borough of Mainz
|District||Urban districts of Germany|
|• Mayor||Dr. Eleonore Lossen-Geißler (SPD)|
|• Total||6.32 km2 (2.44 sq mi)|
|Elevation||85-115 m (−290 ft)|
|• Density||2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Mombach, with about 14,000 inhabitants,is a borough in the northwest corner of Mainz, Germany. Mombach can be reached via Mainz-innenstadt (downtown) or Bundesautobahn 643.
Mainz ( MYNTS, German: [maɪnts] is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 217,118 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
Bundesautobahn 643 is a 8.4-kilometer (5.2 mi) short autobahn in Germany. The motorway crosses the Rhine River, connecting the cities of Wiesbaden and Mainz, the capital cities of the German states of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate, respectively. It is one of two autobahns in Germany that connect two neighboring state capitals in only one exit.
Mombach is located on the southern (left) bank of the Rhine River, flowing from east to west after converging with the Main. The Rhine River is the northern border. Mombach lies in the Mainz basin below the Rheinhessen Plateau.
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Main is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres (326 mi), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.
Like Rheinhessen, Mombach is protected by Hunsrück, Taunus, Odenwald and Donnersberg. The average yearly temperature of Mombach is 11.5 degrees Celsius (53 °F). The annual rainfall is below 500 liters per square meter (19.7 in) and comes near to a semi-arid to mediterranean climate. There are around 1,665 hours of sunshine per year.
The Hunsrück is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the river valleys of the Moselle (north), the Nahe (south), and the Rhine (east). The Hunsrück is continued by the Taunus mountains on the eastern side of the Rhine. In the north behind the Moselle it is continued by the Eifel. To the south of the Nahe is the Palatinate region.
The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt. The tallest peak in the range is Großer Feldberg at 878 m; other notable peaks are Kleiner Feldberg and Altkönig.
In 2006 Mombach celebrated its 750-year jubilee. Mombach had been originally a location of farmers, mariners and fishermen.
A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship.
Archeological excavations prove that the site of Mombach had been already settled in prehistoric times. A flat hatchet dated to the early Bronze Age has been found in Mombach as well as many discoveries from Roman times. The formation of the locality happened most likely during the Frankish realm. The name Mombach is derived most likely from the Frankish name Muno (Munno). The 750-year jubilee dates back to a document of 1256 mentioning the city, but the locality is surely older.
The Franks were a group of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later Frankish rulers were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.
During the Thirty Years' War, with the change of occupying forces of Mainz and surroundings (also Swedish and imperialists), the French troops deployed up to Mainz in the year 1644. During the first period of the war Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt held the position as Amtmann of the village named by the cathedral chapter of Mainz Cathedral. As soon as the garrison had been weakened by the Ottoman wars in Europe, the French returned again. They devastated and occupied the left bank of the Rhine up to its natural border in 1688 including Mainz without a declaration of war. Not much later in 1689 Mainz had been reconquered by imperial forces in the war of the Palatinian Succession.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. The deadly clashes ravaged Europe; 20 percent of the total population of Germany died during the conflict and there were losses up to 50 percent in a corridor between Pomerania and the Black Forest. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period of January to May 1945 during World War II; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.
Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt was the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz from 1629 to 1647.
The Amtmann or Ammann was an official in German-speaking countries of Europe and in some of the Nordic countries from the time of the Middle Ages whose office was akin to that of a bailiff. He was the most senior retainer (Dienstmann) of an Amt; the administrative office of a territorial lord (Landesherr) created to manage the estates of manors (Gutshöfe), castles and villages. The estates were both administrative as well as juridical districts. The Amtmann was usually a member of the nobility or a cleric. In towns, he was also often a member of the wealthy classes amongst the citizenship. He resided in an Amthaus or Amtshaus and collected taxes from the district (Amtsbezirk), administered justice and maintained law and order with a small, armed unit.
The location had been surrounded by a wall during the electoral times. Parts of this wall are components of old buildings to this day. The historical core of Mombach is the Lindenplatz. Most of the important buildings of that time grouped round the old tilia, the first chapel of Saint Nicholas, the common bakery oven and the schoolhouse. In 1703 the first Saint Nicholas church had been consecrated. Mombach has been independent from the town's clerical nobility St. Peter since then. The vicar of Mainz Cathedral de la Roche had been given the necessary funds. Shortly after this, a new municipality and schoolhouse could be erected. During the 18th century an ardour for the countryside occurred and Mombach could benefit from this. The buildings Walderdorfsche Anlage, Kesselstadtsche Anlage and the Rondell had been erected during this time.
In 1792 General Custine abolished the electoral administration. With the repeated occupation of the left bank of the Rhine by the French Revolutionary Army, the collegial administration of Mombach by St. Peter had been terminated. After the collapse of the First Coalition, the Treaty of Campo Formio and the confirmation in the Treaty of Lunéville Mombach was added to French territory. Since 1801 préfet Jean Bon Saint-André governed the départment of Mont-Tonnerre and laid down the old village gates, as well as some saints' memorials in Mombach.
After the failing of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, the region around Mainz, Bingen, Alzey and Worms came to the Grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. Ever since that the region is called Rheinhessen. Mainz turned into a federal fortress. Numerous fruit growing areas, vineyards and forests were converted into military property. In 1845 the Waggonfabrik Gebrüder Gastell was forced to leave Mainz city and settled in Mombach. Due to safety reasons, such big fire processing production sites were no longer allowed to produce within the fortress's walls. The site of Count von Walderdorf at the fringe of Mombach was chosen. With the completion of the railway track on the left bank of the Rhine, the village received the first railway station in 1859 . This fostered the rural as well as the industrial production. The founding of a chemical production site, today INEOS Paraform in 1856 contributed significantly to this increase. In 1869 the first gymnasium and the school house in the main street were built. The increasing industrialisation of the Gründerzeit after the Franco-Prussian War 1871/71, fostered again the immigration of workers' families. Another railway track, the Hessian Ludwig Railway, led towards Gonsenheim along the Gastell production site in 1871. There was an additional railway station. In 1885 the population increased to 2822 persons, including 485 Protestants.
Today's industrial port had been constructed between 1882 and 1887 as a timber rafting port. In August 1890 the boiler and pressure vessel producer Schmahl founded his company.
At the beginning of the 20th century Mombach received town gas and water supply as well as sewer connection. A coal gasification plant and a water supply network emerged, and the electric tram connected Mombach to Mainz. The most important contemporary Gasometer of Germany was in Mombach.
In 1907 Mombach was suburbanised as one of the first suburbs of Mainz, under the reign of Lord Mayor Karl Göttelmann. With Mombach, Mainz grew to a real large city, defined to have more than 100,000 inhabitants then. Concurrent with the rapid growth of the industrial revolution came their social effects, which were heavily discussed. Mombach as a workers' suburb was chosen as a site for a church monument with a tomb of bishop Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler.
The German Emperor Wilhelm II often watched the military exercises which took place in the Mainz Sand Dunes over many years. These Kaiser-manoeuvres or –parades finally took place in 1913.
Another historical break in the development of the suburb was World War I. In 1918 French troops occupied Mainz again and did not leave it before 1930; the economic situation got worse. In 1937 new barracks were built named after Hugo von Kathen, the last military governor of the Mainz fortress.
In the cause of the bombing of Mainz in World War II Mombach was subject to air raids. Until the end of World War II Mombach was located on two floodplains and had access to a natural Rhine swimming bath. But after Mainz lost its properties on the right bank of the Rhine, the suburbs Amöneburg, Kostheim and Kastel, as well as Bischofsheim, together with the biggest contemporary freight train station, due to the zoning of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany, Mombach changed to an industrial site. Mainz had not only lost the suburbs, but concurrently 50% of its property and the biggest part of its industrial capacities. Nevertheless Mombach still has a historical core, with old houses such as the old administration building.
Displays of old Coat of Arms are no longer seen in Mombach. So there is no trace back to older history and affiliation with former proprietors. Early in the Middle Ages Mombach belonged to the estate of the archbishop of Mainz, who assigned the location as a Manslehen. In the 14th century the property rights changed over to the chapter of Mainz and belonged to St. Peter up to Napoleonic times. Due to this the colors of the chapter silver (white)/red, may be found in most of the depictions. Around 1500 three rose gold balls on the right side of the CoA can be found added to the chapter's colours. These refer to the dowry affair of Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of mariners.
Also on a court of law seal of 1741, silver/red bars are the focus. The typical baroque seal shows Nicholas of Myra, the patron saint of the parish church built in 1703, hovering above the clouds with his crosier. In order to identify the bishop, three resurrected children climbing out of a wooden barrel are shown as iconography.
Mombach did not have its own CoA since the French occupation. As the new Mainz town hall had been erected between 1971 and 1974, a full set of coat of arms of all suburbs should be shown in chronological order of the incorporation in the lobby. Due to this a new CoA was drawn up. The traditional depiction with the saint was not regarded as contemporary. The heraldry expert Dr. Leitermann was charged with the creation of a new CoA. The field of the shield is divided by a cross. The four partitions show themes in relation to the history of Mombach and the current Mombach.
Mainz-Mombach station is one of two railway stations in the suburb. Due to its central location it is the primary station of the suburb besides the halt “Waggonfabrik”. The station is a part of the West Rhine Railway and borders the Wye: Gleisdreieck Mainz, leading to the Kaiserbrücke (Mainz) and the main station Mainz.
Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the river Rhine, opposite Mannheim. With Mannheim, Heidelberg, and the surrounding region, it forms the Rhine Neckar Area.
Remagen is a town in Germany in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. It is about a one-hour drive from Cologne, just south of Bonn, the former West German capital. It is situated on the left (western) bank of the river Rhine. There is a ferry across the Rhine from Remagen every 10–15 minutes in the summer. Remagen has many beautiful and well-maintained buildings, churches, castles and monuments. It also has a sizeable pedestrian zone with plenty of shops.
Heidesheim am Rhein is a former Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Since July 2019, it is part of the town Ingelheim am Rhein. It was the administrative seat of the former Verbandsgemeinde of Heidesheim am Rhein, which also included the Ortsgemeinde of Wackernheim. Heidesheim was one of the biggest municipalities in Rhenish Hesse.
Bingen am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Budenheim is a municipality in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Unlike other municipalities in Mainz-Bingen, it does not belong to any Verbandsgemeinde.
Guntersblum is an Ortsgemeinde– a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The double city of Ginsheim-Gustavsburg in the northwest of Groß-Gerau district in Hesse has about 16,000 inhabitants.
Koblenz Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in the city of Koblenz in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is the focal point of rail transport in the Rhine-Moselle-Lahn area. It is a through station in southern Koblenz built below Fort Großfürst Konstantin and opened in 1902 in the Neustadt, which was built after the demolition of the city walls in 1890. The station replaced two former stations on the Left Rhine railway, which were only 900 m apart, and the former Moselle line station. Koblenz-Stadtmitte station opened in April 2011 in the old centre of Koblenz. Koblenz Hauptbahnhof is on the West Rhine Railway and connects to the Moselle line, the East Rhine Railway and to the Lahn Valley Railway. It is used daily by about 40,000 travelers and visitors. In the station forecourt are a bus station and a pavilion.
Trechtingshausen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Sprendlingen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Schierstein is a southwestern borough of Wiesbaden, capital of state of Hesse, Germany. First mentioned in historical records in 860, Schierstein was incorporated into Wiesbaden in 1926. Today the borough has about 10,000 residents. Situated on the Rhine River, Schierstein is known as the "Gateway to the Rheingau."
The Schierstein Bridge is 1,282-meter (4,206 ft) long, four-lane highway bridge in Germany. It carries Bundesautobahn 643 over the Rhine River between Mainz-Mombach, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wiesbaden-Schierstein, Hesse. Crossing two arms of the Rhine and the intervening island of Rettbergsaue, the bridge is made of six individual structures, including 100 m (330 ft) from prestressed concrete. It was built between 1959 and 1962.
The Hessian Ludwig Railway or HLB with its network of 697 kilometres of railway was one of the largest privately owned railway companies in Germany.
Mainz-Mombach station is one of two railway stations in the suburb of Mombach of the German town of Mainz. Due to its central location it is the primary station of the suburb besides the halt “Waggonfabrik”. The station is a part of the West Rhine Railway and borders the Wye: Gleisdreieck Mainz, leading to the Kaiserbrücke (Mainz) and the main station Mainz.
Gonsenheim is a borough in the northwest corner of Mainz, Germany. With about 25,000 inhabitants, it is one of the most populated borough of Mainz and comes before Oberstadt and after Neustadt as the second biggest part of the capital town.
The Mainz bypass railway is a bypass around the Mainz Hauptbahnhof node primarily used for freight in the German states of Hesse and Rhineland Palatinate.
Bingen (Rhein) Stadt station is, after Bingen Hauptbahnhof, the second largest station in the town of Bingen am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The station is located on the West Rhine Railway between Koblenz to Mainz. Furthermore, the station is the beginning and end of the Rheinhessen Railway to/from Worms. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 4 station.
The Gau Algesheim–Bad Kreuznach railway is a twin-track, non-electrified main line railway in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. It connects Gau-Algesheim on the Left Rhine line with Bad Kreuznach on the Nahe Valley Railway (Nahetalbahn) and is thus part of a regionally important transport corridor between the two state capitals cities of Mainz and Saarbrücken in the Saarland.
The German city of Mainz was bombed in multiple air raids by the Allies during World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF), as well as the United States Army Air Forces. These led to numerous victims and heavy damage throughout the cityscape.
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