Calpinae

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Calpinae
Owlet moth (Cyclopis caecutiens).JPG
Cyclopis caecutiens from Brazil
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Noctuoidea
Family: Erebidae
Subfamily: Calpinae
Boisduval, 1840
Synonyms
  • Ophiderinae

The Calpinae are a subfamily of moths in the family Erebidae described by Jean Baptiste Boisduval in 1840. This subfamily includes many species of moths that have a pointed and barbed proboscis adapted to piercing the skins of fruit to feed on juice, and in the case of the several Calyptra species of vampire moths, to piercing the skins of mammals to feed on blood. [1] The subfamily contains some large moths with wingspans longer than 5 cm (2 in).

Contents

Taxonomy

Recent phylogenetic studies have greatly revised this subfamily. The subfamily was previously classified within the Noctuidae, but the redefinition of that family has reclassified many of that family's subfamilies, including Calpinae, into the family Erebidae. The Calpinae are most closely related to a clade including the subfamilies Eulepidotinae and Hypocalinae, which are also among the Erebidae. The tribes Anomini and Scoliopterygini, previously included in the Calpinae, were found to be distantly related and were reclassified into a separate subfamily as the Scoliopteryginae. [2] [3]

Tribes

The Calpinae consist of three monophyletic tribes. [3]

Previous taxonomy

The status of the former composition of the Calpinae was somewhat disputed; it was sometimes merged into the Catocalinae. Most of the calpine genera were not further classified. The phylogenetic structure of this group was essentially unresolved, and in many cases it was even doubtful whether the genera were indeed correctly placed in this subfamily.

Tribe Calpini [4]

Tribe Gonopterini

Genera incertae sedis

Genera provisionally placed here (incomplete list); includes taxa sometimes separated in Ophiderinae

Related Research Articles

Noctuidae Type of moths commonly known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms

The Noctuidae, commonly known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms, are the most controversial family in the superfamily Noctuoidea because many of the clades are constantly changing, along with the other families of the Noctuoidea. It was considered the largest family in Lepidoptera for a long time, but after regrouping Lymantriinae, Catocalinae and Calpinae within the family Erebidae, the latter holds this title now. Currently, Noctuidae is the second largest family in Noctuoidea, with about 1,089 genera and 11,772 species. However, this classification is still contingent, as more changes continue to appear between Noctuidae and Erebidae.

Noctuoidea Superfamily of moths

Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid or "owlet" moths, and has more than 70,000 described species, the largest number of for any Lepidopteran superfamily. Its classification has not yet reached a satisfactory or stable state. Since the end of the 20th century, increasing availability of molecular phylogenetic data for this hugely successful radiation has led to several competing proposals for a taxonomic arrangement that correctly represents the relationships between the major lineages.

<i>Calyptra</i> (moth) Genus of moths in subfamily Calpinae of the family Erebidae

The genus Calyptra is a group of moths in subfamily Calpinae of the family Erebidae. They are a member of the Calpini tribe, whose precise circumscription is uncertain but which includes a number of other fruit-piercing or eye-frequenting genera currently classified in Calpinae.

Catocalinae Subfamily of moths

The Catocalinae are a subfamily of noctuoid moths, placed in family Noctuidae. In the alternative arrangement, where the Noctuidae are reduced to the core group around the Noctuinae, the present lineage is abolished, the upranked Catocalini being merged with the Erebini and becoming a subfamily of the reestablished family Erebidae.

Ophiusini Tribe of moths

The Ophiusini are a tribe of moths in the family Erebidae.

Calpini Tribe of moths

The Calpini are a tribe of fruit-piercing moths in the family Erebidae; formerly they were included in the family Noctuidae. The proboscis of the adult moths of this tribe is pointed and barbed, allowing the moth to pierce the skin of fruit to drink the juice. The vampire moths in the genus Calyptra can pierce mammal skin to drink blood.

<i>Baniana</i> Genus of moths

Baniana is a genus of moths of the family Erebidae. The genus was previously classified in the subfamily Calpinae of the family Noctuidae.

<i>Isogona</i> Genus of moths

Isogona is a genus of moths of the family Erebidae. The genus was erected by Achille Guenée in 1852.

<i>Homodes</i> Genus of moths

Homodes is a genus of moths of the family Erebidae first described by Achille Guenée in 1852.

Erebidae Family of moths

The Erebidae are a family of moths in the superfamily Noctuoidea. The family is among the largest families of moths by species count and contains a wide variety of well-known macromoth groups. The family includes the underwings (Catocala); litter moths (Herminiinae); tiger, lichen, and wasp moths (Arctiinae); tussock moths (Lymantriinae), including the arctic woolly bear moth ; piercing moths ; micronoctuoid moths (Micronoctuini); snout moths (Hypeninae); and zales, though many of these common names can also refer to moths outside the Erebidae. Some of the erebid moths are called owlets.

Calyptra eustrigata is a moth of the family Erebidae, found in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It has been reported as exhibiting parasitic blood-sucking behavior.

Calyptra fasciata is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found in India. It has been known to feed on humans, as well as a variety of other mammals.

<i>Calyptra minuticornis</i> Species of moth

Calyptra minuticornis, the vampire moth, is a moth of the family Erebidae. It has been found in Indonesia, Java, India, Sri Lanka, and Australasia.

Calyptra ophideroides is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found in East Indies. It has been known to feed on humans, as well as a variety of other mammals.

Calyptra pseudobicolor is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found in India. It has been known to feed on humans, as well as a variety of other mammals.

Calyptra parva is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found in India. It has been known to feed on humans, as well as a variety of other mammals.

The Catephiini are a tribe of moths in the family Erebidae.

Scoliopteryginae Subfamily of moths

The Scoliopteryginae are a subfamily of moths in the family Erebidae. Larvae have distinctive, extra setae on the first through seventh abdominal segments. Many adult moths in the subfamily have a proboscis adapted to pierce fruit skin, allowing consumption of the juice in the fruit.

The Toxocampinae are a subfamily of moths in the family Erebidae. Moths in the subfamily typically have a primitive form of genital claspers similar to those of some subfamilies of the Noctuidae.

References

  1. Florida Museum of Natural History (ed.). "Blood-feeding and Fruit-feeding Moths of Calpini Tribe (Noctuidae), Their Phylogeny and Classification". Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  2. Lafontaine, Donald; Schmidt, Christian (19 March 2010). "Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico". ZooKeys. 40: 26. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.40.414 .
  3. 1 2 Zahiri, Reza; et al. (2011). "Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea)". Systematic Entomology. 37: 102–124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00607.x.
  4. J.M. Zaspel and M.A. Branham (2008). "World Checklist of Tribe Calpini (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Calpinae)". University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2010.