|Non-ministerial government department overview|
|Headquarters||Finlaison House, 15-17 Furnival Street, London, EC4A 1AB|
|Annual budget||£0 (2019-2020) (taxpayer liability only)|
|Non-ministerial government department executive|
The Government Actuary’s Department (GAD) provides actuarial solutions including risk analysis, modelling and advice to support the UK public sector. It is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
GAD applies the actuarial profession's technical skills, consultancy discipline, high standards of professionalism and industry sector knowledge to solve financial challenges faced by the UK public sector.
The department is part of the analysis function in government responsible for providing actuarial advice to public sector clients. Its mission is to improve the stewardship of the public sector finances by supporting effective decision-making and robust financial reporting through actuarial analysis, modelling and advice.
The GAD 2025 Strategyfocuses on 4 main areas; clients, people, inclusion and processes, setting out aims and priorities in each section.
GAD provides actuarial and specialist analysis, advice and assurance in:
In 1912 the Government appointed a chief actuary to the National Health Insurance Joint Committee, following the Old Age Pensions Act 1908 and the National Insurance Act 1911. As the role of the Chief Actuary expanded, the post of Government Actuary was created in 1917. The Government Actuary's Department was formed 2 years later.
The role of GAD within government expanded significantly in the 1940s and 1950s, coinciding with an expansion of the state’s role in pensions, social security and health care.
By the 1980s GAD had grown into a significant actuarial consultancy within government and in 1989 the financing of GAD through an annual Parliamentary vote of funds was replaced by a system of directly charging users of GAD’s services. The calculation of GAD's fees is based solely on the recovery of its costs.
GAD has about 200 people across 2 offices (London and Edinburgh), of whom around 165 are actuaries and analysts.
The government actuary is the individual actuary that is responsible for the overall running and leadership of GAD.The holders of this role have been:
An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty. The name of the corresponding field is actuarial science. These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management, and valuation skills. Actuaries provide assessments of financial security systems, with a focus on their complexity, their mathematics, and their mechanisms.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance, and other industries and professions. More generally, actuaries apply rigorous mathematics to model matters of uncertainty.
The International Actuarial Association (IAA) is a worldwide association of local professional actuarial associations.
A financial analyst is a professional, undertaking financial analysis for external or internal clients as a core feature of the job. The role may specifically be titled securities analyst, research analyst, equity analyst, investment analyst, or ratings analyst. The job title is a broad one: in banking, and industry more generally, various other analyst-roles cover financial management and (credit) risk management, as opposed to focusing on investments and valuation; these are also discussed in this article. The term “financial analyst” is not usually taken to include quantitative analysts, or “quants”.
The Institute of Actuaries was one of the two professional bodies which represented actuaries in the United Kingdom. The Institute was based in England, while the other body, the Faculty of Actuaries, was based in Scotland. While the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries were separate institutions, they worked very closely together, and their professional qualifications and actuarial standards were identical. On 25 May 2010, voting members of the Institute who took part in a ballot voted to merge the Institute with the Faculty, thus creating the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, which came into being on 1 August 2010. The Institute of Actuaries ceased to exist on that date.
Christopher David Daykin CB is a British actuary and civil servant. He was the head of the United Kingdom Government Actuary’s Department (GAD) from 1989 to 2007 where he worked on social security, pension fund consultancy, national pension policy, population projections, risk management and pension reform. He is the second-longest holder of the post.
The Equitable Life Assurance Society, founded in 1762, is a life insurance company in the United Kingdom. The world's oldest mutual insurer, it pioneered age-based premiums based on mortality rate, laying "the framework for scientific insurance practice and development" and "the basis of modern life assurance upon which all life assurance schemes were subsequently based". After closing to new business in 2000, parts of the business were sold off and the remainder of the company became a subsidiary of Utmost Life and Pensions in January 2020.
The Canadian Institute of Actuaries (CIA) is the national organization of the actuarial profession in Canada. It was incorporated on March 18, 1965. The FCIA designation stands for Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries. As the national organization of the Canadian actuarial profession, the CIA means to serve the public through the provision by the profession of actuarial services and advice by: representing the Canadian actuarial profession in the formulation of public policy; promoting the advancement of actuarial science and sponsoring programs for the education and qualification of CIA members and prospective members; ensuring that actuarial services provided by its members meet accepted professional standards; and assisting actuaries in Canada in the discharge of their professional responsibilities.
The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) is an independent regulator in the UK and Ireland, responsible for regulating auditors, accountants and actuaries, and setting the UK's Corporate Governance and Stewardship Codes. The FRC seeks to promote transparency and integrity in business by aiming its work at investors and others who rely on company reports, audits and high-quality risk management.
Insurance in India refers to the market for insurance in India which covers both the public and private sector organisations. It is listed in the Constitution of India in the Seventh Schedule as a Union List subject, meaning it can only be legislated by the Central Government only.
The Office of the Chief Actuary is a government agency that has responsibility for actuarial estimates regarding social welfare programs. In Canada, the Office of the Chief Actuary works with the Canada Pension Plan and the Old Age Security Program. In the United States, both the Social Security Administration and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have an Office of the Chief Actuary that deals with Social Security and Medicare, respectively. A similar agency in the United Kingdom is called the Government Actuary's Department (GAD).
The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions is an independent agency of the Government of Canada reporting to the Minister of Finance created "to contribute to public confidence in the Canadian financial system". It is the sole regulator of banks, and the primary regulator of insurance companies, trust companies, loan companies and pension plans in Canada.
An enrolled actuary is an actuary enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Enrolled actuaries, under regulations of the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Labor, perform a variety of tasks with respect to pension plans in the United States under ERISA. As of July, 2020, there were approximately 3,500 enrolled actuaries.
The three British National Insurance Funds hold the contributions of the National Insurance Scheme, set up by the Government of the United Kingdom in 1911. It was reformed in 1948 and assumed broadly its current form in 1975, when the separate National Insurance and National Insurance (Reserve) Funds were merged with it. In the Beveridge Report this was the basis of a universal insurance system for all British people. "first and foremost a plan of insurance – of giving in return for contributions benefits up to subsistence levels, as of right and without means test, so that individuals may build freely upon it".
Tillinghast was the world's largest actuarial practice focused on insurance and a unit of Towers Perrin specializing in risk management and actuarial consulting. The Tillinghast business of Towers Perrin provided consulting and software solutions to insurance and financial services companies and advised other organizations on risk financing and self-insurance. In January 2010, Towers Perrin merged with Watson Wyatt Worldwide to form Towers Watson where Tillinghast became part of the risk management group.
EMB Consultancy, also known as EMB Actuaries and Consultants, is an international actuarial business consultancy and software provider. EMB was originally established as a strategic and actuarial advisor to non-life insurers. The company has developed and now operates in a growing range of business functions and sectors, such as banking, investments, asset management, fraud prevention, risk enterprise management, mergers and acquisitions and marketing. These are areas where the widespread collection and use of data and financial models have become commonplace.
The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries is the professional body which represents and regulates actuaries in the United Kingdom.
Philip Booth is a British economist. He is Dean of the Faculty of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences at St Mary's University, Twickenham and Senior Academic Fellow at the Institute of Economic Affairs. His primary areas of research and writing are social insurance, financial regulation and Catholic social teaching.
ZB Bank Limited (ZBBL), also known as ZB Bank but commonly referred to as Zimbank, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe. It is licensed by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, the central bank and national banking regulator.
Sir Alfred William Watson KCB FIA was a British actuary and civil servant. In 1917 he became Britain's first government actuary and was very influential in setting up the funding by National Insurance for the newly introduced state pension.