Janggala

Last updated

Janggala
1045–1136
Kediri Kingdom.svg
Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) kingdom, later unified as Kediri kingdom
CapitalHujung Galuh (Surabaya)
Common languages Old Javanese, Sanskrit
Religion
Kejawen, Hinduism, Buddhism, Animism
GovernmentMonarchy
Raja 
History 
  Airlangga divided his kingdom into Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri)
1045
 Kameswara of Kadiri married a princess of the Kingdom of Janggala, uniting the two
1136
CurrencyNative gold and silver coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Kahuripan
Kediri (historical kingdom) Blank.png

The Kingdom of Janggala is one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons in 1045. The other Kingdom was Kediri. [1] :147 The Kingdom of Janggala comprised the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Kahuripan.

Contents

Etymology

The name Janggala was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh located on the estuarine of Brantas river and today is the part of modern Surabaya city. This city served as an important port since the era of Kahuripan, Janggala, until the era of Kediri, Singhasari, and Majapahit. During Singhasari and Majapahit period the name of the port is changed back to Hujung Galuh.

Overview

Not much is known about the Kingdom of Janggala because the Kingdom of Kediri was the more dominant of the two. Janggala and Kediri were again united when the raja of Kadiri, Kameswara (1116–1136) married a princess of the Kingdom of Janggala, at which point the Kingdom of Janggala ceased to exist.

Kadiri and Janggala

Airlangga was the last great king of the Mataram kingdom of Java. At the end of his life he decided to divide his kingdom between his two sons which was Kadiri and Djanggala. “After establishing his kingdom between his two sons and he himself retired to life of monastic contemplation.” [2] Here we learn that Airlangga even before he died handed over his kingdom to retire to his own personal thought and meditation. This of course seems to be like what we in the world today do with our families in handing over our business to our younger sons in order for us to retire and live in relaxation. In this division Colin Brown writes in the book, A Short History of Indonesia, “The western portion of Mataram became Kadiri, the eastern part Janggala.” [3] A century later Kadiri took over the eastern Janggala empire under the command of Jayabaya in 1135-1157. As well as Janggala Kadiri also took control of Bali and Kalimantan.

Another account of Kadiri is by the author previously mentioned by J. D. Legge. He states that, “The successor kingdoms of Kadiri and Djanggala were in due course reunited under Ken Angrok who had usurped the throne of Djanggala and who founded the dynasty of Singhosari.” [2]

Putting this all together Kadiri, According to Brown, collapsed in 1222 defeated by the state of Tumapel in the Brantas River valley in the Malang region under the command of previously mentioned Ken Angrok. With this information we can state that Kadiri took over Djanggala and succeeded in ruling for a time until the coming of their neighbour Ken Angrok who took Kadiri over and assimilated into his domain. [1] :185

See also

Related Research Articles

Majapahit Empire based on the island of Java from 1293 to around 1500

The Majapahit was a Javanese Hindu thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java. It existed from 1293 to circa 1527 and reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquests that extended throughout Southeast Asia. His achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada. According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea; consisting of present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, East Timor, southwestern Philippines although the scope of Majapahit sphere of influence is still the subject of debate among historians. The nature of Majapahit relations and influences upon its overseas vassals, and also its status as an empire are still provoking discussions.

Nusantara Sociopolitical term for Maritime Southeast Asia

Nusantara is a historical Old Javanese term which literally means "outer islands"; in essence referring to the islands surrounding Java. The word is taken from an oath by Gajah Mada in 1336, as written in the Old Javanese Pararaton and Nagarakretagama: Gajah Mada was a powerful military leader and prime minister of Majapahit credited with bringing the empire to its peak of glory. Gajah Mada delivered an oath called Sumpah Palapa, in which he vowed not to eat any food containing spices until he had conquered all of Nusantara under the glory of Majapahit.

Singhasari Kingdom on the island of Java (1222-1292)

Singhasari was an Indianized Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name is cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city.

Kediri Kingdom Javanese kingdom, ca 1042-1222

Kediri or Kadiri was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature. Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradhana blossomed in this era. The kingdom's capital is believed to have been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency.

The Ratu Adil, literally meaning Just Queen/King, is a messianic figure found in Indonesian folklore, more precisely in Javanese tradition. It is believed that he will establish universal peace and justice in the manner of similar figures, such as King Arthur in European folklore. The Ratu Adil is first mentioned in the Pralembang Joyoboyo, the set of prophecies ascribed to the 12th century King Jayabaya of Kediri. The Ratu Adil is described in Jayabaya's prophecies, also according to the 19th century poet Ranggawarsita; as a figure who has an exceptional ability to lead the country.

Ken Arok, Rajasa, was the founder and first ruler of Singhasari, a medieval Indianized Hindu–Buddhist kingdom in the East Java area of Indonesia. He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of the Singhasari and Majapahit line of monarchs. He came from humble origins but subsequently rose to be the most powerful ruler in Java. His life was coloured with adventures, treacheries, and tragedies.

The Pararaton, also known as the Katuturanira Ken Angrok, is a Javanese historical chronicle written in Kawi. The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages contains the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in eastern Java.

The Isyana dynasty, rulers of the Kingdom of Mataram, was a dynasty of the Hindu Mataram Kingdom on the island of Java. It followed the Sanjaya dynasty, and was established by Mpu Sindok, who moved the capital of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java around the year 929. Coedes states, "Sindok, under his reign name Sri Isyana Vikramadharmatungadeva, was always considered the founder of Javanese power in the east of the island." Mpu Sindok's daughter and successor was Isanatungavijaya, who in turn was succeeded by her son Makutavamsavardhana, followed by Dharmawangsa. The reign of the Isyana Dynasty came to an end when the Sriwijaya empire attacked and destroyed the capital in 1016-1017.

Raden Wijaya 13th-century Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of the Majapahit Empire. The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama. His rule was marked by the victory against the army and the navy of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty.

Airlangga Monarch of Javanese Hindu kingdom Kahuripan

Airlangga, regnal name Rakai Halu Sri Lokeswara Dharmawangsa Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa, was the only raja of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. The Kingdom was built from the territory of the Kingdom of Medang after Medang was sacked by king Wurawari of Lwaram. He gradually gained support, won back the kingdom once ruled by his uncle, and went on to become one of Java's most notable kings. Airlangga literally means "jumping water", thus his name means "he who crossed the water", described his life story; born in the court of Bali and during his youth crossed the Bali Strait to stay in Java and later ruled the kingdom in East Java. He belongs to both Isyana and Warmadewa lineages.

Kediri (city) City in East Java, Indonesia

Kediri is an Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java. It covers an area of 63.40 km2 and had a population of 268,950 at the 2010 Census and 286,796 at the 2020 Census. It is one of two 'Daerah Tingkat II' that have the name 'Kediri'. The city is administratively separated from the Regency, of which it was formerly the capital.

Kertanegara of Singhasari King of Singhasari

Kertanegara of Singasari, Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha,, was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292. Under his rule Javanese trade and power developed considerably, reaching the far corners of the Indonesian archipelago.

Malang Regency Regency in East Java, Indonesia

The Malang Regency is a regency in East Java, Indonesia. Malang Regency is the second largest regency in East Java after Banyuwangi Regency, with a total area of 3,534.86 km². Malang is rich in potential for agriculture, medicinal plants and tourism.

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Javanese third monarch of Majapahit empire

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, known in her regnal name Tribhuwannottunggadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, also known as Dyah Gitarja, was a Javanese queen regnant and the third Majapahit monarch, reigning from 1328 to 1350. She also bears the title Bhre Kahuripan. With the help of her prime minister Gajah Mada, she pursued a massive expansion of the empire. Tradition mentioned her as a woman of extraordinary valour, wisdom and intelligence.

Trowulan Museum Archaeology museum in East Java, Indonesia

The Trowulan Museum is an archaeological museum located in Trowulan, Mojokerto, in East Java, Indonesia. The museum was built in order to house the artifacts and archaeological findings discovered around Trowulan and its vicinity. The location is one of the more important in Indonesia in relation to tracing the history of Majapahit

Jayakatwang was the king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari. He was eventually defeated by Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law using the troops of the Mongol Yuan dynasty that were invading Java. Raden Wijaya would later turn against the Mongols and found Majapahit, the greatest empire in Java.

Kahuripan 11th century Javanese kingdom

Kahuripan was an 11th-century Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom with its capital located around the estuarine of Brantas River valley in East Java. The kingdom was short-lived, only spanning the period between 1019 and 1045, and Airlangga was the only raja of the kingdom, which was built out of the rubble of the Kingdom of Mataram after the Srivijaya invasion. Airlangga later in 1045 abdicated in favour of his two sons and divided the kingdom into Janggala and Panjalu (Kadiri). The kingdom's name derived from Old Javanese term hurip with circumfix ka- -an which means "life" or "livelihood". Later in 14th to 15th century, the former kingdom was recognised as one of Majapahit's 12 provinces.

Javanisation

Javanisation or Javanization is the process in which Javanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures in general. The term "Javanise" means "to make or to become Javanese in form, idiom, style, or character." This domination could take place in various aspects; such as cultural, language, politics and social.

Bali Kingdom

The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture.

Eastern salient of Java Geographical region in East Java, Indonesia

The eastern salient of Java is a region that makes up the easternmost part of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is not a formal or administrative subdivision, but rather a designation often used to refer to its distinct history, culture, and geographical feature. It is generally considered to begin in the Tengger mountain range and extend eastwards to the east coast of Java. It is entirely contained by the Indonesian province of East Java.

References

  1. 1 2 Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN   9780824803681.
  2. 1 2 Legge 30
  3. Brown 24