Osman Hill's mangabey

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Osman Hill's mangabey [1]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Lophocebus
Species:
L. osmani
Binomial name
Lophocebus osmani
Groves, 1978 [3]
Distribution Lophocebus.png
Map showing range of Lophocebus species, L. osmani is shown in yellow

The Osman Hill's mangabey (Lophocebus osmani), also known as the rusty-mantled mangabey, [4] is a species of crested mangabey in the family Cercopithecidae with a restricted distribution in West Africa.

Contents

Description

Osman Hill's mangabey is a medium-sized lanky, arboreal, dark furred monkey. The sexes are similar in colour and markings but males are far larger than females, the size difference being especially marked in this species compared to the other members of the grey-cheeked mangabey superspecies. They have long, loose fur which is mainly blackish-brown, and a rufous tinged mane of longer hairs over the shoulders which is more noticeable in the males. The head shows a tuft on the crown and smaller tuft above the eyes, although these may not always be present, the cheeks are pale. The long tail is frequently held arched over the monkey's back. The two ischial callosities are bare and for a "C" shapes which are complete in the male but often broken in the females. The bare skin on such places as the palms and soles is pink in newborns but darkens as the get older and is normally black by nine months of age. A single male specimen has been measured and he had a head and body length of 610mm and a tail length of 920mm. [5]

Distribution

Osman Hill's mangabey has a very small range from the Cross River in south eastern Nigeria to the Batouri district of south eastern Cameroon. [5]

Habitat

Osman Hill's mangabey occurs in low to medium altitude tropical rainforest where it is highly arboreal and can be seen in the canopy and emergent layers. It is rarely observed on the ground or in secondary or savanna habitats. The highest densities are found in swamp forest and flooded forest. [5]

Habits

This species and its close relatives have cheek pouches which they can use to store food to be eaten or processed later. The males have inflatable throat pouches which they use as resonators to amplify their loud low pitched calls which can be heard over a kilometre away from the calling male. They have powerful jaws, hands and arms which makes it possible for them to extract seeds from harder fruits, e.g. those of Monodora myristica than similarly sized monkeys. They are omnivorous, although fruit is the most important part of their diet, and they may locate fruiting trees by following the calls of frugivorous birds such as hornbills. Important fruit tree species for Odsman Hill's mangabey include Erythrophleum suaveolens and Enantia chlorantha . They also spend a lot of time splitting dead wood, excavating bark and searching through liana tangles and epiphyte masses searching for invertebrates. [5]

Osman Hill's mangabey is a social species living in groups of 10-20 individuals which consist of a few males, several females and their dependent young. These groups often associate with groups of other monkey species, and even occasionally with troops of chimpanzees. Contact calls are grunts, alarm calls are staccato barks and the males make a loud "whoop gobble" to co-ordinate the group and to set spaces between different groups. This call can be made by females but very infrequently. The groups are fluid and will mix but this can lead to increased aggression among the adults, although the young will play. Females in oestrus may attract additional males. The dominant male usually guards receptive females but she will try and mate with other males when she can. [5]

Taxonomy

Osman Hill's mangabey used to be considered a subspecies of the grey-cheeked mangabey, L. albigena. [1]

Etymology

Osman Hill's mangabey was named after William Charles Osman Hill, a primatologist, anthropologist, and anatomist from the 20th century. [6]

Related Research Articles

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<i>Mandrillus</i> Genus of Old World monkeys

Mandrillus is a genus of large Old World monkeys distributed throughout central and southern Africa, consisting of two species: M. sphinx and M. leucophaeus, the mandrill and drill, respectively. Mandrillus, originally placed under the genus Papio as a type of baboon, is closely related to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterised by their large builds, elongated snouts with furrows on each side, and stub tails. Both species occupy the west central region of Africa and live primarily on the ground. They are frugivores, consuming both meat and plants, with a preference for plants. M. sphinx is classified as vulnerable and M. leucophaeus as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

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Cercopithecinae Subfamily of Old World monkeys

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Grey-cheeked mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The grey-cheeked mangabey, also known as the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of Central Africa. It ranges from Cameroon down to Gabon. The grey-cheeked mangabey is a dark monkey, looking in shape overall like a small, hairy baboon. Its thick brown fur is almost black in its forest home, with a slightly rufus/golden mane around the neck. The sexes are similar, with the males slightly larger than the females.

Kipunji Species of Old World monkey

The kipunji, also known as the highland mangabey, is a species of Old World monkey that lives in the highland forests of Tanzania. The kipunji has a unique call, described as a 'honk-bark', which distinguishes it from its relatives, the grey-cheeked mangabey and the black crested mangabey, whose calls are described as 'whoop-gobbles'.

Crested mangabey Genus of Old World monkeys

The crested mangabeys are West African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Lophocebus. They tend to have dark skin, eyelids that match their facial skin, and crests of hair on their heads. Another genus of mangabeys, Cercocebus, was once thought to be very closely related, so much so that all the species were placed in one genus. However, Lophocebus species are now understood to be more closely related to the baboons in genus Papio, while the Cercocebus species are more closely related to the mandrill. In 2006, the highland mangabey was moved from Lophocebus to a new genus, Rungwecebus.

White-eyelid mangabey Genus of Old World monkeys

The white-eyelid mangabeys are African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterized by their bare upper eyelids, which are lighter than their facial skin colouring, and the uniformly coloured hairs of the fur. The other two genera of mangabeys, Lophocebus and Rungwecebus, were once thought to be very closely related to Cercocebus, so much so that all the species were placed in one genus. However, it is now understood that Lophocebus and Rungwecebus species are more closely related to the baboons in genus Papio, while the Cercocebus species are more closely related to the mandrill.

Mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

The mona monkey is an Old World monkey that lives in western Africa between Ghana and Cameroon. The mona monkey can also be found on the island of Grenada as it was transported to the island aboard slave ships headed to the New World during the 18th century. This guenon lives in groups of up to thirty-five in forests. It mainly feeds on fruit, but sometimes eats insects and leaves. The mona monkey has brown agouti fur with a white rump. Its tail and legs are black and the face is blue-grey with a dark stripe across the face. The mona monkey carries food in cheek pouches.

Wolfs mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Wolf's mona monkey, also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in central Africa, primarily between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It lives in primary and secondary lowland rainforest and swamp forest.

Uganda mangabey species of mammal

The Uganda mangabey is a species of Old World monkey found only in Uganda and in the Minziro Forest Reserve, just over the border in Tanzania. This crested mangabey was previously thought to just be a population of the grey-cheeked mangabey. Colin Groves upgraded the Ugandan population to the new species L. ugandae on 16 February 2007. This species is significantly smaller than the grey-cheeked mangabey, with a shorter skull and smaller face. 2008 was the most recent year in which the International Union for Conservation of Nature assessed the conservation status of L. albigena, describing it as being of least concern, and the status of L. ugandae has not been assessed separately.

Red-eared guenon Species of Old World monkey

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Lesser spot-nosed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Senegal.

Crested mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

The crested mona monkey, also known as the crowned guenon, crowned monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or golden-bellied monkey,, is a species of African primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in west central Africa.

Agile mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The agile mangabey is an Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group found in swampy forests of Central Africa in Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, and DR Congo. Until 1978, it was considered a subspecies of the Tana River mangabey. More recently, the golden-bellied mangabey has been considered a separate species instead of a subspecies of the agile mangabey.

Sanje mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Sanje mangabey is a highly endangered Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group from the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. They are about 50–65 centimetres (20–26 in) in length, excluding the tail, and their body colour is greyish. Fruit makes up about 70% of their diet. They live in valley forests and on mountain slopes, but are mostly ground-dwelling, which makes them susceptible to hunting and poaching. Their habitat is being degraded, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed their conservation status as being "endangered".

Johnston's mangabey is a species of crested mangabey in the family Cercopithecidae. It had been considered a subspecies of the gray-cheeked mangabey, but in 2007 was given the status of species by Colin Groves, with Osman Hill's mangabey and the Uganda mangabey.

Red-tailed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

References

  1. 1 2 Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 160. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  2. Oates, J.F. & Maisels, F. (2019). "Lophocebus albigena ssp. osmani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T92248950A92248960. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T92248950A92248960.en . Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  3. "Lophocebus osmani, Groves 1978". Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (https://www.itis.gov). Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  4. Karen B. Strier (25 August 2016). Primate Behavioral Ecology. Taylor & Francis. pp. 578–. ISBN   978-1-317-32710-3.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Jonathan Kingdon; David Happold; Thomas Butynski; Michael Hoffmann; Meredith Happold; Jan Kalina (2013). Mammals of Africa Volumes 1-6. A&C Black. pp. 206–208. ISBN   978-1408189962.
  6. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2009). The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 301–302. ISBN   978-0-8018-9304-9.