BM-14

Last updated
BM-14
Stalin line - BM-14.JPG
A 140mm, 16-round launcher (BM-14) mounted on a GAZ-63 truck.
Type Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1952 - c.1990 (USSR)/ present (Others)
Wars Algerian Civil War
Vietnam War
Dhofar Rebellion
Angolan Civil War
Soviet-Afghan War [1]
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) [ citation needed ]
Syrian Civil War
Production history
DesignerNII 303
Designed1950
Specifications
Mass5,323 kg (11,735 lb)
Length5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Width1.9 m (6 ft 3 in)
Height2.24 m (7 ft 4 in)
Crew6 [2]

Caliber Diameter: 140 mm (5.5 in)
Length: 1 m (3 ft 3 in)
Weight: 39.6 kg (87 lb)
Barrels16 in two rows
Elevation +50°/0°
Traverse 180°
Muzzle velocity 400 m/s (1,300 ft/s)
Maximum firing range9.8 km (6.1 mi) [2]

EngineGAZ-51 70 HP
6-cylinder petrol
SuspensionWheeled GAZ-63
4x4 chassis
Operational
range
650 km (400 mi)
Maximum speed 65 km/h (40 mph) [2]

The BM-14 (BM for Boyevaya Mashina, 'combat vehicle'), is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), normally mounted on a truck.

Contents

The BM-14 can fire 140 mm M-14 rockets with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead, a smoke warhead or a chemical warhead. It is similar to the BM-13 "Katyusha" and was partly replaced in service by the 122 mm BM-21 Grad.

Launchers were built in 16 and 17-round variants. The rockets have a maximum range of 9.8 kilometers (6.1 mi).

The weapon is not accurate as there is no guidance system, but it is extremely effective in saturation fire.

Variants

A 140mm, 16-round towed launcher (RPU-14). 16-tube multiple launch rocket.JPG
A 140mm, 16-round towed launcher (RPU-14).

Ammunition

The BM-14 launcher and its variants can fire 140mm rockets of the M-14-series (also called Soviet-made M14 artillery rockets). They have a minimum range of 3.8 kilometers (2.4 mi) and a maximum range of 9.8 kilometers (6.1 mi). [3] The M-14 series consist of three known types:

Use

During the Syrian Civil War, a rocket engine from a 140 mm M-14-series rocket was identified on 26 August 2013 by the U.N. fact-finding mission in the Muadamiyat al-Sham district southwest of Damascus, allegedly originating from the chemical attack on Western Ghouta on 21 August 2013. [5]

The rockets nozzle assembly had 10 jet nozzles ordered evenly in a circle with an electrical contact plate in the middle. The bottom ring of the rocket engine had the lot number "Г ИШ 4 25 - 6 7 - 179 К" engraved, [5] (pp21–22) which means it was produced in 1967 by factory 179 (Sibselmash plant in Novosibirsk). [6] However, no warhead was observed at the impact site and none of the 13 environmental samples taken in the Western Ghouta area tested positive for sarin, although three had "degradation and/or by-products" possibly originating from sarin. [7] (pp43–45) On 18 September, the Russian Presidential Chief of Staff Sergei Ivanov commented on the U.N. missions findings. He said "these rockets were supplied to dozens of countries", but that "the Soviet Union never supplied warheads with sarin to anyone". [8] Another type of rockets was used in the Eastern Ghouta attack. [3]

Operators

Map of BM-14 operators in blue with former operators in red BM-14 operators.png
Map of BM-14 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

Similar designs

See also

Related Research Articles

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9A52-4 Tornado Multiple rocket launcher

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Missile vehicle

In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.

LRSVM Morava Type of Multiple rocket launcher

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Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher Type of Rocket artillery

The Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher, also called Jahanam Launcher, is an Emirati made multiple rocket launcher unique to the United Arab Emirates Army. It has 240 tubes making it the world's largest rocket artillery by tube count. It is thought to function as a combined form of BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher. It is developed by a joint venture between Al Jaber Land System and ROKETSAN.

Ghouta chemical attack Series of chemical attacks in Ghouta, Syria

The Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Ghouta, Syria, during the Syrian civil war, in the early hours of 21 August 2013. Two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Estimates of the death toll range from at least 281 people to 1,729. The attack was the deadliest use of chemical weapons since the Iran–Iraq War.

The Khan al-Assal chemical attack was a chemical attack in Khan al-Assal, Aleppo, Syria on 19 March 2013, which according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights resulted in at least 26 fatalities including 16 government soldiers and 10 civilians, and more than 86 injuries. Immediately after the incident, the Syrian government and opposition accused each other of carrying out the attack, but neither side presented clear documentation. The Syrian government asked the United Nations to investigate the incident, but disputes over the scope of that investigation led to lengthy delays. In the interim, the Syrian government invited Russia to send specialists to investigate the incident. Samples taken at the site led them to conclude that the attack involved the use of sarin, which matched the assessment made by the United States. Russia held the opposition responsible for the attack, while the US held the government responsible. UN investigators finally arrived on the ground in Syria in August, but their arrival coincided with the much larger-scale 2013 Ghouta attacks which took place on 21 August, pushing the Khan al-Assal investigation "onto the backburner" according to a UN spokesman. The UN report, which was completed on 12 December, found "likely use of chemical weapons in Khan al-Assal" and assessed that organophosphate poisoning was the cause of the "mass intoxication".

The Report on the Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons in the Ghouta Area of Damascus on 21 August 2013 was a 2013 report produced by a team appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to investigate alleged chemical weapon attacks during the Syrian civil war. The report published on 16 September 2013 focused on the 21 August 2013 Ghouta chemical attack, which took place whilst the Mission was in Damascus to investigate prior alleged incidents, including the Khan al-Assal chemical attack in March 2013.

Polonez (MRL) Type of Multiple rocket launcher

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References

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Bibliography