Devi Mahatmya

Last updated
Artwork depicting the "Goddess Durga Slaying the Buffalo demon Mahishasura" scene of Devi Mahatmya, is found all over India, Nepal and southeast Asia. Clockwise from top: 9th-century Kashmir, 13th-century Karnataka, 9th century Prambanan Indonesia, 2nd-century Uttar Pradesh. Durga slaying buffalo composite, 2nd-century to 13th-century Devi Mahatmya.png
Artwork depicting the "Goddess Durga Slaying the Buffalo demon Mahishasura" scene of Devi Mahatmya, is found all over India, Nepal and southeast Asia. Clockwise from top: 9th-century Kashmir, 13th-century Karnataka, 9th century Prambanan Indonesia, 2nd-century Uttar Pradesh.

The Devi Mahatmya or Devi Mahatmyam (Sanskrit: devīmāhātmyam, देवीमाहात्म्यम्), or "Glory of the Goddess") is a Hindu religious text describing the Goddess as the supreme power and creator of the universe. [1] [2] It is part of the Markandeya Purana, and estimated to have been composed in Sanskrit between 400-600 CE. [3] [4] [5]


Devi Mahatmyam is also known as the Durgā Saptashatī (दुर्गासप्तशती) or Caṇḍī Pāṭha (चण्डीपाठः). [6] The text contains 700 verses arranged into 13 chapters. [7] [6] Along with Devi-Bhagavata Purana and Shakta Upanishads such as the Devi Upanishad, it is one of the most important texts of Shaktism (goddess) tradition within Hinduism. [8]

The Devi Mahatmyam describes a storied battle between good and evil, where the Devi manifesting as goddess Durga leads the forces of good against the demon Mahishasura—the goddess is very angry and ruthless, and the forces of good win. [9] [10] [11] In peaceful prosperous times, states the text, the Devi manifests as Lakshmi, empowering wealth creation and happiness. [12] The verses of this story also outline a philosophical foundation wherein the ultimate reality (Brahman in Hinduism) is female. [13] [14] [15] The text is one of the earliest extant complete manuscripts from the Hindu traditions which describes reverence and worship of the feminine aspect of God. [5] The Devi Mahatmya is often ranked in some Hindu traditions to be as important as the Bhagavad Gita. [16]

The Devi Mahatmya has been particularly popular in eastern states of India, such as West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Goa [17] as well as Nepal. [18] It is recited during Navratri celebrations, the Durga Puja festival, [19] [20] and in Durga temples across India. [19] [21]


The oldest surviving manuscript of the Devi Mahatmya, on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century. Devimahatmya Sanskrit MS Nepal 11c.jpg
The oldest surviving manuscript of the Devi Māhātmya, on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.

Sanskrit māhātmya-, "magnanimity, highmindedness, majesty" is a neuter abstract noun of māha-ātman-, or "great soul." The title devīmāhātmyam is a tatpurusha compound, literally translating to "the magnanimity of the goddess."

The text is called Saptaśati (literally a collection of seven hundred" or something that contains seven hundreds in number), as it contains 700 shlokas (verses). [7]

Caṇḍī or Caṇḍika is the name by which the Supreme Goddess is referred to in Devī Māhātmya. According to Hindu Scriptures, "Caṇḍikā is "the Goddess of Truth and Justice who came to Earth for the establishment of Dharma ," from the adjective caṇḍa, "fierce, violent, cruel for evil forces not for good forces ." The epithet has no precedent in Vedic literature and is first found in a late insertion to the Mahabharata, where Chaṇḍa and Chaṇḍī appear as epithets." [22]


Durga temple depicting scenes from Devi Mahatmya, in Aihole temple, is part of a UNESCO world heritage site candidate. Aihole.jpg
Durga temple depicting scenes from Devi Mahatmya, in Aihole temple, is part of a UNESCO world heritage site candidate.

The Devi Mahatmya, states C. Mackenzie Brown, is both a culmination of centuries of Indian ideas about the divine feminine, as well as a foundation for the literature and spirituality focussed on the feminine transcendence in centuries that followed. [24]

One of the earliest evidence of reverence for the feminine aspect of God appears in chapter 10.125 of the Rig Veda, also called Devīsūkta . [25] [26] [note 1]

Hymns to goddesses are in the ancient Hindu epic Mahabharata, particularly in the later (100 to 300 CE) added Harivamsa section of it. [24] The archaeological and textual evidence implies, states Thomas Coburn, that the Goddess had become as much a part of the Hindu tradition, as God, by about the third or fourth century. [28]


Devi Mahatmya is a text extracted from Markandeya Purana , and constitutes the latter's chapters 81 through 93. [29] The Purana is dated to the ~3rd century CE, [9] and the Devi Mahatmya was added to the Markandeya Purana either in the 5th or 6th century. [3] [4] [5]

The Dadhimati Mata inscription (608 CE) quotes a portion from the Devi Mahatmya. Thus, it can be concluded that the text was composed before the 7th century CE. [30] It is generally dated between 400-600 CE. [31] Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty dates the Devi Mahatmya to c. 550 CE, and rest of the Markandeya Purana to c. 250 CE. [32]


The Devi Mahatmya text is a devotional text, and its aim, states Thomas Coburn, is not to analyze divine forms or abstract ideas, but to praise. [33] This it accomplishes with a philosophical foundation, wherein the female is the primordial creator; she is also the Tridevi as the secondary creator, the sustainer, and destroyer. [33] She is presented, through a language of praise, as the one who dwells in all creatures, as the soul, as the power to know, the power to will and the power to act. [33] She is consciousness of all living beings, she is intelligence, she is matter, and she is all that is form or emotion. [33]

The text includes hymns to saguna (manifest, incarnated) form of the Goddess, as well as nirguna (unmanifest, abstract) form of her. [34] The saguna hymns appear in chapters 1, 4 and 11 of the Devi Mahatmya, while chapter 5 praises the nirguna concept of Goddess. The saguna forms of her, asserts the text, are Mahakali (destroyer, Tamasic, Desire principle of mother), Mahalakshmi (sustainer, evolution principle of mother ,Sattvic) and Mahasaraswati (creator, Action principle of mother , Rajasvic ), [34] which as a collective are called Tridevi . The nirguna concept (Avyakrita, transcendent) is also referred to as Maha-lakshmi. [34] This structure is not accidental, but embeds the Samkhya philosophy idea of three Gunas that is central in Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita . [34]

The Samkhya philosophical premise asserts that all life and matter has all three co-existent innate tendencies or attributes (Guṇa), whose equilibrium or disequilibrium drives the nature of a living being or thing. [35] [36] Tamasic is darkness and destructiveness (represented as Kali in Devi Mahatmya), Sattvic is light and creative pursuit (Mahalakshmi), and Rajasic is dynamic energy qua energy without any intent of being creative or destructive (Mahasaraswati). [34] The unmanifest, in this philosophy, has all these three innate attributes and qualities, as potent principle within, as unrealized power, and this unrealized Goddess dwells in every individual, according to Devi Mahatmya. [33] This acknowledgment of Samkhya dualistic foundation is then integrated into a monistic (non-dualistic, Advaita) spirituality in Devi Mahatmya, just like the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana and other important texts of Hinduism. [37] [38]


The Goddess in Indian traditions

The Devi-Mahatmya is not the earliest literary fragment attesting to the existence of devotion to a goddess figure, but it is surely the earliest in which the object of worship is conceptualized as Goddess, with a capital G.

Thomas Coburn [39]

The Devī Māhātmya consists of chapters 81-93 of the Mārkandeya Purana, one of the early Sanskrit Puranas, which is a set of stories being related by the sage Markandeya to Jaimini and his students (who are in the form of birds). The thirteen chapters of Devi Māhātmya are divided into three charitas or episodes. At the beginning of each episode a different presiding goddess is invoked, none of whom is mentioned in the text itself. [40]

The framing narrative of Devi Mahatmya presents a dispossessed king, a merchant betrayed by his family, and a sage whose teachings lead them both beyond existential suffering. The sage instructs by recounting three different epic battles between the Devi and various demonic adversaries (the three tales being governed by the three Tridevi, respectively, Mahakali (Chapter 1), Mahalakshmi (Chapters 2-4), and Mahasaraswati (Chapters 5-13). Most famous is the story of Mahishasura Mardini – Devi as "Slayer of the Buffalo Demon" – one of the most ubiquitous images in Hindu art and sculpture, and a tale known almost universally in India. Among the important goddess forms the Devi Mahatmyam introduced into the Sanskritic mainstream are Kali and the Sapta-Matrika ("Seven Mothers"). [41]

First episode

Vishnu vanishes Madhu-Kaitabha, with Devi in the background. Vishnu Vanquishing the Demons Madhu and Kaitabha (recto), Text (verso), Folio from a Devimahatmya (Glory of the Goddess) LACMA M.84.229.5.jpg
Vishnu vanishes Madhu-Kaitabha, with Devi in the background.

The first story of the Devi Mahatmya depicts Devi in her form as Mahakali. Here Devi is central and key to the creation; she is the power that induces Narayana's deep slumber on the waters of the cosmic ocean prior to the manifestation of the Universe which is a continuous cycle of manifestation, destruction and re-manifestation. Vishnu manifests from all pervading Narayan and goes into deep slumber on Adi Sesha. Two demons, Madhu-Kaitabh, arise as thoughtforms from Vishnu's sleeping body and endeavour to vanquish Brahma who is preparing to create the next cycle of the Universe. Brahma sings to the Great Goddess, asking her to withdraw from Vishnu so he may awaken and slay the demons. Devi agrees to withdraw and Vishnu awakens and vanquishes the demons. Here Devi serves as the agent who allows the cosmic order to be restored. [42]

Middle episode

The middle episode presents goddess Mahalakshmi in the avatar of Durga. She is a great Warrior Goddess, representing divine anger and the lethal energy against evil. The episode stages a world under attack by a form-shifting Mahishasura, an evil demon who uses deception to disarm his opponents, ultimately taking the form of a buffalo demon. He defeats the male gods individually, who fear total annihilation of the forces of good. They team up, combine their individual strengths and channel it into endowed Durga. Riding a lion into battle, Durga captures and slays the buffalo demon, by cutting off its head. She then destroys the inner essence of the demon when it emerges from the buffalo's severed neck, thereby establishing order in the world. [43] [44] [45]

In the theological practices of the goddess tradition of Hinduism, the middle episode is the most important. If a community or individual cannot recite the entire Devi Mahatmya composition, the middle episode alone is recited at a puja or festival. [46] Further, when the recital begins, the tradition is to complete the reading of the middle episode completely as a partial reading is considered to create a spiritual chidra or "chink in the armor". [46]

Final episode

The Goddess Ambika leading the Eight Matrikas in battle (top row, from the left) Narasinhmi, Vaishnavi, Kaumari, Maheshvari, Brahmani. (bottom row, from left) Varahi, Aindri and Chamunda or Kali against the demon Raktabija. A Folio from the Devi Mahatmya. Ashta-Matrika.jpg
The Goddess Ambika leading the Eight Matrikas in battle (top row, from the left) Narasinhmi, Vaishnavi, Kaumari, Maheshvari, Brahmani. (bottom row, from left) Varahi, Aindri and Chamunda or Kali against the demon Raktabija. A Folio from the Devi Mahatmya.

The final episode depicts Devi in her form of Mahasaraswati.She is portrayed as arising from the cells or koshas of Devi Saraswati and hence she is named as Devi Kaushiki. Kali may be understood to represent or "aspect" the darker, chthonic, transformative qualities of Devi's power or Shakti. Kali's emergence is chronicled in the third story of the Devi Mahatmya. Kali,in the form of Chamunda emerges from Devi's eyebrows as a burst of psychic energy. Kali overpowers and beheads Chanda and Munda, and when she delivers their severed heads to Devi, she is dubbed Chamunda.

During a fierce battle in which the Great Goddess demonstrates her omnipotence by defeating powerful demons who terrify the devas, she encounters the fierce Raktabija (chapter 8). Every drop of blood Raktabija sheds transforms into another demon as it touches the earth. A unique strategy has to be devised to vanquish him. A fiery burst of energy emerging from Devi's third eye takes the dark skeletal form of goddess Kali. With her huge mouth and enormous tongue she ferociously laps up Raktabija's blood, thus preventing the uprising of further demons.

The story continues in which Devi, Kali and a group of Matrikas destroy the demonic brothers Sumbha (chapter 10) and Nisumbha (chapter 9). In the final battle against Shumbha, Devi absorbs Kali and the matrikas and stands alone for the final battle. [43]

Symbolism of the three episodes

Who is this Goddess?

I resemble in form Brahman,
from me emanates the world,
which has the Spirit of Prakriti and Purusha,
I am empty and not empty,
I am delight and non-delight,
I am knowledge and ignorance,
I am Brahman and not Brahman.

Devi Mahatmya [24]

Devadatta Kali states that the three tales are "allegories of outer and inner experience". [47] The evil adversaries of the Goddess, states Kali, symbolize the all-too-human impulses, such as pursuit of power, or possessions, or delusions such as arrogance. [47] The Goddess wages war against this. [47] Like the philosophical and symbolic battlefield of the Bhagavad Gita , the Devi Mahatmya symbolic killing grounds target human frailties, according to Kali, and the Goddess targets the demons of ego and dispels our mistaken idea of who we are. [47]

Most hymns, states Thomas Coburn, present the Goddess's martial exploits, but these are "surpassed by verses of another genre, viz., the hymns to the Goddess". [48] The hymnic portion of the text balances the verses that present the spiritual liberation power of the Goddess. [49] These hymns describe the nature and character of the Goddess in spiritual terms:

  1. Brahma-stuti (part 1 start), [50]
  2. Sakradi-stuti (part 2 end), [51]
  3. The "Ya Devi" Hymn (part 3 start), [52]
  4. Narayani-stuti (part 3 end). [53]

Angas (Appendages)

A 17th-century Devimahatmya manuscript. Devimahatmya (Glory of the Goddess) manuscript LACMA M.88.134.7.jpg
A 17th-century Devimahatmya manuscript.

As an independent text, Devī Māhātmya has acquired a number of "limbs" or "subsidiary texts" or "appendages" (angas) over the years "fore and aft". According to Coburn "artistic evidence suggests that the angas have been associated with the text since the fourteenth century." The angas are chiefly concerned with the ritual use of Devī Māhātmya and based on the assumption that the text will be recited aloud in the presence of images. [54]

There are two different traditions in the Anga parayana. One is the trayanga parayana (Kavacha, Argala, Keelaka). The other is the Navanga parayana (Nyasam, Avahanam, Namani, Argalam, Keelakam, Hrudayam, Dhalam, Dhyanam, Kavacham). The navanga format is followed in kerala and some other parts in South India.

Preceding subsidiary texts

Either the Ratri Suktam (Vedic) or Ratri Suktam (Tantrik) is read depending upon whether the ritual is Vaidic or Tantrik.

One of the texts recited by some traditions is the Devī-Atharva-Śirṣa-Upaniṣad (Devi Upaniṣad).

Succeeding subsidiary texts

The number and order of these depend on the Sampradaya (tradition). [59] [60]

Either the Devi Suktam (Vedic) or Devi Suktam (Tantrik) is read depending upon whether the ritual is Vedic or Tantrik.

At the end of a traditional recitation of the text, a prayer craving pardon from the Goddess known as Aparadha Kshmapana Stotram is recited.


The Devi Mahatmya was considered significant among the Puranas by Indologists. This is indicated by the early dates when it was translated into European languages. It was translated into English in 1823, followed by an analysis with excerpts in French in 1824. It was translated into Latin in 1831 and Greek in 1853. [61]

Devi Mahatmya has been translated into most of the Indian languages. There are also a number of commentaries and ritual manuals. The commentaries and ritual manual followed vary from region to region depending on the tradition.

Place in the Hindu canon

Devi portrayed as Mahishasura Mardini, Slayer of the Buffalo Demon -- a central episode of the Devi Mahatmya Durga Mahisasuramardini.JPG
Devi portrayed as Mahishasura Mardini , Slayer of the Buffalo Demon — a central episode of the Devi Mahatmya

Devi Māhātmyam has been called the Testament of Shakta philosophy. [62] It is the base and root of Shakta doctrine. [63] It appears as the centre of the great Shakti tradition of Hinduism. [64]

It is in Devi Mahatmya, states C Mackenzie Brown, that "the various mythic, cultic and theological elements relating to diverse female divinities were brought together in what has been called the 'crystallization of the Goddess tradition." [65]

The unique feature of Devi Māhātmyam is the oral tradition. Though it is part of the devotional tradition, it is in the rites of the Hindus that it plays an important role. The entire text is considered as one single Mantra and a collection of 700 Mantras.

The Devi Māhātmyam is treated in the cultic context as if it were a Vedic hymn or verse with sage (ṛṣi), meter, pradhnadevata, and viniyoga (for japa). It has been approached, by Hindus and Western scholars, as scripture in and by itself, where its significance is intrinsic, not derived from its Puranic context. [66]

According to Damara Tantra "Like Aswamedha in Yagnas, Hari in Devas, Sapthsati is in hymns." "Like the Vedas; Saptasati is eternal" says Bhuvaneshwari Samhita. [67]

There are many commentaries on Devi Māhātmya.

The significance of Devi Māhātmya has been explained in many Tantric and Puranic texts like Katyayani Tantra, Gataka Tantra, Krodha Tantra, Meru Tantram, Marisa Kalpam, Rudra Yamala, and Chidambara Rahasya. [68] A number of studies of Shaktism appreciate the seminal role of Devi Māhātmya in the development of the Shakta tradition.

Recitation of Durga Mahatmya on Mahalaya marks the formal beginning of the Durga Puja festival 5438g sreebhumi-bhavanipur pratima.jpg
Recitation of Durga Mahatmya on Mahalaya marks the formal beginning of the Durga Puja festival

The recitation of Devi Mahatmya is done during the Sharad Navaratri (Oct. - Nov.) in India. It is recited during Navratri celebrations, the Durga Puja festival and in Durga temples of India. [19] The text is also recited during the Vasantha Navaratri (March - April) in Uttarakhand, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and other states of north India. It is also chanted during special occasions like temple kumbabhishekam and as a general parihara.

See also


  1. Devi Suktam hymn (abridged): [27]

    I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.
      Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
    Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.
      They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
    I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.
      I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.
    I bend the bow for Rudra [Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
      I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller.
    On the world's summit I bring forth sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean as Mother.
      Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my body.
    I created all worlds at my will, without any higher being, and permeate and dwell within them.
      The eternal and infinite consciousness is I, it is my greatness dwelling in everything.

    Devīsūkta, Rigveda 10.125.3 – 10.125.8, [25] [26] [27]

Related Research Articles

Durga Hindu warrior goddess

Durga, identified a principal and popular form of the Hindu Goddess Parvati. She is a goddess of war, the warrior form of Parvati, whose mythology centres around combating evils and demonic forces that threaten peace, prosperity, and Dharma the power of good over evil. Durga is also a fierce form of the protective mother goddess, who unleashes her divine wrath against the wicked for the liberation of the oppressed, and entails destruction to empower creation.

Chamunda Hindu goddess

Chamunda also known as Chamundeshwari, Chamundi, and Raktandika is a fearsome form of Chandi, the Hindu Divine Mother Parvati and is one of the seven Matrikas.

Shaktism A Hindu tradition inspired by goddess (Shakti)

Shaktism is a major sect of Hinduism, wherein the metaphysical reality is considered metaphorically a woman and Shakti is regarded as the supreme godhead. It includes many goddesses, all considered aspects of the same supreme goddess. Shaktism has different sub-traditions, ranging from those focused on gracious Parvati to that of fierce Kali.

Mahishasura buffalo in Hindu mythology

Mahishasura was a buffalo Asura in Hinduism. He is known among most sections of Hindus for his deception and as someone who pursued his evil ways by shape shifting into different forms. He was ultimately killed by Goddess Durga getting named Mahishasuramardini. It is an important symbolic legend in Hinduism, particularly Shaktism. The legendary battle of Mahishasura as evil and Durga as good is narrated in many parts of South Asian and Southeast Asian Hindu temples, monuments and texts such as the Devi Mahatmya. The story is also told in the Sikh text Chandi di Var, also called Var Durga Di, which many in Sikh tradition believe was included in the Dasam Granth by Guru Gobind Singh.

Hindu texts present diverse and conflicting views on the position of women, ranging from feminine leadership as the highest goddess, to limiting her role to an obedient daughter, housewife and mother. The Devi Sukta hymn of Rigveda, a scripture of Hinduism, declares the feminine energy as the essence of the universe, the one who creates all matter and consciousness, the eternal and infinite, the metaphysical and empirical reality (Brahman), the soul, of everything. The woman is celebrated as the most powerful and the empowering force in some Hindu Upanishads, Sastras and Puranas, particularly the Devi Upanishad, Devi Mahatmya and Devi-Bhagavata Purana.

Mahadevi Hindu goddess

In Hinduism, Mahadevi or "Great Goddess" is the goddess or Devi that is the sum of all other devis – an all-encompassing female deity as the consort or complement to an all-encompassing male deity (Deva) or the Ultimate Reality (Brahman) in Shaktism. Mahadevi is the synonymous with Parvati, the wife of Mahadeva (Shiva) due to the strong influence of Shaivism on Shaktism.

Chandi Goddess in Hinduism, a form of Durga

Chandi or Chandika is a Hindu deity. Chandika is a form of Parvati's alter ego, Durga. She represents the power of Shakti. Chandika is a powerful form of Parvati, who manifested to destroy evil.

Katyayani form of Hindu goddess Parvati

Katyayani is the sixth form amongst Navadurga or the nine forms of Hindu goddess Durga (Parvati), worshipped during the Navratri celebrations. She may be depicted with four, ten, or eighteen hands. This is the second name given for Goddess Adi Parashakti in Amarakosha, the Sanskrit lexicon. Goddess Katyayani was worshipped by Sita and Rukmini for a good husband.


In Hindu mythology, Raktabīja was an asura who fought with Shumbha and Nishumbha against Goddess Parvati and Goddess Kali or Goddess Chamunda. Raktabīja had a boon that whenever a drop of his blood fell on the ground, a duplicate Raktabīja would be born at that spot. According to some sources, Raktabija was, in his previous birth, Rambhasura, king of demons and the father of Mahishasura.

The Markandeya Purana is a Sanskrit text of Hinduism, and one of the eighteen major Puranas. The text's title Markandeya refers to a sage in Hindu history, who is the central character in two legends, one linked to Shiva and other to Vishnu. The Markandeya text is one of the Puranas that lacks a sectarian presentation of ideas in favor of any particular god, and it is rare to read any deity being invoked or deity prayers in the entire text.

Mahakali Hindu Goddess

Mahakali, is the much revered Hindu mother goddess of time, death and doomsday. She Is the consort of Mahakala, the god of consciousness, the basis of reality and existence. Mahakali in Sanskrit is etymologically the feminized variant of Mahakala or Great Time, an epithet of the god Shiva in Hinduism. Kali and all her forms are the different manifestations of Mahakali.

<i>Devi-Bhagavata Purana</i> Hindu text

The Devi Bhagavata Purana, also known as the Shrimad Devi Bhagvatam and the Devi Bhagavatam, is a Sanskrit text that belongs to the Purana-genre of Hindu literature. The text is considered a Mahapurana of India.

The roots of Shaktism – a Hindu denomination that focuses worship upon Shakti or Devi, the Hindu Divine Mother – penetrate deeply into India's prehistory. From the Devi's earliest known appearance in Indian Paleolithic settlements more than 20,000 years ago, through the refinement of her cult in the Indus Valley Civilization, her partial eclipse during the Vedic period, and her subsequent resurfacing and expansion in Sanskrit tradition, it has been suggested that, in many ways, "the history of the Hindu tradition can be seen as a reemergence of the feminine."

Kali Hindu goddess associated with empowerment

Kali, also known as Kālikā or Shyāmā, is a Hindu goddess. Kali is the chief of the Mahavidyas, a group of ten Tantric goddesses.

Devi Goddess in Hinduism, supreme feminine principle

Devī is the Sanskrit word for "goddess"; the masculine form is Deva. Devi – the feminine form, and Deva – the masculine form, mean "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and are also gender specific terms for a deity in Hinduism.

Sumbha and Nisumbha The sworn enemies of goddess Mahakali

In the Hindu text the Devi Mahatmyam, Sumbha and Nisumbha, also spelled Shumbha and Nishumbha, were two Asuras that confronted, and were ultimately slain by Kaushiki.

Kaushiki(MahaSaraswati) is a Hindu goddess. She is an affiliation of Shakti and emerged from goddess Parvati Devi. Her beauty had attracted many asuras who met her as messengers in her glittering beautiful palace. She was a great woman warrior, raised on her fierce lion or tiger. This form of her fierce fire was the essence of her beauty. There are many temples for her worship. She also has 8 hands and Trishula, chakra, pestle, etc. in them. She is also known as Goddess Ambika in SkandaPuran and Devi Mahatmya who appeared from the body of Parvati and slayed the demons Shumbh and Nishumbh. She is also called Jwala Devi at her Shakti Peetha location. According to the Devi Mahatmya, her daughter is Chamunda, a goddess who was originally a deity of only some tribes in India.


Kalaratri is the seventh of the nine forms of the Goddess Durga, known as the Navadurga. She is first referenced in the Durga Saptashati, Chapters 81-93 of the Markandeya Purana, the earliest known literature on the Goddess Durga. Kalaratri is widely regarded as one of the many destructive forms of the Mother Goddess, which include Kali, Mahakali, Bhadrakali, Bhairavi, Mrityu, Rudrani, Chamunda, Chandi and Durga.

Adi Parashakti Hindu goddess

Adi Parashakti is considered the Supreme Being in the Shaktism sect of Hinduism. She is also popularly referred to as "Parama Shakti", "Adi Shakti", "Mahashakti", Mahadevi", "Mahagauri", "Mahakali", Satyam Shakti, or even simply as "Shakti". "Parama" means absolute, "Satya" means the Truth as per many Shakta texts. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana states that Adi Parashakti is the original creator, observer and destroyer of the universe. It is also believed that Goddess Parvati is the Adi Parashakti.

<i>Devi Upanishad</i> A goddess-related Hindu text

The Devi Upanishad, is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism and a text composed in Sanskrit. It is one of the 19 Upanishads attached to the Atharvaveda, and is classified as one of the eight Shakta Upanishads. It is, as an Upanishad, a part of the corpus of Vedanta literature collection that present the philosophical concepts of Hinduism.


  1. June McDaniel 2004, pp. 215-216.
  2. David Kinsley 1988, pp. 101-102.
  3. 1 2 Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 77 note 28.
  4. 1 2 Coburn 1991, pp. 13.
  5. 1 2 3 Coburn 2002, p. 1.
  6. 1 2 Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 86.
  7. 1 2 Coburn 1991, pp. 27-31.
  8. Constance Jones; James Ryan (2014). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 399. ISBN   978-0816054589.
  9. 1 2 Rocher 1986, pp. 191-192.
  10. Tracy Pintchman 2014, p. 20.
  11. June McDaniel 2004, pp. 215-216, 219-220.
  12. June McDaniel 2004, pp. 216-217.
  13. Coburn 2002, p. 1, 53-56, 280.
  14. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 426.
  15. David Kinsley 1988, pp. 101-105.
  16. Rocher 1986, p. 193.
  17. Kerkar, Rajendra. "Navratri celebrated in honour of Goddess Durga". Times of India.
  18. Dutt 1896, p. 4.
  19. 1 2 3 Dalal 2014, p. 118.
  20. Gavin Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism . Cambridge University Press. p.  181. ISBN   978-0-521-43878-0.
  21. David Kinsley 1997, pp. 30-35.
  22. Coburn, Thomas B., Devī Māhātmya. p 95
  23. "Evolution of Temple Architecture – Aihole-Badami- Pattadakal". UNESCO. 2004. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  24. 1 2 3 NB Saxena (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theology (Editors: Mary McClintock Fulkerson, Sheila Briggs). Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN   978-0-19-927388-1.
  25. 1 2 June McDaniel 2004, p. 90.
  26. 1 2 Cheever Mackenzie Brown 1998, p. 26.
  27. 1 2 The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith (Translator); for Sanskrit original see: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१२५
  28. Coburn 2002, p. 7.
  29. Rocher 1986, p. 191.
  30. Pandit Ram Karna Asopa (1911). "Dadhimati-Mata Inscription of Dhruhlana". In E. Hultzsch (ed.). Epigraphia Indica. XI. Government of India. p. 302.
  31. Katherine Anne Harper (1 February 2012). "The Warring Śaktis: A Paradigm for Gupta Conquests". The Roots of Tantra. SUNY Press. p. 117. ISBN   978-0-7914-8890-4.
  32. Charles Dillard Collins (1988). The Iconography and Ritual of Siva at Elephanta: On Life, Illumination, and Being. SUNY Press. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-88706-773-0.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 Thomas Coburn (2002). Katherine Anne Harper, Robert L. Brown (ed.). The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. pp. 79–81. ISBN   978-0-7914-5305-6.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Thomas Coburn (2002). Katherine Anne Harper, Robert L. Brown (ed.). The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. pp. 80–83. ISBN   978-0-7914-5305-6.
  35. James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, ISBN   9780823931798, page 265
  36. Alban Widgery (1930), The principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pages 234-237
  37. Tracy Pintchman 2015, pp. 131-132.
  38. Coburn 1991, pp. 157-158.
  39. Coburn 1991, p. 16.
  40. Coburn, Thomas B., Encountering the Goddess. p 100
  41. Kali, Davadatta, p. xvii
  42. "Devi". Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  43. 1 2 "Devi". Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  44. Laura Amazzone (2012). Goddess Durga and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. pp. 5–10. ISBN   978-0-7618-5314-5.
  45. Thomas B. Coburn. "3. The Text in Translation". Encountering the Goddess: A Translation of the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of Its Interpretation. State University of New York Press. pp. 29–86 (Complete translation). ISBN   978-0-7914-9931-3.
  46. 1 2 Thomas B. Coburn. Encountering the Goddess: A Translation of the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of Its Interpretation. State University of New York Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN   978-0-7914-9931-3.
  47. 1 2 3 4 Kali 2003, p. xvii.
  48. Coburn 2002, p. 72.
  49. Coburn, Thomas B., Devī Māhātmya. p 72
  50. Coburn 2002, p. 290.
  51. Coburn 2002, p. 291.
  52. Coburn 2002, p. 295.
  53. Coburn 2002, p. 298.
  54. Coburn, Thomas B., Encountering the Goddess.p 100–101
  55. Coburn, Thomas B., Encountering the Goddess.p 223
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 Swami Sivananda, p 3
  57. 1 2 Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Chaṇḍī Pāṭh
  58. 1 2 3 Sankaranarayanan. S., p 271–273
  59. Sarma, Sarayu Prasad, Saptashatī Sarvasvam
  60. Sri Durga Saptashatī, Gita Press
  61. Coburn, Thomas B., Devī Māhātmya. p 52
  62. Manna, Sibendu, p 92
  63. Swami Sivananda p 5
  64. Coburn 2002, p. 55.
  65. C Mackenzie Brown 1990, p. ix.
  66. Coburn, Thomas B., Devī Māhātmya. p 51–55
  67. Anna, p vii
  68. 1 2 Anna, p v