015, during which time the Taliban continued to issue statements in his name. Known for his reclusivity, he was a revered figure within the Taliban.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taliban insurgency</span> Insurgency during the War in Afghanistan

The Taliban insurgency was an insurgency that began after the group's fall from power during the 2001 War in Afghanistan. The Taliban forces fought against the Afghan government, led by President Hamid Karzai, and later by President Ashraf Ghani, and against a US-led coalition of forces that has included all members of NATO; the 2021 Taliban offensive resulted in the collapse of the government of Ashraf Ghani.

Maulavi Mohammed Abdul Kabir is a senior member of the Taliban leadership and an acting third deputy prime minister, alongside Abdul Ghani Baradar and Abdul Salam Hanafi, of Afghanistan since 4 October 2021. He previously was the acting prime minister of Afghanistan from 16 April 2001 to 13 November 2001.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sirajuddin Haqqani</span> Afghan Taliban leader and Haqqani network commander

Sirajuddin Haqqani is an Afghan Islamist militant, who has been serving as the first deputy leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) since 2016. Since the 2021 fall of Kabul, this position has made him the de facto first deputy head of state of Afghanistan. The leader of the Haqqani network, a semi-autonomous paramilitary arm of the Taliban, he has primarily been active in military affairs.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leadership Council of Afghanistan</span> Supreme governing body of the Taliban and Afghanistan

The Leadership Council of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, also translated as the Supreme Council, is the central governing body of the Taliban and—since the 2021 fall of Kabul and previously from 1996 to 2001—of Afghanistan. The Taliban uses a consensus decision-making model among members of the Leadership Council, though the supreme leader, who chairs the council, has ultimate authority and may override or circumvent it at any time. It played a key role in directing the Taliban insurgency from Quetta, Pakistan, which led to it being informally referred to as the Quetta Shura at the time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdul Ghani Baradar</span> Co-founder and political leader of the Afghan Taliban

Abdul Ghani Baradar is an Afghan political and religious leader who is currently the acting first deputy prime minister alongside Abdul Salam Hanafi and Abdul Kabir, of Afghanistan. The co-founder of the Taliban movement along with Mullah Omar, he was Omar's top deputy from 2002 to 2010, and since 2019 he has been the Taliban's fourth-in-command, as the third of Leader Hibatullah Akhundzada's three deputies.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Akhtar Mansour</span> 2nd leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Akhtar Mohammad Mansour was the second leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban), an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. Succeeding the founding leader, Mullah Omar, he was the supreme leader from July 2015 to May 2016, when he was killed in a US drone strike in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Najibullah, often referred to as Mullah Najibullah or Hajji Najibullah, and also known by the pseudonym Omar Khitab, is the leader of the Taliban splinter group Fidai Mahaz in Afghanistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hibatullah Akhundzada</span> 3rd leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Hibatullah Akhundzada, also spelled Haibatullah Akhunzada, is an Afghan Islamic scholar, cleric, and jurist who is the third and current leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban), serving since 2016. Since the 2021 fall of Kabul, this position has made him Afghanistan's de facto ruler and head of state. However, he has remained a reclusive figure, and his low profile has fueled speculations about his role in the new Taliban government, and rumours that he may be dead. Except for an undated photograph, and several audio recordings of speeches, he has almost no digital footprint.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mullah Yaqoob</span> Afghan Taliban military leader

Mullah Mohammad Yaqoob Mujahid is an Afghan Islamic scholar, cleric, and Islamist militant who has served as the second deputy leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) since 2016. Since the 2021 fall of Kabul, this position has made him the de facto second deputy head of state of Afghanistan. He has also been the Taliban's military chief since 2020, and is the acting defense minister of Afghanistan in the Islamic Emirate's caretaker cabinet.

The Islamic State–Taliban conflict is an ongoing armed conflict between the Islamic State and the Taliban in Afghanistan. The conflict escalated when militants who were affiliated with Islamic State – Khorasan Province killed Abdul Ghani, a senior Taliban commander in Logar province on 2 February 2015. Since then, Taliban and IS-KP have engaged in clashes over the control of territory, mostly in eastern Afghanistan, but clashes have also occurred between the Taliban and IS-KP cells which are located in the north-west and south-west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan</span> Supreme leader of the Taliban and Afghanistan

The leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, also referred to as the supreme leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is the emir of the Taliban and—since the fall of Kabul in 2021 and previously from 1996 to 2001—the de facto ruler and head of state of Afghanistan. A supreme leader, the emir has unlimited authority on all matters of Taliban and Afghan governance, though the consultative Leadership Council significantly influences his decision-making. He is a national religious leader in addition to a political and military one. The current leader is Hibatullah Akhundzada, who assumed office on 25 May 2016, upon being chosen by the Leadership Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hasan Akhund</span> Acting Prime Minister of Afghanistan since 2021

Mohammad Hasan Akhund is an Afghan mullah, politician and Taliban leader who is currently the acting prime minister of Afghanistan.

The politics of Afghanistan are dominated by the Taliban Islamic Movement, which has the sole authority to make government appointments. Following their takeover of Afghanistan, the Taliban announced a caretaker government on 7 September 2021 consisting entirely of established Taliban figures from the insurgency period.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Government of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan</span> Taliban governing system of Afghanistan

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is the Taliban's governing authority and system of Afghanistan. After the Afghan Civil War in 1996 until its overthrow in the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the system of the Islamic Emirate governed a majority of Afghanistan. The governing structure of the Islamic Emirate was maintained throughout the ensuing Taliban insurgency, but did not govern the country. After the Fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, the Islamic Emirate again became the de facto governing system of Afghanistan.

References

  1. "Taliban sources – Afghan Taliban appoint Mansour as leader". Reuters . Peshawar, Pakistan. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2022. The shura held outside Quetta unanimously elected Mullah Mansour as the new emir of the Taliban
  2. Ramachandran, Sudha (10 September 2021). "What Role Will the Taliban's 'Supreme Leader' Play in the New Government?". The Diplomat . Retrieved 7 July 2022. At the time of his appointment as Taliban chief by the Rahbari Shura (leadership council)
  3. Jones, Seth G. (December 2020). "Afghanistan's Future Emirate? The Taliban and the Struggle for Afghanistan". CTC Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center. 13 (11). Retrieved 7 July 2022. an autocratic political system that eschews democracy
  4. Sayed, Abdul (8 September 2021). "Analysis: How Are the Taliban Organized?". Voice of America . Retrieved 7 July 2022.