Polymastia boletiformis is a species of sponge belonging to the family Polymastiidae.It is found in the Arctic Ocean and on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
Polymastia boletiformis forms small cushions or broad-based masses of tissue up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, adhering firmly to the substrate. A number of hollow, cylindrical papillae up to 3 cm (1.2 in) long project from the upper surface, with an osculum (exhalant opening) at the tip of each, and many small inhalant pores on the sides of the papillae. The mesohyl, a jelly-like layer in the body wall, is stiffened by mineral spicules, large and small needle-like megascleres, but there are no microscleres. The texture of this sponge is smooth and firm but supple, and the colour is yellowish-grey, yellow or orange. The papillae are contractile, and bend over if the sponge is handled; they are the same colour as the rest of the sponge, which helps distinguish this species from the rather similar Polymastia penicillus , Polymastia mamillaris and Ciocalypta penicillus .
Polymastia boletiformis occurs in temperate and cold waters in the western Atlantic Ocean, as far south as the Gulf of Maine, the Arctic Ocean and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, as far south as the Bay of Biscay; it is common in Northern France, the Netherlands and the British Isles. Its depth range is from the littoral zone, where it occurs in rock pools, down to about 30 m (100 ft) and exceptionally much deeper (2,300 m (7,500 ft)). Its typical habitat is on the top of boulders and on up-facing rocks covered with sediment, in association with a mat of bryozoans and hydroids. It is tolerant of varying salinity and sometimes occurs in estuaries.
Like other sponges, water is drawn through the sponge body, nutritious particles such as bacteria and phytoplankton are filtered out and excess water expelled through the osculi. Sexual reproduction takes place during the summer, the larvae being expelled with the water current.The dorid nudibranch Doris adrianae feeds on this sponge.
Secondary metabolites found in Polymastia boletiformis show antimicrobial activity; extracts from the sponge contain novel steroid/amino acid conjugates.
A carboxylic acid is an organic acid that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH) attached to an R-group. The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R−COOH or R−CO2H, with R referring to the alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, or other group. Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include the amino acids and fatty acids. Deprotonation of a carboxylic acid gives a carboxylate anion.
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver. Enterohepatic circulation is an especially important concept in the field of toxicology as many lipophilic xenobiotics undergo this process causing repeated liver damage.
The rumen, also known as a paunch, is the largest stomach compartment in ruminants and the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. The rumen's microbial favoring environment allows it to serve as the primary site for microbial fermentation of ingested feed. The smaller part of the reticulorumen is the reticulum, which is fully continuous with the rumen, but differs from it with regard to the texture of its lining.
Polymastia is a genus of sea sponges containing about 30 species. These are small to large encrusting or dome-shaped sponges with a smooth surface having many teat-shaped projections (papillae). In areas of strong wave action, this genus does not grow the teat structures, but instead grows in a corrugated form.
Halichondria panicea, commonly known as the breadcrumb sponge, is a species of sea sponge belonging to the family Halichondriidae. This is an abundant sponge of coastal areas of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea ranging from the intertidal zone to a recorded depth of over 550 m. It is also found in the intertidal zone of the coast of the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand. It is very tolerant of a wide range of coastal habitats, including strong currents, high salinity and exposure to powerful wave action. Its only requirement is a rocky substrate which can include small cobbles.
Brenna Hufford, Brianna Baysek, Kindsay Goldburg
Lactophrys triqueter also known as the smooth trunkfish, is a species of boxfish found on and near reefs in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and subtropical parts of the western Atlantic Ocean.
Myxilla incrustans is a species of demosponge. It is an encrusting species and is usually yellow.
Leptogorgia virgulata, commonly known as the sea whip or colorful sea whip, is a species of soft coral in the family Gorgoniidae.
Gorgonocephalus eucnemis is a species of basket star in the class Ophiuroidea. It is found in circumpolar marine environments in the Northern Hemisphere. The scientific name for the genus comes from the Greek, gorgós meaning "dreadful" and cephalus meaning "head", and refers to the similarity between these basket stars and the Gorgon's head from Greek mythology with its writhing serpents for hair. The specific name "eucnemis" is from the Greek "good" and "boot".
Cliona viridis, commonly called the green boring sponge, is a species of demosponge in the family Clionaidae. Its form varies according to the nature of the surface on which it grows. In limestone and other calcareous substrates it excavates channels and chambers while on other types of rock it encrusts the surface or forms massive structures. It is native to the eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea and the Indo-Pacific Ocean.
Phallusia mammillata is a solitary marine tunicate of the ascidian class found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Berthella ocellata is a species of sea slug, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Pleurobranchidae. It is native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea where it inhabits the shallow sublittoral zone.
Corticium candelabrum is a species of sponge in the order Homosclerophorida. It is native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea where it inhabits the shallow sublittoral zone. The type locality is the Adriatic Sea.
Holothuria hilla is a species of sea cucumber in the subgenus Mertensiothuria of the genus Holothuria. Some common names include the contractile sea cucumber, the sand sifting sea cucumber and the tigertail sea cucumber, and in Hawaii it is known as the light spotted sea cucumber. It is found in the Indo-Pacific region and the Red Sea.
Biemna variantia is a species of sponge in the family Biemnidae. It is native to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. This species was first described in 1858 by the British naturalist James Scott Bowerbank, who gave it the name Halichondria variantia. It was later moved to the genus Biemna and is the type species of the genus. The type locality is Tenby, Wales.
Hymeniacidon kitchingi is a species of sponge in the class Demospongiae. It is found in shallow waters in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. This species was first described in 1935 by the British zoologist Maurice Burton. He placed it in a new genus because of its unusual spicules, and named it Rhaphidostyla kitchingi, in honour of Dr J. A. Kitching, who had collected the original specimen. It was later transferred to the genus Hymeniacidon.
Aplysina aerophoba is a species of sponge in the family Aplysinidae. It is a yellow, tube-forming or encrusting sponge and is native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea; the type locality is the Adriatic Sea.
Dictyota dichotoma is a species of Brown algae found in the temperate western and eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean.
Polymastia penicillus is a species of sponge belonging to the family Polymastiidae. It is found in shallow water in the northeastern and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, growing on rocks in areas of high sedimentation.