List of musical instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number: 321.322

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This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.322 under that system. These instruments may be known as necked box lutes or necked guitars.


3 : Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32 : Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321 : Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
321.3 : Instruments in which the string bearer is a plain handle (handle lutes)
321.32 : Instrument in which the handle is attached to, or carved from, the resonator, like a neck (necked lutes)
321.322 : Instrument whose body is shaped like a box (necked box lutes)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on the method used to cause the strings to vibrate.


InstrumentTraditionHornbostel–Sachs classificationDescription
Spain321.322Flatback bandurria is box lute. Roundback bandurria is bowl lute.
bouzouki, Irish
Ireland321.322An Irish variant of the Greek bouzouki, with a flat rather than bowl-shaped back
cuatro [1]
Colombia and Venezuela 321.322Fretted stringed instrument with a hollow body and with four strings
cuatro [2]
Puerto Rico 321.322Fretted stringed instrument with a hollow body, derived from the Spanish tiple and other stringed instruments, made from carved wood with strings (ten, in five courses of two)
dotara [3]
Bangladesh 321.322Small stringed instrument, with plucked metal strings, elongated belly as soundboard and narrow neck ending in a pegbox, decorated with carvings of animals and covered with skin
drejelire [4]
Sweden 321.322-72 Hurdy-gurdy that uses a rosined wheel to create sound
dutar [5]
Turkmenistan 321.322Plucked string instrument with two strings and a long neck, strummed or plucked
321.322 [6] Fretted stringed instrument, long-necked with a flat soundboard and back, and incurved sides
guitar, Portuguese [7]
Portugal 321.322Fretted 12-stringed (in 6 courses) instrument with a hollow body
Hardingfele [8] [9]
Hardanger fiddle
Norway 321.322-71Ornately decorated fiddle with four main strings and four resonating strings beneath them, which are not touched by the bow
European321.322Originally a bowlback, but modern flatbacks exist too
mandole, mondol
Music of Algeria, Music of Morocco, Chaabi music, Music of Kabyle people, Andalusian classical music, Andalusi nubah, Nuubaat 321.322Fretted stringed instrument, short-necked, 4 courses/8 strings or 5 courses/10 strings or 6 courses/12 strings. Flat soundboard and flatback.
mandolin [10]
Europe, has spread worldwide321.322Fretted stringed instrument, short-necked, the types belonging to this category have a flat, carved, or canted soundboard and flat or carved back
Canada 321.322Fretted guitar-shaped musical instrument with four strings, tuned diatonically
nyckelharpa [11]
Sweden 321.322-71Bowed keyed fiddle
suroz [12]
Balochs 321.322Bowed string instrument with a long neck, similar to a fiddle or sarangi and played vertically
tiple [13]
Tiple Colombiano
Colombia 321.322 Guitar-like instrument with a neck and four courses of three strings each
tres [14]
Cuba 321.322 Guitar-like instrument with a neck and three courses of two strings each
ukulele [15]
Hawaii 321.322String instrument derived from the Portuguese braguinha , from the Hawaiian uku lele, jumping flea, referring to the swift fingerwork the instrument requires
Loudspeaker.svg chords on a ukulele  
vihuela [16]
viola da mano (Italian/Portuguese)
Spain, Portugal, Italy 321.322Most commonly twelve-stringed, arranged in six courses
viol [6]
violin [6]
waldzither [6]
Germany 321.322mandola-like lute with nine steel strings
moon guitar, moon lute, gekkin, laqin
China 321.322Two varieties: a round moon-shaped lute with four strings and a short neck, played with a plectrum, common in Northern China, and a variety with a longer neck found in Taiwan



  1. Vandervort, Leland. "Andean Instruments". Musica Andina. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  2. Figueroa, Frank M. (June–July 2002). "The Cuatro: Puerto Rico's National Instrument". Latin Beat Magazine. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  3. Begum, Rumena Mohima. "Musicians Stories". World on Your Street. BBC. Retrieved December 17, 2007. The dotara is the national instrument of Bangladesh.
  4. Andersson, Otto (October–December 1911). "On Violinists and Dance-Tunes among the Swedish Country-Population in Finland towards the Middle of the Nineteenth Century". Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft. 13 (1): 107–114. JSTOR   929299.
  5. "Puppet Theatre". Washington Folk Festival. June 2, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007. There was great admiration for his virtuosity on their national instrument
  6. 1 2 3 4 Wade, pgs. 11-12
  7. "Biographical Notes". XVII Macao Internacional Music Festival. Instituto Cultural do Governo da R.A.E. de Macau. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2007. His book, The Portuguese Guitar, Lisbon 1999, is the first monograph on this national instrument's origins and historical evolution, iconography, organological study and repertoire.
  8. "Norwegian Hardanger Music and Dance at UMC Feb. 15". UMUC News. University of Minnesota, Crookston. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007. The Hardanger fiddle is considered Norway’s national instrument.
  9. Bjorndal, Arne (1956). "The Hardanger Fiddle: The Tradition, Music Forms and Style". Journal of the International Folk Music Council. 8: 13–15. doi:10.2307/834737. JSTOR   834737. In Norway, the national instrument has come to be the Hardanger fiddle.
  10. Roger Vetter. "Mandolin - flat-back". Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection. Retrieved September 5, 2015. a newly developed resonator design pioneered by the Gibson Company with arched top and back boards with f-shaped soundholes, like violin resonators
  11. Flores, Gypsy (August 3, 2005). "Swirling and Whirling on the Swedish Dance Floor". PopMatters. Retrieved December 21, 2007. The nyckelharpa is considered Sweden's national instrument.
  12. Badalkhan, Sabir (October 2003). "Balochi Oral Tradition". Oral Tradition. 18 (2): 229–235. doi: 10.1353/ort.2004.0049 . Notwithstanding the emergence of a strong nationalistic feeling among the Baloch population both in Iran and Pakistan, the existence of pahlawan (professional singers of verse narratives), and the love for suroz (a bowed instrument played as an accompaniment to narrative songs and considered to be the national instrument of the Baloch) among the educated classes, there seems to be no future for the oral tradition in Balochistan.
  13. Pinnell, Richard; Zuluaga, David Puerta (Autumn 1993). "Review of Los Caminos del Tiple by David Puerta Zuluaga". Ethnomusicology . 37 (3): 446–448. doi:10.2307/851728. JSTOR   851728.
  14. McSweeney, Jim. "Nelson Gonzalez". Congahead. Archived from the original on November 4, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007. The tres is the national instrument of Cuba, and at first glance you'd probably call it a guitar.
  15. Cooper, Mike (2000). "Hawaii: Steel and Slide Hula Baloos". In Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; McConnachie, James; Duane, Orla (eds.). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 56. ISBN   978-1-85828-636-5. (Hawaiian craftsmen) began to use local kou and koa wood (in the manufacture of the braguinha) and before long the (ukulele) became a national instrument.
  16. Gill, Donald (October 1981). "Vihuelas, Violas and the Spanish Guitar". Early Music. Oxford University Press. 9 (4): 455–462. doi:10.1093/earlyj/9.4.455.