Genrikh Vasilevich Novozhilov (Russian : Ге́нрих Васи́льевич Новожи́лов; 27 October 1925 – 28 April 2019) was a Soviet and Russian aircraft designer. He was a key designer of multiple Ilyushin passenger aircraft including the Il-18, Il-62, Il-76, and Il-96.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
The public joint stock company Ilyushin Aviation Complex, operating as "Ilyushin" or as "Ilyushin Design Bureau", is a former Soviet and now a Russian aircraft manufacturer and design bureau, founded in 1933 by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin. Soviet/Russian nomenclature identifies aircraft from Ilyushin with the prefix "Il-". Ilyushin has its head office in Aeroport District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Ilyushin Il-18 is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era. The Il-18 was one of the world's principal airliners for several decades and was widely exported. Due to the aircraft's airframe durability, many examples achieved over 45,000 flight hours and the type remains operational in both military and civilian capacities. The Il-18's successor was the long range Il-62 jet airliner.
Novozhilov was born on 27 October 1925 in Moscow, Soviet Union, the son of military engineer Vasily Vasilyevich Sokolov, and his wife Iraida Ivanova Novozhilova, a servicewoman.The family lived near Clean Ponds, where one of his neighbours in the communal apartment worked in civil aviation. His parents divorced in 1937, with Novozhilov raised by his mother and attending School No. 233 V.R. Menzhinsky. The young Novozhilov aspired to be a pilot, but in September 1939 he suffered a severe leg injury, having to undergo several operations at the Botkin Hospital . He later recalled that "They plowed up the leg from the knee to the foot," ending his dreams of being a pilot. He was also keen on photography, with some of his work exhibited at the 1st All-Union Children's Photo Exhibition in 1939. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Novozhilov and his mother were temporarily evacuated to Penza. They returned to Moscow in August 1942, where Novozhilov began work at the physics department of the Moscow Aviation Institute, and a year later became a student in the aircraft-construction department. Here he first met Sergey Ilyushin when Ilyushin attended the faculty's graduation banquet. Novozhilov would later recall Ilyushin's spontaneity, and his skill at dancing and singing.
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
The term serviceman, alternatively service member, refers to non-commissioned members of armed forces. More generally, the term can be applied to officers as well.
Novozhilov then began an internship at OKB-240, the design bureau overseen by Sergey Ilyushin. He was duly enrolled as a design engineer on 1 July 1948, with a salary of 900 rubles.He graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute in 1949 and continued to work at the bureau. He participated in the design of the Il-14 passenger aircraft, as well as military planes including the attack aircraft Il-40 and the bombers Il-46 and Il-54. During his early years Novozhilov specialised in fuselage design, under the tutelage of Valery Bogor . The Ilyushin design bureau was often in competition with the designs produced by Tupolev design bureau. Ilyushin designs that Novozhilov helped to work on at this time included the Il-14 passenger aircraft, the two-seater attack jet Il-40 and the bomber Il-46. Eventually Tupolev's rival offering, the Tu-14, was adopted for the Soviet Air Force instead of the Il-46. Novozhilov instead worked as lead engineer on the Il-54. The Il-54 was also cancelled by the Soviet government in the mid-1950s with only two prototypes built. By the late 1950s, with Soviet interests fixed on the Space Race, the Ilyushin design bureau faced closure. In 1956 Novozhilov was elected secretary of the bureau's party committee, but returned to engineering in September 1958, being tasked as appointed deputy chief designer of the passenger aircraft Il-18, and their operation with Aeroflot. Novozhilov attempted to avoid the appointment, arguing that he had not been involved with building the aircraft, nor was he very familiar with their operation. Ilyushin was unconvinced. Novozhilov therefore had to travel widely in his new capacity, as well as working with emergency commissions after accidents to determine their causes, and develop preventative measures. Novozhilov would later admit that this proved particularly useful experience for him, and was necessary for developing his design interests.
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian initials of "Опытное конструкторское бюро" – Opytnoye Konstruktorskoye Buro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau. During the Soviet era, OKBs were closed institutions working on design and prototyping of advanced technology, usually for military applications.
The Ilyushin Il-14 was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954. Il-14 was also manufactured in East Germany by VVB Flugzeugbau, in Czechoslovakia as the Avia 14. The Ilyushin Il-14 was typically replaced by the Antonov An-24 and Yakovlev Yak-40.
The Ilyushin Il-40 was a two-seat Soviet jet-engined armored ground-attack aircraft. The first prototype flew in 1953 and was very successful except when it fired its guns, as their combustion gasses disturbed the airflow into the engines and caused them to flameout or hiccup. Remedying this problem took over a year and involved the radical change of moving the engine air intakes all the way to the very front of the aircraft and repositioning the guns from the tip of the nose to the bottom of the fuselage, just behind the nosewheel. The aircraft, now resembling a double-barreled shotgun from the front, was ordered into production in 1955. Only five production aircraft had been completed before the entire program was canceled in early 1956 when the VVS discarded its close air-support doctrine in favor of tactical nuclear weapons on the battlefield.
In 1964 Novozhilov was appointed first deputy general designer and tasked with overseeing the development and mass production of the Il-62. His success at this led to the award of the Lenin Prize in early 1970 to members of the Ilyushin bureau, including Novozhilov.On 26 April 1971 Novozhilov was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labour after the completion of the state's eighth five-year plan. In mid 1970 Sergey Ilyushin, then aged 77, announced his retirement and on 28 July, in the presence of Aviation Industry Minister Pyotr Vasilyevich Dementyev , Novozhilov was named as his successor and general designer of the Moscow bureau of the "Strela" works. On 25 March the following year the Il-76, a military transport aircraft, began its test flights at Khodynka Aerodrome, overseen by Novozhilov with Sergei Ilyushin in attendance. It became the most popular passenger and military transport aircraft of the Soviet Union.
The Ilyushin IL-62 is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin. As successor to the popular turboprop Il-18 and with capacity for almost 200 passengers and crew, the Il-62 was the world's largest jet airliner when first flown in 1963. One of four pioneering long-range designs, it was the first such type to be operated by the Soviet Union and a number of allied nations.
The Lenin Prize was one of the most prestigious awards of the Soviet Union for accomplishments relating to science, literature, arts, architecture, and technology. It was originally created on June 23, 1925 and awarded until 1934. During the period from 1935 to 1956, the Lenin Prize was not awarded, being replaced largely by the Stalin Prize. On August 15, 1956, it was reestablished, and continued to be awarded on every even-numbered year until 1990. The award ceremony was April 22, Vladimir Lenin's birthday.
Hero of Socialist Labour was an honourary title of the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries. It was the highest degree of distinction for exceptional achievements in national economy and culture. It provided a similar status to the title Hero of the Soviet Union that was awarded for heroic deeds, but unlike the latter, was not awarded to foreign citizens.
Since 1969 the design bureau had been developing the first Russian wide-body passenger aircraft, the Il-86. There was now great demand for long distance high capacity civil aviation, and the government had stipulated a nominal range of 2,400 kilometres.As Novozhilov was returning from Sochi with Aviation Industry Minister Pyotr Dementyev and the Minister of Civil Aviation Boris Bugayev, he noted that the bureau was investigating potentially doubling the range of the Il-86. The ministers promptly made him sign to commit the new aircraft to a new stipulated range of 5,000 kilometres. After considering developments of the IL-62 and IL-76 designs, Novozhilov and his team produced a completely new design capable of such range while carrying 350 passengers. The first testflight of the new IL-86 took place on 22 December 1976. After it was successfully concluded, Novozhilov promptly ordered another the following day, and then three further ones before the New Year. He co-founded the MAKS Air Show, and led the work on the long-haul IL-96-300 and Il-114 turboprop. Since 2006, Novozhilov served as Chief Science Adviser to Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-86 is a short- to medium-range wide-body jet airliner. It was the USSR's first wide-body and the world's second four-engined wide-body. Designed and tested by the Ilyushin design bureau in the 1970s, it was certified by the Soviet aircraft industry, manufactured and marketed by the USSR.
Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers (1,361 sq mi) and sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains. The area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi). According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334, up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census, making it Russia's largest resort city. Being part of the Caucasian Riviera, it is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.
The Ministry of Civil Aviation was a government ministry in the Soviet Union.
Novozhilov had been a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 15 March 1979, and on 26 December 1984 he was elected a full member for his work in the separation of mechanics and control processes.His scientific work was related to "aerodynamic research, the reliability of complex structures, the development of fundamentally new approaches to the so-called manufacturability of the machines and mechanisms being developed". Novozhilov held some 150 patents on various design innovations, and on 23 June 1981 he was awarded his second Hero of Socialist Labour.
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
Novozhilov served as a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 1974 to 1989, then as a People's Deputy of the USSR from 1989.He became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1986. As well as his two Heroes of Socialist Labour, Novozhilov held a number of other state awards. He was awarded the Order of Lenin three times, on 10 February 1969, 26 April 1971 and 23 June 1981; the Order of the October Revolution on 27 October 1975; the Order of the Red Banner of Labour on 22 July 1966; the Order of the Badge of Honour on 7 December 1957; and the Order of Friendship of Peoples on 29 December 1992. He also received the Order of Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow Third Class and the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" in all three classes. He had married Lyudmila Ivanovna Lisina, a philologist on 23 April 1966. The couple had a son, Sergey Genrikhovich, born in 1967, who became an aircraft engineer. Late in life Genrikh Novozhilov listed his interests as tennis and photography.
Novozhilov died on 28 April 2019 at the age of 93.He was buried on 7 May at the Federal Military Memorial Cemetery.
Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was a Soviet-Belarusian aerospace engineer. He designed the Sukhoi military aircraft until the 1970s, and founded the Sukhoi Design Bureau.
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Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin was a Soviet aircraft designer who founded the Ilyushin aircraft design bureau.
The Ilyushin Il-96 is a Russian quadjet long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Russia. It is powered by four Aviadvigatel PS-90 two-shaft turbofan engines.
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Moscow Aviation Institute founded in 1930 is one of several major engineering higher education establishments in Moscow. Since its inception MAI has been spearheading advances in aerospace technology both within Russia and worldwide. The university laid emphasis on laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering, specific to demands of the aerospace industry. During World War II part of the university was evacuated to Almaty Kazakhstan, the university, staff and students continued to work on research and wartime production throughout the war. During the Post-War period, the university expanded and assimilated new technologies during the Jet age. Research conducted in the university contributed to heralding the space age.
Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov was an officer in the Soviet secret police and its highest-ranking defector. His subsequent disappearance has been subject to controversy and speculation by journalists and scholars.
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Aeroflot Flight 245 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight operated by an Ilyushin Il-18B that crashed during the cruise phase of the flight en route to Sochi on Wednesday 17 December 1961, resulting in the death of all 59 people on board. An investigation revealed the aircraft entered a steep dive after the flaps were accidentally extended.