Hollywood

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Hollywood, California
Hollywood sign hill view.jpg
Hollywood as seen from the Hollywood Sign
Map of Hollywood district, Los Angeles, California.png
Map of the Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles
as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
Location map Los Angeles.png
Red pog.svg
Hollywood, California
Location within Central Los Angeles
Coordinates: 34°6′0″N118°20′0″W / 34.10000°N 118.33333°W / 34.10000; -118.33333
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of California.svg  California
CityFlag of Los Angeles, California.svg  Los Angeles
Elevation
[1]
108 m (354 ft)
Area code 323
Primary Airport Los Angeles International Airport
LAX (Major/International)
Secondary Airport Hollywood Burbank Airport-
BUR (Regional) Van Nuys Airport-
VNY (Regional) Long Beach Airport-
LGB (Regional)
U.S. Routes US 101 (CA).svg US 101
State Routes California 2.svg SR 2
Rapid Transit LAMetroLogo.svg LACMTA Circle Red Line.svg

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California, notable as the home of the U.S. film industry including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.

Central Los Angeles is a 57.87-square-mile region of Los Angeles County, California, comprising twenty-three neighborhoods within the city of Los Angeles, as well as Griffith Park, the city's largest public park.

Los Angeles City in California

Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known colloquially by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California and the second most populous city in the United States, after New York. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. Nicknamed the "City of Angels" partly because of its name's Spanish meaning, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, and the entertainment industry, and sprawling metropolis.

California State of the United States of America

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

Contents

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. [2] [3] It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. [4] [5]

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

A merger, consolidation or amalgamation, in a political or administrative sense, is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities, such as municipalities, counties, districts, etc., into a single entity. This term is used when the process occurs within a sovereign entity.

Film industry technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking

The film industry or motion picture industry, comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve.

History

Early history and development

In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.

Adobe Building material made from earth and organic materials

Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick, but in some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, the term is used to refer to any kind of earth construction. Most adobe buildings are similar in appearance to cob and rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, and is used throughout the world.

Nopal Fruit of the Opuntia cactus

Nopal (from the Nahuatl word nohpalli[noʔˈpalːi] for the pads of the plant) is a common name in Spanish for Opuntia cacti, as well as for its pads.

<i>Opuntia</i> genus of plants seen throughout India in dry areas

Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Prickly pears are also known as tuna (fruit), sabra, nopal from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit; or paddle cactus. The genus is named for the Ancient Greek city of Opus, where, according to Theophrastus, an edible plant grew and could be propagated by rooting its leaves. The most common culinary species is the Indian fig opuntia.

According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, also known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning 'hauling wood.' H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. [6] "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States. [7] [8]

Original 480 acre map of H. J. Whitley property developed by his company, Los Angeles Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Highland Avenue runs through the center of the property. The square at the lower right hand corner is the Whitley Estate and was not part of the Grand View development. Hollywood Grand View Track Map2.tif
Original 480 acre map of H. J. Whitley property developed by his company, Los Angeles Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Highland Avenue runs through the center of the property. The square at the lower right hand corner is the Whitley Estate and was not part of the Grand View development.

Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres (190 ha) E.C. Hurd ranch. They agreed on a price and shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times , and Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area.

Harrison Gray Otis (publisher) president and general manager of the Times-Mirror Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times

Harrison Gray Otis was the president and general manager of the Times-Mirror Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times.

<i>Los Angeles Times</i> Daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the east coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. west coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.

Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now called Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s. Glen-Holly-Hotel-1890.jpg
Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now called Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s.

Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's. [9] [10] She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887. It wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year.

Daeida Hartell Wilcox Beveridge donated land to help in the development of Hollywood, west of Los Angeles, California, in 1887.

Harvey Henderson Wilcox American developer, businessperson, city founder

Harvey Henderson Wilcox owned a ranch west of the city of Los Angeles, which his wife Daeida named Hollywood, and that they founded together in 1887. Hollywood became the center of the movie industry of the United States in the early 1910s.

By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.

The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907 Hollywood&Highland-1907.jpg
The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907
Newspaper advertisement for Hollywood land sales, 1908
HJ Whitley is the man standing on the left wearing a bowler hat. The building at the left is the Hollywood Hotel on the corner of Highland Ave. and Hollywood Blvd. HJWhitley Hollywood Hotel ca 1904.jpg
HJ Whitley is the man standing on the left wearing a bowler hat. The building at the left is the Hollywood Hotel on the corner of Highland Ave. and Hollywood Blvd.

The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. [11]

Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. [12] Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue. [13] [14] His 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him.

Incorporation and merger

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals. [15]

In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were also changed. [16]

Motion picture industry

Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie studio, 1912 NestorStudios-Hollywood-1913.jpg
Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie studio, 1912

By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles. [17] In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easy to evade, because the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals–which covered most of Southern California–was known to rule against patent claims. [18] Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States. [19] The mountains, plains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. [20]

Hollywood movie studios, 1922 Hollywood-Studios-1922.jpg
Hollywood movie studios, 1922

Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company. [21] [22] [23] Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction. [24] The first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. [25] The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, and the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard. [26] [27]

The first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard (the corner of Gower), in October 1911. [28] Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. [19] By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became fully vertically integrated, as production, distribution and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. [20]

Hollywood became known as Tinseltown [29] and the "dream factory" [20] because of the glittering image of the movie industry. Hollywood has since become a major center for film study in the United States.

Development

Hollywood Boulevard as seen from the Dolby Theatre, prior to 2006 Hollywood boulevard from kodak theatre.jpg
Hollywood Boulevard as seen from the Dolby Theatre, prior to 2006
Capitol Records Tower, 1991 Capitol Records Building LA.jpg
Capitol Records Tower, 1991

In 1923, a large sign, reading HOLLYWOODLAND, was built in the Hollywood Hills. Its purpose was to advertise a housing development. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce entered a contract with the City of Los Angeles to repair and rebuild the sign. The agreement stipulated that "LAND" be removed to spell "HOLLYWOOD" so the sign would now refer to the district, rather than the housing development. [30]

During the early 1950s, the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.

The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960. [31] [32] [33]

The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).

The Dolby Theatre, which opened in 2001 as the Kodak Theatre at the Hollywood & Highland Center mall, is the home of the Oscars. The mall is located where the historic Hollywood Hotel once stood.

Revitalization

After years of serious decline in the 1980s, many Hollywood landmarks were threatened with demolition. [34] Columbia Square, at the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street, is part of the ongoing rebirth of Hollywood. The Art Deco-style studio complex completed in 1938, which was once the Hollywood headquarters for CBS, became home to a new generation of broadcasters when cable television networks MTV, Comedy Central, BET and Spike TV consolidated their offices here in 2014 as part of a $420-million office, residential and retail complex. [35] Since 2000, Hollywood has been increasingly gentrified due to revitalization by private enterprise and public planners. [36] [37] [38]

Secession movement

In 2002, some Hollywood voters began a campaign for the area to secede from Los Angeles and become a separate municipality. In June of that year, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession referendums for both Hollywood and the San Fernando Valley on the ballot. To pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of Los Angeles. In the November election, both measures failed by wide margins in the citywide vote. [39]

Geography

According to the Mapping L.A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Hollywood is flanked by Hollywood Hills to the north, Los Feliz to the northeast, East Hollywood or Virgil Village to the east, Larchmont and Hancock Park to the south, Fairfax to the southwest, West Hollywood to the west and Hollywood Hills West to the northwest. [40]

Street limits of the Hollywood neighborhood are: north, Hollywood Boulevard from La Brea Avenue to the east boundary of Wattles Garden Park and Franklin Avenue between Bonita and Western avenues; east, Western Avenue; south, Melrose Avenue, and west, La Brea Avenue or the West Hollywood city line. [41] [42]

In 1918, H. J. Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean-style village on the hills above Hollywood Boulevard, and it became the first celebrity community. [43] [44] [45]

Other areas within Hollywood are Franklin Village, Little Armenia, Spaulding Square, Thai Town, [41] and Yucca Corridor. [46] [47]

Climate

Climate data for Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)91
(33)
91
(33)
94
(34)
103
(39)
97
(36)
108
(42)
103
(39)
98
(37)
108
(42)
103
(39)
99
(37)
94
(34)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C)66.5
(19.2)
66.9
(19.4)
67.4
(19.7)
70.2
(21.2)
70.6
(21.4)
72.8
(22.7)
77.2
(25.1)
79.4
(26.3)
77.9
(25.5)
74.8
(23.8)
71.3
(21.8)
66.7
(19.3)
71.8
(22.1)
Average low °F (°C)50.5
(10.3)
50.8
(10.4)
51.3
(10.7)
53.2
(11.8)
55.8
(13.2)
57.5
(14.2)
61.5
(16.4)
62.4
(16.9)
61.7
(16.5)
58.8
(14.9)
55.2
(12.9)
50.7
(10.4)
55.8
(13.2)
Record low °F (°C)30
(−1)
36
(2)
37
(3)
40
(4)
45
(7)
44
(7)
52
(11)
51
(11)
48
(9)
40
(4)
33
(1)
33
(1)
30
(−1)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.99
(101)
5.23
(133)
2.84
(72)
0.97
(25)
0.31
(7.9)
0.11
(2.8)
0.02
(0.51)
0.05
(1.3)
0.25
(6.4)
0.91
(23)
1.36
(35)
2.75
(70)
18.79
(477.91)
Source: The Weather Channel [48]

Adjacent neighborhoods

Relation of Hollywood to nearby communities: [40] [42]

The Hollywood Sign on Mount Lee is not actually in Hollywood but is instead to the north in the Hollywood Hills. [41]

Demographics

The 2000 U.S. census counted 77,818 residents in the 3.51-square-mile (9.1 km2) Hollywood neighborhood—an average of 22,193 people per square mile (8,569 per km2), the seventh-densest neighborhood in all of Los Angeles County. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 85,489. The median age for residents was 31, about the city's average. [41]

Hollywood was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latino or Hispanic, 42.2%, Non-Hispanic Whites, 41%; Asian, 7.1%; blacks, 5.2%, and others, 4.5%. [41] Mexico (21.3%) and Guatemala (13%) were the most common places of birth for the 53.8% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure that was considered high for the city as a whole. [41]

The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,694, considered low for Los Angeles. The average household size of 2.1 people was also lower than the city norm. Renters occupied 92.4% of the housing units, and home- or apartment owners the rest. [41]

The percentages of never-married men (55.1%), never-married women (39.8%) and widows (9.6%) were among the county's highest. There were 2,640 families headed by single parents, about average for Los Angeles. [41]

In 2000, there were 2,828 military veterans, or 4.5%, a low rate for the city as a whole. [41] These were the ten neighborhoods or cities in Los Angeles County with the highest population densities, according to the 2000 census, with the population per square mile: [49]

Radio and television

Walk of Fame Aleja Gwiazd w Hollywood 84.JPG
Walk of Fame

KNX was the last radio station to broadcast from Hollywood before it left CBS Columbia Square for a studio in the Miracle Mile in 2005. [50]

On January 22, 1947, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began operating in Hollywood. In December of that year, The Public Prosecutor became the first network television series to be filmed in Hollywood.Television stations KTLA and KCET, both on Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters (television or radio) with Hollywood addresses, but KCET has since sold its studios on Sunset and plans to move to another location. KNBC moved in 1962 from the former NBC Radio City Studios at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studios in Burbank. KTTV moved in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Square on Sunset Boulevard to West Los Angeles, and KCOP left its home on La Brea Avenue to join KTTV on the Fox lot. KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV moved from their longtime home at CBS Columbia Square on Sunset Boulevard to a new facility at CBS Studio Center in Studio City.

Government

Hollywood Post Office building, 2015 Hollywood, California, post office building, with palm trees, 2015.jpg
Hollywood Post Office building, 2015
Fire Station 27, 2010 LAFD Station - 27.JPG
Fire Station 27, 2010
Hollywood High School, 2008 HollywoodHighSchool.jpg
Hollywood High School, 2008

As a neighborhood within the Los Angeles city limits, Hollywood does not have its own municipal government. There was an official, appointed by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, who served as an honorary "Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial purposes only. Johnny Grant held this position from 1980 until his death on January 9, 2008. [51]

Emergency service

The Los Angeles Police Department is responsible for police services. The Hollywood police station is at 1358 N. Wilcox Ave.

Los Angeles Fire Department operates four fire stations – Station 27, 41, 52, and 82 – in the area.

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Hollywood-Wilshire Health Center in Hollywood. [52]

Post office

The United States Postal Service operates the Hollywood Post Office, [53] the Hollywood Pavilion Post Office, [54] and the Sunset Post Office. [55]

Neighborhood councils

Hollywood is included within the Hollywood United Neighborhood Council (HUNC) [56] Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council [57] [58] and the Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council. [59] [60] Neighborhood Councils cast advisory votes on such issues as zoning, planning, and other community issues. The council members are voted in by stakeholders, generally defined as anyone living, working, owning property, or belonging to an organization within the boundaries of the council. [61]

Education

Hollywood residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 28% of the population in 2000, about the same as in the county at large. [41]

Schools

Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD).

Schools in Hollywood include:

Public libraries

The Will and Ariel Durant Branch and the Frances Howard Goldwyn – Hollywood Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library are in Hollywood.

The Chinese Theatre before 2007 Grauman's Chinese Theatre, by Carol Highsmith fixed & straightened.jpg
The Chinese Theatre before 2007
Crossroads of the World Crossroads of the World.jpg
Crossroads of the World
The Dolby Theatre Dolby Theatre v2.jpg
The Dolby Theatre

Notable places

Special events

See also

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References

  1. "Hollywood". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved January 7, 2018.
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  3. "Hollywood Was Once an Alcohol-Free Community". By Rachel Nuwer of smithsonianmag.com . Retrieved February 22, 2014.
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Coordinates: 34°06′N118°20′W / 34.100°N 118.333°W / 34.100; -118.333