|Politics of Jersey|
The Courts of Jersey are responsible for the administration of justice in the Bailiwick of Jersey, one of the Channel Islands. They apply the law of the Island, which is a mixture of customary law and legislation passed by the legislature, the States Assembly.
The principal court is the Royal Court, which has been in existence since the 13th century, and exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Additional courts, such as the Magistrate's Court, which deals with minor criminal matters, and the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from the Royal Court, have been added to the Island's legal system more recently. There are also a number of specialist tribunals.
Prior to 1949 there was no appellate court in Jersey (or Guernsey). Appeals could be heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, but this was only possible if special leave was given and was not by right. It was felt that, particularly in criminal cases, this was not satisfactory. Therefore, in 1949 an Order in Council was made by King George VI creating the Channel Islands Court of Appeal, to deal with appeals from both Jersey and Guernsey. However it was soon realised that a joint court would not work and the Channel Islands Court of Appeal never sat. It was ultimately replaced by separate Courts of Appeal in each of the two bailiwicks. 
The Court of Appeal of Jersey was finally created in 1961 and sits about six times each year. The judges of the Court of Appeal comprise the Bailiff and Deputy Bailiff, and a number of King's Counsel from the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.   Currently, there are 11 judges of the Court of Appeal, including the Bailiff of Guernsey. 
The Youth Appeal Court is made up of the Bailiff and three members of the Youth Court Panel. 
Further appeals can be made to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, but only with special leave. 
Originating in the 13th century when the King declared that Jersey should continue to follow Norman law, the Royal Court is the principal and oldest court in Jersey.  The President of the Court is the Bailiff and the Court is otherwise composed of the island's jurats. The Court has jurisdiction over both civil and criminal matters.  The Royal Court also conducts the Visites Royales - yearly inspections of each of the parishes. 
The Magistrate's and Petty Debts Courts were established by legislation in 1853 to deal with minor criminal and civil cases instead of the Royal Court (although their jurisdiction is generally concurrent with that of the Royal Court, rather than exclusive).  They are both presided over by the Magistrate, a position which was created as a distinct post in 1864. The Magistrate is referred to in the Jersey French of the legislation as the Juge d’Instruction,   although his role is not the same as the position with the same title in inquisitorial systems.
Originally established in 1853 as the Police Court, and renamed the Magistrate's Court in 1996. The Magistrate's Court can try any criminal offence if the Magistrate considers that the appropriate sentence is not more than one year in prison or a fine of £10,000.  If the Magistrate considers that a heavier sentence might be appropriate, then the case will be committed to the Royal Court for trial. Similarly if, having tried the case, the Magistrate subsequently decides that their sentencing powers are insufficient, they may refer the case to the Royal Court for sentencing. 
The Petty Debts Court deals with civil cases where the value of the claim is no more than £10,000, and also with landlord and tenant disputes.  
The Youth Court was created in 1994 and is made up of the Magistrate and two members of the Youth Court Panel (which is appointed by the Superior Number of the Royal Court). It sits in private (although the press may be present) and deals with cases where the defendant is aged under 18, unless the likely sentence means that the case needs to be sent to the Royal Court. 
The Parish Hall Enquiry is an informal way of dealing with minor criminal behaviour, particularly by young people, which has been in use in Jersey for over 800 years. 
The Enquiry is not actually a court hearing. It is an opportunity for the Centenier (the head of the Honorary Police for the parish) to review the evidence and decide whether it is in the public interest for the case to be tried in the Magistrate's Court.  In doing so the Centenier will discuss the evidence with the accused person and, if the offence is minor, possibly agree a non-statutory sanction which will avoid the need for the case to go to court. Attendance at the Enquiry is voluntary, the Centenier does not make a finding of guilt (a sanction is only imposed if the accused agrees, otherwise the case is sent on to the Magistrate's Court) and at any time the accused may elect to have the case referred to the Magistrate.  
Sanctions which can be imposed include: 
These sanctions are not convictions but a record is kept and they may be referred to in the event of the accused coming into contact with the criminal justice system on a subsequent occasion. 
The Parish Hall Enquiry system has been found to "deal successfully and appropriately with a wide range of offending", to have a low rate of recidivism, and a high level of satisfaction amongst victims. 
In the case of a sudden or unexpected death in the Island, an inquest will need to be held to determine the cause of death. The Viscount is the coroner (although in recent years this function has been delegated to the Deputy Viscount) and may sit with a jury, although this is unusual. Hearings take place in public. 
In addition to the courts, there are a number of Tribunals, including:
Judgments of the Royal Court, Court of Appeal and the Employment Tribunal are published online by the Jersey Legal Information Board,  as part of the Free Access to Law Movement. Since 1985, selected judgments containing points of legal principle are formally published in the Jersey Law Reports. Selected judgments between 1950 and 1984 were published in 11 volumes by the Royal Court in the Jersey Judgments series of law reports.
Politics of Guernsey take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic British Crown dependency.
The courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by His Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. In past centuries the term commissioner of the peace was often used with the same meaning. Depending on the jurisdiction, such justices dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. Justices of the peace are appointed or elected from the citizens of the jurisdiction in which they serve, and are usually not required to have any formal legal education in order to qualify for the office. Some jurisdictions have varying forms of training for JPs.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of their realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service. Thus, in the United Kingdom, the government of the United Kingdom can be distinguished from the Crown and the state, in precise usage, although the distinction is not always relevant in broad or casual usage.
The bailiff is the chief justice in each of the Channel Island bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, also serving as president of the legislature and having ceremonial and executive functions. Each bailiwick has possessed its own bailiff since the islands were divided into two jurisdictions in the 13th century. The bailiffs and deputy bailiffs are appointed by the Crown on the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice and may hold office until retirement age.
Elections in Jersey take place for the States Assembly and at parish-level. Various parties have been formed over the years in Jersey, but few candidates stand for election affiliated to any political party. All elections in Jersey use the first-past-the-post voting system. In 2008, the voting age was reduced to 16 years.
The jurats are lay people in Guernsey and Jersey who act as judges of fact rather than law, though they preside over land conveyances and liquor licensing. In Alderney, however, the jurats are judges of both fact and law in both civil and criminal matters.
Sir Philip Martin Bailhache KC is a Jersey politician and lawyer who has served as a Deputy for St Clement since 2022 and the leader of the Jersey Liberal Conservatives party.
The States Assembly is the parliament of Jersey, formed of the island's 37 deputies and the Connétable of each of the twelve parishes.
There is an Honorary Police force in each of the twelve parishes of Jersey. Members of the Honorary Police are elected by the voters of the parish in which they serve, and are unpaid.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the Kingdom of Spain. Originally established pursuant to Title V of the Constitution of 1812 to replace —in all matters that affected justice— the System of Councils, and currently regulated by Title VI of the Constitution of 1978, it has original jurisdiction over cases against high-ranking officials of the Kingdom and over cases regarding illegalization of political parties. It also has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all cases. The Court has the power of judicial review, except for the judicial revision on constitutional matters, reserved to the Constitutional Court.
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The law of Jersey has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law, English common law and modern French civil law. The Bailiwick of Jersey is a separate jurisdiction from that of the United Kingdom, and is also distinct from that of the other Channel Islands such as Guernsey, although they do share some historical developments. Jersey's legal system is 'mixed' or 'pluralistic', and sources of law are in French and English languages, although since the 1950s the main working language of the legal system is English.
The judiciary of Italy is a system of courts that interpret and apply the law in the Italian Republic. In Italy, judges are public officials and, since they exercise one of the sovereign powers of the State, only Italian citizens are eligible for judgeship. In order to become a judge, applicants must obtain a degree of higher education as well as pass written and oral examinations. However, most training and experience is gained through the judicial organization itself. The potential candidates then work their way up from the bottom through promotions.
The judiciary of Jersey is a branch of the government of Jersey that interprets and applies the laws of Jersey, to ensure equal justice under law, and to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution. The Bailiff of Jersey is the President of the Royal Court. Individual trials are heard by the Bailiff, the Deputy Bailiff or a Commissioner. The Master of the Royal Court deals with some preliminary matters in civil cases. The Court is supported by the Judicial Greffier who acts as the registrar. In addition to the judge, the Royal Court includes a number of volunteer Jurats. The Jurats decide issues of fact in criminal and civil trials, hand down sentences in criminal trials and award damages in civil trials. All judges in Jersey are bound by a code of conduct, introduced in 2007, which requires them to "uphold the integrity and independence of the judiciary and perform their duties with competence, diligence and dedication".
The Courts of Guernsey are responsible for the administration of justice in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. They apply the law of the Island, which is a mixture of customary law dating back as far as the 10th century and legislation passed by the legislature, the States of Deliberation.
The Law of Guernsey originates in Norman Customary Law, overlaid with principles taken from English common law and Equity, as well as from statute law enacted by the competent legislature(s) -- usually, but not always, the States of Guernsey
Jersey has an unwritten constitution arising from the Treaty of Paris (1259). When Henry III and the King of France came to terms over the Duchy of Normandy, the Norman mainland the suzerainty of the King of France. The Channel Islands however remained loyal to the British crown due to the loyalties of its Seigneurs. But they were never absorbed into the Kingdom of England by any Act of Union and exist as "peculiars of the Crown".
The Royal Court is the principal and oldest court in Jersey, and exercises both criminal and civil jurisdiction. It can sit in a number of configurations, depending on the type of case and the powers to be exercised.