Microcotyle visa

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Microcotyle visa
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Monogenea
Order: Mazocraeidea
Family: Microcotylidae
Genus: Microcotyle
Species:
M. visa
Binomial name
Microcotyle visa
Bouguerche, Gey, Justine & Tazerouti, 2019

Microcotyle visa is a species of monogenean, parasitic on the gills of a marine fish. It belongs to the family Microcotylidae. [1]

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

Fish vertebrate animal that lives in water and (typically) has gills

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods. Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.

Microcotylidae Family of worms

Microcotylidae is a family of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans. All the species in this family are parasitic on fish.

Contents

Systematics

Microcotyle visa was described and illustrated by Bouguerche et al., based on and 31 specimens (including three with molecular information), from the gills of the bluespotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus (Sparidae) collected at Bouharoune off the Algerian coast. [1] The Analysis of the cytochrome oxydase1 gene of Microcotyle visa revealed only minor intraspecific variation (1.4%), clearly lower than the distance between this species and other Microcotyle species (10–15 %). This monogenean is the fourth member of the genus known to parasitise a sparid host. In the same paper, a species of Paramicrocotyle sp. included in the molecular analysis was nested in a robust Microcotyle-Paramicrocotyle clade and Paramicrocotyle was considered a junior synonym of Microcotyle. Paramicrocotyle danielcarrioni and Paramicrocotyle moyanoi were transferred to the genus Microcotyle. [1]

Sparidae family of fishes

The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies. The sheepshead, scup, and red seabream are species in this family. Most sparids are deep-bodied compressed fish with a small mouth separated by a broad space from the eye, a single dorsal fin with strong spines and soft rays, a short anal fin, long pointed pectoral fins and rather large firmly attached scales. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores.

Description

Microcotyle visa has the general morphology of all species of Microcotyle , with a symmetrical elongate body and a narrow anterior end, comprising an anterior part which contains most organs and a posterior part called the haptor. The haptor is subsymmetrical or symmetrical, and bears 59–126 clamps, arranged in 2 equal or sub-equal lateral rows, one on each side. The clamps of the haptor attach the animal to the gill of the fish. There are also two septate oval buccal suckers at the anterior extremity. The digestive organs include an anterior, terminal mouth, a subspherical pharynx, a long thin oesophagus without lateral diverticula and a posterior intestine that bifurcates at level of genital atrium in two lateral branches apparently fuse just anterior to haptor, the left branch extends into haptor. Each adult contains male and female reproductive organs. The reproductive organs include an anterior genital atrium, comprises anterior atrium proper and two posterior "pockets". The atrium proper is shaped as inverted heart, armed with numerous conical spines of similar sizes; the spines are more dense in the centre than in lateral parts, arranged as one main anterior group and two postero-lateral smaller groups called (“pockets” of Mamaev), a vagina with a middorsal pore visible in most specimens, posterior to genital atrium, a single complex ovary and 14–29 testes post-ovarian, occurring in 2 rows generally intercaecal, in posterior half of body proper. The Eggs are fusiform with long filaments at both ends, often coiled. [1]

<i>Microcotyle</i> genus of worms

Microcotyle is a genus which belongs to the phylum Platyhelminthes and class Monogenea. Species of Microcotyle are ectoparasites that affect their host by attaching themselves as larvae on the gills of the fish and grow into adult stage. This larval stage is called oncomiracidium, and is characterized as free swimming and ciliated.

Haptor organ of Monogeneans

The haptor is the attachment organ of the monogeneans, a group of parasitic Platyhelminthes. The haptor is sometimes called opisthaptor to emphasize that it is located in the posterior part of the body, and to differentiate it from the prohaptor, a structure including glands located at the anterior part of the body. According to Yamaguti (1963), the chief adhesive organ of the monogeneans, the haptor, is posterior, more or less discoid, muscular, may be divided into alveoli or loculi, is usually provided with anchors, has nearly always marginal larval hooklets, or is in a reduced form with anchors. The haptor may consist of symmetrical or asymmetrical, sessile or pedunculate, muscular suckers or clamps with or without supporting sclerites; accessory adhesive organs may be present in form of armed plaques, lappets or appendices.

Clamp (zoology) main attachment structure of Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans

Clamps are the main attachment structure of the Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans.
These ectoparasitic worms have a variable number of clamps on their haptor ; each clamp is attached to the host fish, generally to its gill. Clamps include sclerotised elements, called the sclerites, and muscles. The structure of clamps varies according to the groups within the Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans; microcotylids have relatively simple clamps, whereas gastrocotylids have more complex clamps.

Three sequences of the cox1 gene has been published. [1]

Etymology

The species name, visa, refers to the hapiness of the first author when she obtained her visa, after a period of uncertainty. [1]

Hosts and localities

The bluespotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictusis the type host of Microcotyle algeriensis Pargus caeruleosticus.jpg
The bluespotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictusis the type host of Microcotyle algeriensis

The type-host is the bluespotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus (Sparidae). The identity of fish host was confirmed by barcodin. The type-locality is off Algeria. [1]

Algeria country in North Africa

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest Human development index of all non-island African countries.

Related Research Articles

<i>Microcotyle archosargi</i> Species of worm

Microcotyle archosargi is a species of monogenean, parasitic on the gills of a marine fish. It belongs to the family Microcotylidae. It was first described by MacCallum in 1913 based on ten specimens. Hargis (1956) pointed out that the description and figures given by MacCallum were poor in details.

<i>Microcotyle algeriensis</i> Species of worms

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Microcotyle fistulariae is a species of monogenean, parasitic on the gills of a marine fish. It belongs to the family Microcotylidae.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bouguerche, Chahinez; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou; Tazerouti, Fadila (2019). "Microcotyle visa n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae), a gill parasite of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Sparidae) off the Algerian coast, Western Mediterranean". Systematic Parasitology. 96 (2): 131–147. doi:10.1007/s11230-019-09842-2. ISSN   0165-5752.(subscription required)