This is a list of public holidays in Iraq.
|January 1||New Year's Day|
|January 6||Armed Forces Day|
|April 9||Liberation Day||Iraqi Kurdistan only. Celebrates the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime.|
|May 1||Labour Day|
|July 14||Republic Day|
|October 3||National Day||Iraqi Independence Day. Celebrates the independence of Iraq from the United Kingdom in 1932|
|December 10||Victory Day||Celebrates the defeat of the Islamic State in Iraq in 2017|
|December 25||Christmas Day|
|variable Islamic||Islamic New Year|
|End of Ramadan (3 days)|
|Feast of the Sacrifice (4 days)|
These are working days at the KRG Council of Ministers, and businesses are open. Special events take place around the Iraqi Kurdistan Region to mark these dates.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq. It is also referred to as Southern Kurdistan, as Kurds generally consider it to be one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey, northern Syria, and northwestern Iran.
Sulaymaniyah, also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan. It is surrounded by the Azmer Range, Goyija Range and the Qaiwan Range in the northeast, Baranan Mountain in the south and the Tasluja Hills in the west. The city has a semi-arid climate with very hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Sulaymaniyah served as the capital of the historic principality of Baban from 1784 to 1850.
Duhok is the capital of the Duhok Governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. The city is encircled by mountains along the Tigris river. Duhok has a growing tourist industry. Its population has increased rapidly since the 1990s, as the rural population moved to the cities after villages were destroyed by the Iraqi army. The University of Duhok, founded in 1992, is a renowned center for teaching and research. The city of Duhok is populated by Kurds and Assyrians.
Halabja is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about 240 km (150 mi) northeast of Baghdad and 14 km (9 mi) from the Iranian border.
Kurdistan or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages, and national identity have historically been based. Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges. The territory corresponds to Kurdish irredentist claims.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds. It was committed during the Al-Anfal campaign led by Ali Hassan al-Majid against Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War.
Peshmerga are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan. Because the Iraqi Army is forbidden by Iraqi law to enter Iraqi Kurdistan, the Peshmerga, along with their security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the regions in Iraqi Kurdistan. These subsidiaries include Asayish, Parastin u Zanyarî and the Zeravani. It has been argued that peshmerge itself predates Iraq, starting out as a strictly tribal pseudo-military border guard under the Ottomans and Safavids to a well-trained, disciplined guerrilla force in the 19th century.
Kurdish women have traditionally played important roles in Kurdish society and politics. In general Kurdish women's rights and equality have improved dramatically in the 21st century due to progressive movements within Kurdish society. However, despite the progress, Kurdish and international women's rights organizations still report problems related to gender equality, forced marriages, honor killings and in Iraqi Kurdistan also female genital mutilation (FGM).
Masoud Barzani is a Kurdish politician who was President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017. However, Barzani’s post sparked controversy, as his mandate expired 19 August 2015. He is also leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) since 1979.
The Iraqi Kurdish Civil War was a military conflict that took place between rival Kurdish factions in Iraqi Kurdistan during the mid-1990s, most notably between the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party. Over the course of the conflict, Kurdish factions from Iranian and Turkish Kurdistan, as well as Iranian, Iraqi and Turkish state forces, were drawn into the fighting, with additional involvement from American forces. Between 3,000 and 5,000 fighters and civilians were killed.
Erbil, also spelled Arbil, locally called Hewlêr by the Kurds, is the capital city of Kurdistan and the most populated city in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iraq. It is located approximately in the center of Iraqi Kurdistan region and north of Iraq. It has about 850,000 inhabitants, and Erbil governorate has a permanent population of 2,009,367 as of 2015.
The 2011 Kurdish protests in Iraq were a series of demonstrations and riots against the Kurdistan Regional Government in northern Iraq. The autonomous region of experienced protests distinct from protests elsewhere in Iraq, which took place concurrent with the Kurdish protests. These Kurdish protests were also related to the Kurdish protests in Turkey and protests in Iran, as well as a general uprising in Syria joined and supported by Syrian Kurds.
The status of women in Iraq at the beginning of the 21st century is affected by many factors: wars, sectarian religious conflict, debates concerning Islamic law and Iraq's Constitution, cultural traditions, and modern secularism. Hundreds of thousands of Iraqi women are widowed as a result of a series of wars and internal conflicts. Women's rights organizations struggle against harassment and intimidation, while they work to promote improvements to women's status in the law, in education, the workplace, and many other spheres of Iraqi life, and to curtail abusive traditional practices such as honor killings and forced marriages.
The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (NES), commonly referred to as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria. It consists of self-governing sub-regions in the areas of Afrin, Jazira, Euphrates, Raqqa, Tabqa, Manbij and Deir Ez-Zor. The region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 in the context of the ongoing Rojava conflict and the wider Syrian Civil War, where its official military force, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) has taken part. While entertaining some foreign relations, the region is not officially recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria or any international state or organization. Northeastern Syria is polyethnic and home to sizeable ethnic Kurdish, Arab and Assyrian populations, with smaller communities of ethnic Turkmen, Armenians and Chechens.
Human rights in Iraqi Kurdistan refer to the human rights issue in the autonomous area of Iraqi Kurdistan, which is under the jurisdiction of Kurdistan Regional Government since 1992.
Halabja Governorate or Halabja Province is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. The governorate was established in 2014, splitting off from Sulaymaniyah Governorate and becoming the sixth governorate in Northern Iraq. Its capital is the city of Halabja.
An independence referendum for Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017, with preliminary results showing approximately 93.25 percent of votes cast in favour of independence. Despite reporting that the independence referendum would be non-binding, the autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) characterised it as binding, although they claimed that an affirmative result would trigger the start of state building and negotiations with Iraq rather than an immediate declaration of independence of Kurdistan. The referendum's legality was rejected by the federal government of Iraq.
The Women's Protection Units or Women's Defense Units is an all-female militia actively fighting in Northern Syria. The YPJ is one of the main two armed forces in Rojava, the other being the People's Protection Units militia, which includes both men and women. While the YPJ, and the YPG in general, is mainly associated with Kurds, the organization also includes other ethnoreligious groups of Northern Syria.
Kurdistan Freedom Party,, abbreviated as PAK, is a Kurdish political party active in both Iranian and Iraqi Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran. The group was founded in 1991 although it was first called Revolutionary Union of Kurdistan and changed its name to PAK shortly before 2007. One of the leading figures of the group is Hussein Yazdanpanah, often named as secretary general of the Party.
Hungary–Kurdistan Region relations are bilateral relations between Hungary and the Kurdistan Region. Hungary has been represented in Kurdistan Region through a consulate general since November 2014, while Kurdistan Region has no representation in Hungary. Nevertheless, the relations are characterized by several high-level talks and close ties. The Kurdish President Massoud Barzani has visited Hungary in 2012 and in 2015 on official visits.
Bulgaria–Kurdistan Region relations are bilateral relations between Bulgaria and the Kurdistan Region. Bulgaria is represented in Kurdistan Region through a commercial office in Erbil since 2014, while Kurdistan Region has no representation in Bulgaria. In 2012, Kurdish President Massoud Barzani travelled to Bulgaria on an official visit and met with Bulgarian President Rosen Plevneliev and Prime Minister Boyko Borisov. In May 2017, President Barzani met with President Boyko Borislov on an official visit to Bulgaria.