|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1952 - c.1990 (USSR)/ present (Others)|
|Wars|| Algerian Civil War |
Angolan Civil War
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) [ citation needed ]
Syrian Civil War
|Mass||5,323 kg (11,735 lb)|
|Length||5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)|
|Width||1.9 m (6 ft 3 in)|
|Height||2.24 m (7 ft 4 in)|
|Caliber||Diameter: 140 mm (5.5 in)|
Length: 1 m (3 ft 3 in)
Weight: 39.6 kg (87 lb)
|Barrels||16 in two rows|
|Muzzle velocity||400 m/s (1,300 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||9.8 km (6.1 mi)|
|Engine||GAZ-51 70 HP|
|650 km (400 mi)|
|Maximum speed||65 km/h (40 mph)|
The BM-14 (BM for Boyevaya Mashina, 'combat vehicle'), is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), normally mounted on a truck.
The BM-14 can fire 140 mm M-14 rockets with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead, a smoke warhead or a chemical warhead. It is similar to the BM-13 "Katyusha" and was partly replaced in service by the 122 mm BM-21 Grad.
Launchers were built in 16 and 17-round variants. The rockets have a maximum range of 9.8 kilometers (6.1 mi).
The weapon is not accurate as there is no guidance system, but it is extremely effective in saturation fire.
The BM-14 launcher and its variants can fire 140mm rockets of the M-14-series (also called Soviet-made M14 artillery rockets). They have a minimum range of 3.8 kilometers (2.4 mi) and a maximum range of 9.8 kilometers (6.1 mi). The M-14 series consist of three known types:
During the Syrian Civil War, a rocket engine from a 140 mm M-14-series rocket was identified on 26 August 2013 by the U.N. fact-finding mission in the Muadamiyat al-Sham district southwest of Damascus, allegedly originating from the chemical attack on Western Ghouta on 21 August 2013.
The rockets nozzle assembly had 10 jet nozzles ordered evenly in a circle with an electrical contact plate in the middle. The bottom ring of the rocket engine had the lot number "Г ИШ 4 25 - 6 7 - 179 К" engraved, pp21–22) which means it was produced in 1967 by factory 179 (Sibselmash plant in Novosibirsk). However, no warhead was observed at the impact site and none of the 13 environmental samples taken in the Western Ghouta area tested positive for sarin, although three had "degradation and/or by-products" possibly originating from sarin. (pp43–45) On 18 September, the Russian Presidential Chief of Staff Sergei Ivanov commented on the U.N. missions findings. He said "these rockets were supplied to dozens of countries", but that "the Soviet Union never supplied warheads with sarin to anyone". Another type of rockets was used in the Eastern Ghouta attack.(
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system that contains multiple launchers which assembled onto a same platform, and shoots its rocket ordnance in a fashion similar to a volley gun. Rockets are self-propelled in flight and have different capabilities than conventional artillery shells, such as longer effective range, lower recoil, typically considerably higher payload than a similarly sized gun artillery platform, or even carrying multiple warheads.
The BM-27 Uragan is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union. It began its service with the Soviet Army in the late 1970s, and was its first modern spin and fin stabilized heavy multiple rocket launcher.
The BM-21 "Grad" is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. The weapons system and the M-21OF rocket were first developed in the early 1960s, and saw their first combat use in March 1969 during the Sino-Soviet border conflict. BM stands for boyevaya mashina, and the nickname grad means "hail". The complete system with the BM-21 launch vehicle and the M-21OF rocket is designated as the M-21 field-rocket system. The complete system is more commonly known as a Grad multiple rocket launcher system. In NATO countries the system was initially known as M1964. Several other countries have copied the Grad or have developed similar systems.
RS-82 and RS-132 were unguided rockets used by Soviet military aircraft in World War II.
The 9K52 Luna-M is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system which fires unguided and spin-stabilized 9M21 rockets. It was originally developed in the 1960s to provide divisional artillery support using tactical nuclear weapons but gradually modified for conventional use. The 9K52 was eventually succeeded by the OTR-21 Tochka.
The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It continued in use by Russia; a program to replace it by the 9A52-4 Tornado was launched in 2018.
The Quds-3 is a rocket is based on the Russian Grad and BM21 Katyusha. The new rocket, test-fired against Ashkelon on March 28, 2006, weighs 66 kilograms and carries 17 kilograms of explosives. It was developed in the Gaza Strip, allegedly with the aid of the Palestinian Authority funding and Iranian operatives. In April 2006, DebkaFile reported Palestinian militants were manufacturing the Quds-3 along with a multiple-rocket launcher system.
The old M-63 Plamen is a 128mm multiple rocket launcher developed in 1963 in Yugoslavia for use in the Yugoslav People's Army.
The BM-24 is a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union. It is capable of launching 240mm rockets from 12 launch tubes. Versions of the BM-24 have been mounted on the ZIL-151 6×6 Truck chassis and the AT-S tracked artillery tractor, forming the BM-24T from the latter. Production began out of Automotive Factory no. 2 in 1947 Moscow. Israel operated one battalion, consisting of vehicles captured from Egypt in the Six-Day War. The battalion took part in the Yom Kippur War and the 1982 Lebanon War.
The Type 63 multiple rocket launcher is a towed, 12-tube, 107mm rocket launcher produced by the People's Republic of China in the early 1960s and later exported and manufactured globally. Although no longer serving with active infantry units, the Type 63 is still in People's Liberation Army service with specialized formations such as mountain infantry units and special forces detachments. The Type 63 was widely used in the PLA until the late 1980s. It was adopted as the successor of the Type 50-5 of 102mm.
The 9A52-4 Tornado is Russia's newest universal multiple rocket launcher. It was designed as a lightweight and universal version of the BM-30 Smerch, dubbed 9A52-2. It was first unveiled in 2007 as a more strategically and tactically mobile launcher, albeit at the expense of a slight reduction in firepower. This model is aimed at replacing the previous generation of Russian multiple rocket launchers, including BM-21 Grad, BM-27 Uragan and BM-30 Smerch. Currently the sole operator is Russian Ground Forces. A version will be approved for export.
In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles, essentially a form of rocket artillery. Such a vehicle may transport one or multiple missiles. The missile vehicle may be a self-propelled unit or the missile holder/launcher may be on a trailer towed by a prime mover. They are used in the military forces of a number of countries in the world. Long missiles are commonly transported parallel to the ground on these vehicles, but elevated into an inclined or vertical position for launching. Missile vehicles include transporter erector launchers (TEL) and multiple rocket launchers (MRL) such as the Patriot missile system. Single or dual missile vehicles often transport their missiles uncovered. The missile batteries of multiple rocket launchers often hold their missiles inside tubular or rectangular canisters for each missile, from which the missiles or rockets can be launched. Many missile trucks use pneumatic (air-filled) tires, although they may be large and specialized for offroad travel. However, some missile vehicles use tractor crawler drive similar to that of a tank.
The LRSVM Morava is a modular, multi-calibre, multi-pod self-propelled multiple rocket launcher designed and developed by the Serbian Military Technical Institute in Belgrade (VTI). The system is designed to offer subsystem modularity, enabling integration with wheeled or tracked platforms to fire unguided rockets of various calibres to engage targets at ranges between 8 km and 40 km.
The Jobaria Defense Systems Multiple Cradle Launcher, also called Jahanam Launcher, is an Emirati made multiple rocket launcher unique to the United Arab Emirates Army. It has 240 tubes making it the world's largest rocket artillery by tube count. It is thought to function as a combined form of BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launcher. It is developed by a joint venture between Al Jaber Land System and ROKETSAN.
The Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Ghouta, Syria, during the Syrian civil war, in the early hours of 21 August 2013. Two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Estimates of the death toll range from at least 281 people to 1,729. The attack was the deadliest use of chemical weapons since the Iran–Iraq War.
The Khan al-Assal chemical attack was a chemical attack in Khan al-Assal, Aleppo, Syria on 19 March 2013, which according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights resulted in at least 26 fatalities including 16 government soldiers and 10 civilians, and more than 86 injuries. Immediately after the incident, the Syrian government and opposition accused each other of carrying out the attack, but neither side presented clear documentation. The Syrian government asked the United Nations to investigate the incident, but disputes over the scope of that investigation led to lengthy delays. In the interim, the Syrian government invited Russia to send specialists to investigate the incident. Samples taken at the site led them to conclude that the attack involved the use of sarin, which matched the assessment made by the United States. Russia held the opposition responsible for the attack, while the US held the government responsible. UN investigators finally arrived on the ground in Syria in August, but their arrival coincided with the much larger-scale 2013 Ghouta attacks which took place on 21 August, pushing the Khan al-Assal investigation "onto the backburner" according to a UN spokesman. The UN report, which was completed on 12 December, found "likely use of chemical weapons in Khan al-Assal" and assessed that organophosphate poisoning was the cause of the "mass intoxication".
The Report on the Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons in the Ghouta Area of Damascus on 21 August 2013 was a 2013 report produced by a team appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to investigate alleged chemical weapon attacks during the Syrian civil war. The report published on 16 September 2013 focused on the 21 August 2013 Ghouta chemical attack, which took place whilst the Mission was in Damascus to investigate prior alleged incidents, including the Khan al-Assal chemical attack in March 2013.
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The BMD-20 was a 200 mm multiple rocket launcher (MRL) created by the Soviet Union.
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