Protocotyle euzetmaillardi

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Protocotyle euzetmaillardi
Protocotyle euzetmaillardi body.jpg
Protocotyle euzetmaillardi Justine, 2011
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Monogenea
Order: Diclybothriidea
Family: Hexabothriidae
Genus: Protocotyle
Species:P. euzetmaillardi
Binomial name
Protocotyle euzetmaillardi
Justine, 2011 [1]

Protocotyle euzetmaillardi is a species of monogenean of the family Hexabothriidae.

Monogenea class of worms

Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasitic flatworms commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish. They have a direct lifecycle and do not require an intermediate host. Adults are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive structures. Monogeneans have a series of hooks which are used to attach onto fish, and as a result, could lead to infections.

Hexabothriidae is a family of monogenean parasites. The family name was proposed by Emmett W. Price in 1942. The family includes 14-16 genera according to authors and about 60 species; all are parasitic on the gills of chondrichthyan fishes.

It is the third described species of the genus Protocotyle , after Protocotyle grisea (Cerfontaine, 1899) Euzet & Maillard, 1974 [2] and Protocotyle taschenbergi (Maillard & Oliver,1966 [3] ) Euzet & Maillard, 1974. [2]
The body is 4.5-6.1 millimetres in length, elongate, and it includes, like all monogeneans, a posterior attachment organ called haptor. The haptor is symmetrical, armed with six suckers, each provided with one hook-shaped sclerite, and there is a lateral appendix bearing a single pair of terminal suckers and a single pair of hooks (also called hamuli). There is a single ovary, located at mid-length of the body, and numerous testes, more posterior. The oötype wall has longitudinal rows of large cells (a structure called "ootype côtelé" by Euzet & Maillard, 1974). [2] The eggs are elongate, fusiform, with a single terminal filament.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Protocotyle is a genus of monogeneans in the family Hexabothriidae. The genus was created by Louis Euzet and Claude Maillard in 1974.

Louis Euzet French parasitologist and helminthologist (1923–2013)

Louis Euzet was a French parasitologist.

The species is distinguished from other species of the genus Protocotyle by the following combination of characters: posterior lobe of seminal vesicle absent, diverticulum of oviduct present, and small body size.

The actual individual of bigeyed sixgill shark ( Hexanchus nakamurai ) in which Protocotyle euzetmaillardi was discovered Hexanchus nakamurai JNC2615 body 1.JPG
The actual individual of bigeyed sixgill shark ( Hexanchus nakamurai ) in which Protocotyle euzetmaillardi was discovered

It is ectoparasite on the gills of a deep-sea fish, the bigeyed sixgill shark Hexanchus nakamurai . It has been found off New Caledonia, in the South Pacific Ocean on a single shark in 2008 and never found again since. It is the single species of monogenean known from this shark. Both other species of Protocotyle are parasitic on the gills of the bluntnose sixgill shark Hexanchus griseus ; [3] [4] thus, species of Protocotyle seem to be restricted to species of Hexanchus .

New Caledonia Overseas territory of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean

New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km (750 mi) east of Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou.

Shark superorder of fishes

Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha and are the sister group to the rays. However, the term "shark" has also been used for extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthus, as well as other Chondrichthyes such as the holocephalid eugenedontidans.

The sixgill sharks are a genus, Hexanchus, of deepwater sharks in the family Hexanchidae. These sharks are characterized by a broad, pointed head, six pairs of gill slits, comb-like, yellow lower teeth, and a long tail. The largest species can grow up to 8 m long and weigh over 600 kg (1320 lb). They are continental shelf-dwelling and abyssal plain scavengers with a keen sense of smell and are among the first to arrive at carrion, together with hagfish and rattails. They show a characteristic rolling motion of the head when feeding. They have been found at depths to 2,500 ft (760 m). Though only two extant species were originally known, a third, the Atlantic sixgill shark, was found to exist.

The name of the species, euzetmaillardi, means that it was named in honour of both Professor Louis Euzet, a famous French parasitologist, and Claude Maillard, a collaborator of Professor Louis Euzet, both authors of a major work about hexabothriids. [2]

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Hexanchiformes order of fishes

The Hexanchiformes are the order consisting of the most primitive types of sharks, and numbering just seven extant species. Fossil sharks that were apparently very similar to modern sevengill species are known from Jurassic specimens.

Bigeyed sixgill shark species of shark (Hexanchus nakamurai)

The bigeyed sixgill shark is a cow shark of the family Hexanchidae. Its dorsal surface has a brownish-gray color, and is sharply separated from the light coloring of its ventral surface. The eyes are a fluorescent green while the shark is alive. The body of this shark is small, slim, and fusiform in shape. As the name suggests, this shark has six gill slits, unusual among most shark species. The head is narrow and somewhat flattened, and the mouth contains 5 rows of large, comb-shaped teeth. This shark's single dorsal fin is pushed back towards the caudal fin, and is behind the pelvic fins. The upper caudal fin is much longer than the lower, with a deep notch near the tip. All fins have thin white margins on the edge. In juveniles, the upper caudal fin has a black tip.

Polyopisthocotylea subclass of worms

Polyopisthocotylea is a subclass of parasitic flatworms in the class Monogenea.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus</i> genus of worms

Pseudorhabdosynochus is a genus of monopisthocotylean monogeneans, included in the family Diplectanidae.The type-species of the genus is Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli .

Diplectanidae family of worms

The Diplectanidae are a family of monopisthocotylean monogeneans. They are all parasitic on the gills of fish. Diplectanids are small animals, generally around 1 mm in length. As parasites, they can be extremely numerous, up to several thousand on an individual fish.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of species of groupers. It is the type species of the genus Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958.

Calydiscoides is a genus of monopisthocotylean monogeneans, included in the family Diplectanidae.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus manifestus</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus manifestus is a diplectanid monogenean parasite first found in host Epinephelus malabaricus near Nouméa, between its secondary gill lamellae. It can infest its host by the hundreds. It was ascribed that name because it was the most abundant species found while its descriptive study was taking place. As appreciated from studying juvenile specimens, the development of female organs precedes that of male organs in this species and is likely the case in other Pseudorhabdosynochus species.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus manipulus</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus manipulus is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of the malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. It has been described in 2007.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of the Dusky grouper .

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of groupers. It has been described in 2007 by Lassad Neifar & Louis Euzet. The species name refers to the size of the vagina and is derived from the Greek words “dolicos” meaning long and “colpos” vagina. The species has been redescribed by Amira Chaabane, Lassad Neifar, and Jean-Lou Justine in 2017.

<i>Pseudorhabdosynochus sosia</i> species of worm

Pseudorhabdosynochus sosia is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of groupers. It has been described in 2007 by Lassad Neifar & Louis Euzet. According to Neifar & Euzet, the name of the species refers to Sosia, who in Plautus’ comedy Amphitryon confronts his double, and to the resemblance of the vagina of P. sosia to that of P. beverleyburtonae.

Pseudorhabdosynochus hargisi is species of a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of the White grouper Epinephelus aeneus. It was described in 1984 as Diplectanum hargisi and transferred to the genus Pseudorhabdosynochus by Santos, Buchmann & Gibson in 2000. Its systematic position has been clarified by Kritsky, Bakenhaster & Adams in 2015, who differentiated it from Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus.

Pseudaxine kurra is a species of monogenean, parasitic on the gills of a marine fish. It belongs to the family Gastrocotylidae.

Pseudaxine bivaginalis is a species of monogenean flatworm, which is parasitic on the gills of a marine fish. It belongs to the family Gastrocotylidae.


  1. Justine, Jean-Lou (Jan 2011). "Protocotyle euzetmaillardi n. sp. (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) from the bigeye sixgill shark Hexanchus nakamurai Teng (Elasmobranchii: Hexanchidae) off New Caledonia". Systematic Parasitology. 78 (1): 41–55. doi:10.1007/s11230-010-9275-6. PMID   21161490.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Euzet, L. & Maillard, C. 1974: Les Monogènes Hexabothriidae Price, 1942. Historique, systématique, phylogenèse. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 3° série, 206, Zoologie 136, 113-141. PDF Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  3. 1 2 Maillard, C. & Oliver, G. 1966: Monogenea, Hexabothriidae. Vie et Milieu Série A: Biologie marine, 17, 1201-1216.
  4. Laubier, L., Maillard, C. & Oliver, G. 1966: Contribution à l'étude des parasites du "griset": Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre, 1788). Vie et Milieu, Série A: Biologie marine, 17, 1197-1199.