Mombach

Last updated
Mombach
borough of Mainz
Wappen Mombach.png
Coat of arms
Location of Mombach within Mainz
Ink mainz mombach.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mombach
Rhineland-Palatinate location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mombach
Coordinates: 50°1′N8°13′E / 50.017°N 8.217°E / 50.017; 8.217 Coordinates: 50°1′N8°13′E / 50.017°N 8.217°E / 50.017; 8.217
Country Germany
State Rhineland-Palatinate
District Urban districts of Germany
Town Mainz
Government
   Mayor Dr. Eleonore Lossen-Geißler (SPD)
Area
  Total6.32 km2 (2.44 sq mi)
Elevation
85-115 m (−290 ft)
Population
 (31.10.2017)
  Total13,986
  Density2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
55120
Dialling codes 06131
Vehicle registration MZ
Website mombach.de

Mombach, with about 14,000 inhabitants, [1] is a borough in the northwest corner of Mainz, Germany. Mombach can be reached via Mainz-innenstadt (downtown) or Bundesautobahn 643.

Mainz Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Mainz ( MYNTS, German: [maɪnts] is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 217,118 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Bundesautobahn 643 federal motorway in Germany

Bundesautobahn 643 is a 8.4-kilometer (5.2 mi) short autobahn in Germany. The motorway crosses the Rhine River, connecting the cities of Wiesbaden and Mainz, the capital cities of the German states of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate, respectively. It is one of two autobahns in Germany that connect two neighboring state capitals in only one exit.

Contents

Location

Mombach is located on the southern (left) bank of the Rhine River, flowing from east to west after converging with the Main. The Rhine River is the northern border. Mombach lies in the Mainz basin below the Rheinhessen Plateau.

Rhine River in Western Europe

The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

Main (river) right tributary of Rhine river in Germany

The Main is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres (326 mi), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.

Climate

Like Rheinhessen, Mombach is protected by Hunsrück, Taunus, Odenwald and Donnersberg. The average yearly temperature of Mombach is 11.5 degrees Celsius (53 °F). The annual rainfall is below 500 liters per square meter (19.7 in) and comes near to a semi-arid to mediterranean climate. There are around 1,665 hours of sunshine per year.

Hunsrück low mountain range in Germany

The Hunsrück is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the river valleys of the Moselle (north), the Nahe (south), and the Rhine (east). The Hunsrück is continued by the Taunus mountains on the eastern side of the Rhine. In the north behind the Moselle it is continued by the Eifel. To the south of the Nahe is the Palatinate region.

Taunus low mountain range in Germany

The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt. The tallest peak in the range is Großer Feldberg at 878 m; other notable peaks are Kleiner Feldberg and Altkönig.

Odenwald low mountain range in Hesse, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg in Germany

The Odenwald  is a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg.

History

In 2006 Mombach celebrated its 750-year jubilee. Mombach had been originally a location of farmers, mariners and fishermen.

Farmer person that works in agriculture

A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals.

Sailor Person who navigates water-borne vessels or assists in doing so

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship.

Prehistory to Middle Ages

Archeological excavations prove that the site of Mombach had been already settled in prehistoric times. A flat hatchet dated to the early Bronze Age has been found in Mombach as well as many discoveries from Roman times. The formation of the locality happened most likely during the Frankish realm. The name Mombach is derived most likely from the Frankish name Muno (Munno). The 750-year jubilee dates back to a document of 1256 mentioning the city, but the locality is surely older.

Franks Germanic people

The Franks were a group of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later Frankish rulers were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

France's urge to the Rhine

During the Thirty Years' War, with the change of occupying forces of Mainz and surroundings (also Swedish and imperialists), the French troops deployed up to Mainz in the year 1644. During the first period of the war Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt held the position as Amtmann of the village named by the cathedral chapter of Mainz Cathedral. As soon as the garrison had been weakened by the Ottoman wars in Europe, the French returned again. They devastated and occupied the left bank of the Rhine up to its natural border in 1688 including Mainz without a declaration of war. Not much later in 1689 Mainz had been reconquered by imperial forces in the war of the Palatinian Succession.

Thirty Years War War between 1618 and 1648; with over 8 million fatalities

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. The deadly clashes ravaged Europe; 20 percent of the total population of Germany died during the conflict and there were losses up to 50 percent in a corridor between Pomerania and the Black Forest. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period of January to May 1945 during World War II; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.

Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt Archbishop of Mainz

Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt was the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz from 1629 to 1647.

<i>Amtmann</i> historical profession

The Amtmann or Ammann was an official in German-speaking countries of Europe and in some of the Nordic countries from the time of the Middle Ages whose office was akin to that of a bailiff. He was the most senior retainer (Dienstmann) of an Amt; the administrative office of a territorial lord (Landesherr) created to manage the estates of manors (Gutshöfe), castles and villages. The estates were both administrative as well as juridical districts. The Amtmann was usually a member of the nobility or a cleric. In towns, he was also often a member of the wealthy classes amongst the citizenship. He resided in an Amthaus or Amtshaus and collected taxes from the district (Amtsbezirk), administered justice and maintained law and order with a small, armed unit.

During the Electorate

The location had been surrounded by a wall during the electoral times. Parts of this wall are components of old buildings to this day. The historical core of Mombach is the Lindenplatz. Most of the important buildings of that time grouped round the old tilia, the first chapel of Saint Nicholas, the common bakery oven and the schoolhouse. In 1703 the first Saint Nicholas church had been consecrated. Mombach has been independent from the town's clerical nobility St. Peter since then. The vicar of Mainz Cathedral de la Roche had been given the necessary funds. Shortly after this, a new municipality and schoolhouse could be erected. During the 18th century an ardour for the countryside occurred and Mombach could benefit from this. The buildings Walderdorfsche Anlage, Kesselstadtsche Anlage and the Rondell had been erected during this time.

Second French occupation

In 1792 General Custine abolished the electoral administration. With the repeated occupation of the left bank of the Rhine by the French Revolutionary Army, the collegial administration of Mombach by St. Peter had been terminated. After the collapse of the First Coalition, the Treaty of Campo Formio and the confirmation in the Treaty of Lunéville Mombach was added to French territory. Since 1801 préfet Jean Bon Saint-André governed the départment of Mont-Tonnerre and laid down the old village gates, as well as some saints' memorials in Mombach.

Grand duchy Hesse-Darmstadt

After the failing of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, the region around Mainz, Bingen, Alzey and Worms came to the Grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. Ever since that the region is called Rheinhessen. Mainz turned into a federal fortress. Numerous fruit growing areas, vineyards and forests were converted into military property. In 1845 the Waggonfabrik Gebrüder Gastell was forced to leave Mainz city and settled in Mombach. Due to safety reasons, such big fire processing production sites were no longer allowed to produce within the fortress's walls. The site of Count von Walderdorf at the fringe of Mombach was chosen. With the completion of the railway track on the left bank of the Rhine, the village received the first railway station in 1859 . This fostered the rural as well as the industrial production. The founding of a chemical production site, today INEOS Paraform in 1856 contributed significantly to this increase. In 1869 the first gymnasium and the school house in the main street were built. The increasing industrialisation of the Gründerzeit after the Franco-Prussian War 1871/71, fostered again the immigration of workers' families. Another railway track, the Hessian Ludwig Railway, led towards Gonsenheim along the Gastell production site in 1871. There was an additional railway station. In 1885 the population increased to 2822 persons, including 485 Protestants.

Today's industrial port had been constructed between 1882 and 1887 as a timber rafting port. In August 1890 the boiler and pressure vessel producer Schmahl founded his company.

20th century

At the beginning of the 20th century Mombach received town gas and water supply as well as sewer connection. A coal gasification plant and a water supply network emerged, and the electric tram connected Mombach to Mainz. The most important contemporary Gasometer of Germany was in Mombach.

In 1907 Mombach was suburbanised as one of the first suburbs of Mainz, under the reign of Lord Mayor Karl Göttelmann. With Mombach, Mainz grew to a real large city, defined to have more than 100,000 inhabitants then. Concurrent with the rapid growth of the industrial revolution came their social effects, which were heavily discussed. Mombach as a workers' suburb was chosen as a site for a church monument with a tomb of bishop Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler.

The German Emperor Wilhelm II often watched the military exercises which took place in the Mainz Sand Dunes over many years. These Kaiser-manoeuvres or –parades finally took place in 1913.

Another historical break in the development of the suburb was World War I. In 1918 French troops occupied Mainz again and did not leave it before 1930; the economic situation got worse. In 1937 new barracks were built named after Hugo von Kathen, the last military governor of the Mainz fortress.

In the cause of the bombing of Mainz in World War II Mombach was subject to air raids. Until the end of World War II Mombach was located on two floodplains and had access to a natural Rhine swimming bath. But after Mainz lost its properties on the right bank of the Rhine, the suburbs Amöneburg, Kostheim and Kastel, as well as Bischofsheim, together with the biggest contemporary freight train station, due to the zoning of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany, Mombach changed to an industrial site. Mainz had not only lost the suburbs, but concurrently 50% of its property and the biggest part of its industrial capacities. Nevertheless Mombach still has a historical core, with old houses such as the old administration building.

Schierstein Biebrich Mainz-Amöneburg
Budenheim Windrosse.PNG Mainz
Finthen Gonsenheim Hartenberg-Münchfeld

Official emblem

Coat of Arms around 1500 Wappen Mombach Erzstift.jpg
Coat of Arms around 1500

Displays of old Coat of Arms are no longer seen in Mombach. So there is no trace back to older history and affiliation with former proprietors. Early in the Middle Ages Mombach belonged to the estate of the archbishop of Mainz, who assigned the location as a Manslehen. In the 14th century the property rights changed over to the chapter of Mainz and belonged to St. Peter up to Napoleonic times. Due to this the colors of the chapter silver (white)/red, may be found in most of the depictions. Around 1500 three rose gold balls on the right side of the CoA can be found added to the chapter's colours. These refer to the dowry affair of Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of mariners.

Also on a court of law seal of 1741, silver/red bars are the focus. The typical baroque seal shows Nicholas of Myra, the patron saint of the parish church built in 1703, hovering above the clouds with his crosier. In order to identify the bishop, three resurrected children climbing out of a wooden barrel are shown as iconography.

Mombach did not have its own CoA since the French occupation. As the new Mainz town hall had been erected between 1971 and 1974, a full set of coat of arms of all suburbs should be shown in chronological order of the incorporation in the lobby. Due to this a new CoA was drawn up. The traditional depiction with the saint was not regarded as contemporary. The heraldry expert Dr. Leitermann was charged with the creation of a new CoA. The field of the shield is divided by a cross. The four partitions show themes in relation to the history of Mombach and the current Mombach.

new Coat of Arms since 1974 Wappen Mombach.png
new Coat of Arms since 1974

Sights

Sacred Heart of Jesus Church Herz-Jesu Mombach.jpg
Sacred Heart of Jesus Church
Emperor's balcony at the railroad car factory of the Gastell brothers Waggonfabrik.jpg
Emperor's balcony at the railroad car factory of the Gastell brothers

Parks

Well at the municipality Brunnen Ortsvw.jpg
Well at the municipality
According to a social study for the town of Mainz, the district Am Westring has the best relation of greenery to housing.

Nature preserves

Prominent People of Mombach

Transport

Mainz-Mombach station is one of two railway stations in the suburb. Due to its central location it is the primary station of the suburb besides the halt “Waggonfabrik”. The station is a part of the West Rhine Railway and borders the Wye: Gleisdreieck Mainz, leading to the Kaiserbrücke (Mainz) and the main station Mainz.

Economy

Presence

Related Research Articles

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Hessian Ludwig Railway transport company

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References

Documents

  1. "Population by boroughs on 2017-10-31" (PDF). mainz.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  2. INEOS-Paraform/Sites/ Archived 2014-01-10 at the Wayback Machine