|Looney Tunes character|
|First appearance||Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid (Looney Tunes, May, 1929)|
|Last appearance||Fields of Honey (Tiny Toon Adventures, November 2, 1990)|
|Created by||Harman and Ising|
|Voiced by|| Carman Maxwell (1929–1930, 1934–1937)|
Johnny Murray (1930–1933)
Billie Thomas (1937–1938)
Don Messick (1990)
|Species|| Human |
Dog-like character (Tiny Toon Adventures)
Bosko is an animated cartoon character created by animators Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising. Bosko was the first recurring character in Leon Schlesinger's cartoon series, and was the star of 39 Looney Tunes shorts released by Warner Bros.He was voiced by Carman Maxwell, Johnny Murray, and Billie Thomas during the 1920s and 1930s, and once by Don Messick during the 1990s.
In 1927, Harman and Ising were still working for the Walt Disney Studios on a series of live-action/animated short subjects known as the Alice Comedies. The two animators created Bosko in 1927 to capitalize on the new "talkie" craze that was sweeping the motion picture industry. They began thinking about making a sound cartoon with Bosko in 1927, before even leaving Walt Disney.Hugh Harman made drawings of the new character and registered it with the copyright office on 3 January 1928. The character was registered as a "Negro boy" under the name of Bosko.
After leaving Walt Disney in early 1928, Harman and Ising went to work for Charles Mintz on Universal's second-season Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons. April 1929 found them moving on again, leaving Universal to market their new cartoon character. In May 1929, they produced a short pilot cartoon, similar to Max Fleischer's Out of the Inkwell cartoons, Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid that showcased their ability to animate soundtrack-synchronized speech and dancing. The short, plotless cartoon opens with live action footage of Ising at a drafting table. After he draws Bosko on the page, the character springs to life, talks, sings, and dances. Ising returns Bosko to the inkwell, and the short ends. This short is a landmark in animation history as being the first cartoon to predominantly feature synchronized speech, though Fleischer Studios' Song Car-Tune "My Old Kentucky Home" was the first cartoon to contain animated dialogue a few years earlier. This cartoon set Harman and Ising "apart from early Disney sound cartoons because it emphasized not music but dialogue."The short was marketed to various people by Harman and Ising until Leon Schlesinger offered them a contract to produce a series of cartoons for the Warner Bros. It would not be seen by a wide audience until 71 years later, in 2000, as part of Cartoon Network's special Toonheads: The Lost Cartoons, a compilation special of rare material from the WB/Turner archives.
In his book, Of Mice and Magic, Leonard Maltin states that this early version of Bosko
"was in fact a cartoonized version of a young black boy... he spoke in a Southern Negro dialect... in subsequent films this characterization was eschewed, or perhaps forgotten. This could be called sloppiness on the part of Harman and Ising, but it also indicates the uncertain nature of the character itself."
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Schlesinger saw the Harman-Ising test film and signed the animators to produce cartoons at their studio for him to sell to Warner Bros. Bosko became the star vehicle for the studio's new Looney Tunes cartoon series. Bosko wore long pants and a derby hat, and he had a girlfriend named Honey and a dog named Bruno. He was also sometimes accompanied by Honey's cat-like son named Wilbur and an often antagonistic goat, particularly in early cartoons.
The role of Bosko was to serve as a cartoony version of Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (1927). According to Ising, he was initially supposed to be an "inkspot sort of thing". He was not conceived as either a human or an animal, though behaving like a little boy.According to Leonard Maltin, Bosko was a cartoonized version of a young black boy who spoke a Southern dialect of African American Vernacular English. He cites as an example a phrase from Bosko's Holiday , said with an intermittent drawl: "I sho'done likes picnics."
Whether admiring a dress worn by Honey or eating a sandwich (with exaggerated chewing) Bosko had a stock exclamatory reaction indicating his pleasure "Mmmm! Dat sho' is fine!" which became something of a catch phrase
According to Terry Lindvall and Ben Fraser, Bosko and Honey "were the most balanced portrayals of blacks in cartoons to that point". They had the same type of formulaic coy adventures as Mickey and Minnie Mouse. They point to Bosko in Person (1933) where Honey gives a Billie Holiday-style performance as an example of nonracist racial tribute to a real person.According to Tom Bertino, Harman and Ising never called attention to Bosko's racial status, and stayed clear of negative stereotypes involving dice and watermelon. Bosko instead received positive portrayals as a spunky and resourceful boy. An exception to this was a demeaning representation in Congo Jazz (1930). Bosko in a jungle setting is depicted standing between a small monkey and a gorilla. All three are depicted with virtually identical faces. The only things identifying him as human is his relative size and his clothes.
From his first Looney Tunes outing, Sinkin' in the Bathtub , Bosko would star in 39 musical films (one of which was not released). His cartoons are notable for their generally weak plots and their abundance of music, singing, and dancing (though there were exceptions, such as Bosko the Doughboy , in 1931). These were the early days of sound cartoons, and audiences were enthralled simply to see characters talking and moving in step with the music. In terms of animation, the shorts are on-par with Disney's shorts of the same period. Harman and Ising were allowed production costs of up to $6000 per cartoon.During the same period, Disney was spending around $10,000 per cartoon. The smaller budgets forced Harman and Ising to recycle footage much more often than Disney did.
In terms of music and sound recording, however, Harman and Ising had an advantage, as the Warner Bros. provided access to a large musical library with all the popular tunes of the day, lavish orchestras (like Abe Lyman's) and sound recording equipment and staff free of charge.Disney, on the other hand, had no access to a music library and was forced to rely, for the most part, on public domain music.
Vaudeville was the major entertainment of the time, and the cartoons of the era are better understood when compared to it rather than to animation of later decades. Though rudimentary by today's standards, Bosko's films were quite popular in their day and he rivaled Mickey Mouse in popularity in the early 1930s, although the Disney cartoons would eventually surge ahead in popularity on the basis of stronger plot and character development.
In the later Looney Tunes shorts which Bosko appeared, his accent was gone. Consequently, his race became more ambiguous.
In 1933, Harman and Ising broke with Warner Bros. over budget disputes with Schlesinger. Having learned from Walt Disney's experiences with Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, they had carefully kept all rights to the Bosko character, and they took him with them. The two found work with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer where they launched the Happy Harmonies cartoon series. At first, Bosko appeared in his original design and some of the old animation from the Looney Tunes series was even reused in those Happy Harmonies that features Bosko. However, after only two cartoons, the character was redesigned into an identifiable black boy, similar in appearance to Inki and Lil' Eightball, with an overactive imagination. This redesigned Bosko, whom many consider to be a different character altogether, in spite of having the same name, only starred in seven negatively-received cartoons before Harman and Ising discontinued the character.The career of the character ended for good when MGM fired Harman and Ising due to cost overruns in the films they produced. They were replaced by Fred Quimby, who later hired Harman and Ising back, though Bosko did not make any appearances in subsequent MGM subjects produced by them.
For the bulk of his cartoons at MGM, Bosko was voiced by the animator who initially voiced him, Carman Maxwell.
Originally, the shorts which Bosko appeared usually revolved around musical adventure stories, but for the final three shorts in which he appeared, the plot revolved around the character delivering cookies for his mother, but his imagination would usually lead him to being ambushed by giant frogs who want to steal the cookies.
Bosko cartoons were packaged with other Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, to be broadcast in various television markets in the 1950s. For instance, "Skipper Frank" (Frank Herman), showed Bosko, along with Daffy Duck, Egghead and Porky Pig, on "Cartoon Carousel" his hour-long afterschool cartoon program on KTLA-TV (Channel 5) in Los Angeles.Bosko cartoons were also later aired on Nickelodeon as part of the network's Looney Tunes program beginning in 1988 and ending in 1992, when the network pulled all black and white shorts out of rotation to make room for more recent color cartoons featuring more popular Warner characters.
Bosko appeared in a 1990 episode of the television series Tiny Toon Adventures titled "Fields of Honey". In a parody of the then-current film Field of Dreams , a mysterious voice leads Babs Bunny to build a theater that shows nothing but cartoons of Bosko's girlfriend Honey, after being told about Honey (voiced by B. J. Ward) by the Acme Looniversity's mysterious vaultkeeper (voiced by Don Messick). Babs does so, and the resulting audience laughter rejuvenates the aged and ailing Honey. The laughter also rejuvenates the vaultkeeper, who is revealed to be none other than Bosko himself as well as the source of the voice. The cartoon depicts Bosko and Honey as dog-like funny animals similar to the lead characters of the later television series, Animaniacs , presumably so as not to offend viewers with the original black-face characterizations.
The character is also seen in a portrait in the 1996 movie Space Jam , this time in his original form. He also appears in his original form in the Animaniacs cartoon "The Girl with the Googily Goop", in which he is seen parking his car. He was also seen in a Futurama opening in Sinkin' in the Bathtub at the part where he runs off a cliff from the car with Honey in it.
The majority of the cartoons are available on VHS and DVD in the Uncensored Bosko series from Bosko Video. In 2003, Warner Home Video officially released the initial pilot film Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid, as an extra on the Looney Tunes Golden Collection Volume 1 DVD box set. Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 3 (released in 2005) also includes the first Looney Tunes short, Sinkin' in the Bathtub (which originally introduced Bosko and Honey to audiences in 1930) as an extra. Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 6 (released in 2008) includes several Bosko films on a disc officially devoted to Bosko and other early 1930s characters.
All the Bosko cartoons subject to copyright remain owned by Warner Bros., as are the original film elements of those cartoons that have fallen into the public domain. The WB cartoons are under direct ownership of the studio itself, and WB also owns the MGM cartoons through subsidiary Turner Entertainment Co. Warner has also acquired rights to the character himself, allowing his appearances in the 1990s to happen. [ clarification needed ]
|1929||Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid||The first Bosko film.|
|1930||Sinkin' in the Bathtub||The first Bosko film released.|
|The Booze Hangs High|
|Box Car Blues|
|1931||Big Man from the North|
|Ain't Nature Grand!|
|Ups 'n Downs|
|The Tree's Knees|
|Bosko the Doughboy|
|Bosko's Soda Fountain|
|Bosko's Fox Hunt|
|1932||Bosko at the Zoo|
|Bosko and Bruno|
|Bosko's Dog Race|
|Bosko at the Beach|
|Bosko the Lumberjack|
|Ride Him, Bosko!|
|Bosko the Drawback|
|Bosko's Dizzy Date||Alternately titled Bosko and Honey|
|Bosko's Woodland Daze|
|1933||Bosko in Dutch|
|Bosko in Person|
|Bosko the Speed King|
|Bosko the Sheep-Herder|
|Bosko's Mechanical Man|
|Bosko the Musketeer|
|Bosko's Picture Show||Final appearance of Bosko in a WB cartoon.|
|1934||Bosko's Parlor Pranks||First appearance of Bosko in an MGM cartoon.|
|1935||Hey-Hey Fever||Final cartoon featuring original Bosko|
|Run, Sheep, Run||First cartoon featuring Bosko in later design|
|1936||The Old House|
|Bosko's Easter Eggs|
|Little Ol' Bosko and the Pirates|
|Little Ol' Bosko and the Cannibals|
|1938||Little Ol' Bosko in Bagdad||The last Bosko film.|
|1990||Fields of Honey||Episode of Tiny Toon Adventures.|
|1992||Two-Tone Town||Episode of Tiny Toon Adventures; cameo appearance.|
|1996||The Girl with the Googily Goop||Episode of Animaniacs; cameo appearance.|
|Space Jam||cameo appearance in a picture.|
Looney Tunes is an American animated comedy short film series produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 along with its sister series, Merrie Melodies, during the golden age of American animation. They introduced Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, Sylvester, Tweety, Granny, Yosemite Sam, the Tasmanian Devil, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Foghorn Leghorn, Speedy Gonzales and many other cartoon characters. After Bugs Bunny became the breakout recurring star of Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes went to color in the early 1940s, the two series gradually lost their distinctions, and shorts were assigned to each series more randomly.
The golden age of American animation was a period in the history of U.S. animation that began with the popularization of sound cartoons in 1928 and gradually ended in the late 1960s, where theatrical animated shorts began losing popularity to the newer medium of television animation, produced on cheaper budgets and in a more limited animation style by companies such as Hanna-Barbera, UPA, Jay Ward Productions, and DePatie-Freleng.
Leon Schlesinger was an American film producer who founded Leon Schlesinger Productions, which later became the Warner Bros. Cartoons studio, during the Golden Age of American animation. He was also a distant relative of the Warner Brothers. As head of his own studio, Schlesinger served as the producer of Warner's Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons from 1930, when Schlesinger assumed production from his subcontractors, Harman and Ising, to 1944, when Warner acquired the studio.
Isadore "Friz" Freleng, often credited as I. Freleng, was an American animator, cartoonist, director, producer, and composer known for his work at Warner Bros. Cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons.
Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising were an American animation team known for founding the Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation studios.
Merrie Melodies is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. starting in 1931, during the golden age of American animation, and ended in 1997. As with its partner series, Looney Tunes, it featured cartoon characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, and Elmer Fudd. Between 1934 and 1943, the Merrie Melodies series were distinguished from the black-and-white, Buddy or Porky Pig-starring Looney Tunes shorts by an emphasis on one-shot stories in color featuring Warner Bros.-owned musical selections. After Bugs Bunny became the breakout recurring star of Merrie Melodies, and Looney Tunes went to color in the early 1940s, the two series gradually lost their distinctions and shorts were assigned to each series more randomly.
Buddy is an animated cartoon character in the Looney Tunes series by Leon Schlesinger Productions. He was the second star of the series, after Bosko.
Piggy is the name of two animated cartoon characters in the Merrie Melodies series of films distributed by Warner Bros. The first character was a fat, black pig wearing a pair of shorts with two large buttons in the front, and his first film was You Don't Know What You're Doin'!
Foxy is an animated cartoon character featured in the first three animated shorts in the Merrie Melodies series, all distributed by Warner Bros. in 1931. He was the creation of animator Rudy Ising, who had worked for Walt Disney in the 1920s.
Sinkin' in the Bathtub is the first Warner Bros. theatrical cartoon short as well as the first of the Looney Tunes series. The cartoon features Bosko, and the title is a pun on the 1929 song Singin' in the Bathtub. The short debuted in April 1930, possibly on April 19, at the Warner Bros. Theater in Hollywood.
Bosko, the Talk-Ink Kid is a 1929 live-action/animated short film produced to sell a series of Bosko cartoons. The film was never released to theaters, and therefore not seen by a wide audience until 2000 on Cartoon Network's television special Toonheads: The Lost Cartoons. The film was produced in May 1929 and directed by Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising.
Beans the Cat is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes series of cartoons from 1935–1936. Beans was the third Looney Tunes cartoon character star after Bosko and Buddy. He is voiced by Billy Bletcher and occasionally by Tommy Bond. He was created by director Friz Freleng. The character was featured in nine cartoons made in 1935 and 1936.
Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. was the in-house division of Warner Bros. during the Golden Age of American animation. One of the most successful animation studios in American media history, it was primarily responsible for the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoon short subjects. The characters featured in these cartoons, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Sylvester, and Tweety, are among the most famous and recognizable characters in the world. Many of the creative staff members at the studio, including directors and animators such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson, Tex Avery, Robert Clampett, Arthur Davis, and Frank Tashlin, are considered major figures in the art and history of traditional animation.
Happy Harmonies is the name of a series of thirty-seven animated cartoons distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and produced by Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising between 1934 and 1938.
The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio was the in-house division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) film studio in Hollywood during the Golden Age of American animation. The studio was responsible for producing animated shorts to accompany MGM feature films in Loew's Theaters. Active from 1937 until 1958, the cartoon studio created some popular cartoon characters, including Tom and Jerry, Droopy and Barney Bear.
Earl Duvall was an American artist and animator best known for his work on Disney comic strips in the early 1930s and for a handful of animated short films he directed at Warner Bros. Cartoons.
Hold Anything was the third short in the Looney Tunes series from Warner Bros., released to theaters in October 1930. Featuring Bosko, it was loosely based on the lost film Hold Everything, one of whose songs, "Don't Hold Everything," features prominently in the cartoon. It was directed by Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising, and animated by Isadore "Friz" Freleng and Norman Blackburn.
Bosko's Picture Show is a Warner Bros. Looney Tunes animated short directed by Hugh Harman and Friz Freleng. It was the last Looney Tunes Bosko cartoon produced by Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising for Leon Schlesinger and Warner Bros. The duo moved on to produce cartoons for MGM, the first of which were released in 1934. The music score was a work of Frank Marsales.
This is a listing of all the animated shorts released by Warner Bros. under the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies banners between 1930 and 1939, plus the pilot film which was used to sell the Looney Tunes series to Leon Schlesinger and Warner Bros. A total of 270 shorts were released during the 1930s.
Bosko's Parlor Pranks is a November 1934 Happy Harmonies cartoon produced by Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer starring their character Bosko. It is the first Bosko cartoon produced in color, and the first made at MGM following the Harman-Ising studio ending its deal to produce Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. and Leon Schlesinger. Warner Bros. would later gain ownership of the Happy Harmonies and other MGM cartoons following its acquisition of the Turner Entertainment Co. catalog.
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