|Part of the Hundred Years' War|
Edward III before Reims
|Commanders and leaders|
The Reims campaign took place during the Hundred Years' War. It occurred after the French de facto government rejected the terms of the Treaty of London and consequently Edward III of England organised and commanded an expeditionary army to gain by force what he had failed to win by diplomacy. On 28 October 1359 Edward landed at Calais, and advanced to Reims, where he hoped to be crowned king of France. The strenuous resistance of the citizens frustrated this scheme, and Edward marched into Burgundy, and then he made his way back towards Paris. Failing in an attack on the capital, he was glad to conclude, on 8 May 1360, preliminaries of peace at Brétigny, near Chartres. This treaty, less onerous to France than that of London, took its final form when Edward and John ratified the treaty in Calais on 9 October 1360. By it Edward renounced his claim to France in return for Aquitaine and other French territories in full sovereignty.
After his defeat and capture at the Battle of Poitiers (19 September 1356), the King John II of France accompanied the Black Prince to England, where he remained a prisoner of Edward III of England.
In March 1359 the Treaty of London was made between the kings of France and England by which John, who was still a prisoner in England, surrendered to Edward the whole of the south-east of France from Poitou to Gascony, with Calais, Guisnes, and Ponthieu in full sovereignty, and was to ransom himself and his lords for four million crowns, while Edward gave up his claims to the crown and the provinces north of the Loire, formerly held by his ancestors. France its bargaining position was very weak already after the Battle of Poitiers, and after the Jacquerie and the rebellion of Etienne Marcel in Paris it was further weakened. This treaty was however repudiated by Charles, the regent of France, with the consent of the Estates General, and so Edward prepared for war.
The Flemings, who were now on good terms with their count, Louis II, Count of Flanders, had deserted the English alliance and now drove the English merchants into Brabant. On the other hand Sir Robert Knolles and other leaders of the free companies that desolated France put themselves under Edward's command, and so many foreign lords and knights flocked to Calais to serve under him, that he was forced to send Henry, Duke of Lancaster to satisfy them by leading them on a plundering expedition.
Having raised an immense force, and furnished it with everything that could be needed during a long campaign, Edward III sailed from Sandwich on 28 October and arrived at Calais the same day.The adventurers who had gained little booty by their raid, were clamorous for pay, but he told them that he had nothing for them, and that they might please themselves as to serving under him, though he would give those who did so a good share of the spoil. He marched through Artois and Cambresis to Rheims, where he intended to be crowned king of France, and laid siege to the city on 30 November. Charles, the regent of France, did not attack him, but the city was strong and as his men suffered from the weather and bad quarters he broke up the siege on 11 January 1360, led his army into Burgundy, and took Tonnerre, where his soldiers were refreshed with three thousand butts of wine. After remaining there some days he removed to Guillen on the borders of the duchy, encamped there on 19 February, and remained till mid-Lent.
On 10 March Duke Philip bought Edward III off by a payment of two hundred thousand gold 'moutons',and he then marched to Paris and encamped between Montlhéry and Châtres, lodging at the castle of Saint-Germain-lès-Arpajon. Edward did not succeed in provoking Charles, the regent of France, to battle, and on 6 April marched towards the Loire, intending to refresh his men in Brittany and commence operations again later in the year. However, on 13 April 1360 (Black Monday), the English army was hit by a hailstorm and suffered a loss of over 1,000. Meanwhile, on 15 March, a French fleet had appeared at Winchelsea, carrying a large force of soldiers, who plundered the town and were at last driven to their ships.
These events improved the French position and Charles, the regent of France, now pressed for peace. The Edward, the Black Prince took the principal part on the English side in the negations, and the preliminary truce arranged at Chartres on 7 May was drawn up by proctors acting in his name and the name of Charles, Duke of Normandy, the regent of France.The terms of the Treaty of Brétigny at Brétigny, near Chartres were agreed on 8 May.
By the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny the whole of the ancient province of Aquitaine, together with Calais, Guisnes, and Ponthieu, was ceded to Edward. Edward renounced his claim to the crown, to the provinces north of the Loire, and to the overlordship of Flanders. The right to Brittany was left undecided, and provision was made that any future struggle for the duchy between the two competitors should not involve a breach of the treaty. The ransom to be paid for King John II, was fixed at three million gold crowns, at an exchange rate of two to the noble, six thousand to be paid in four months, and hostages to be delivered, and the king to be then set free.These terms were slightly more favourable to the French compared to the Treaty of London.
Edward returned thanks in the cathedral of Chartres, and then embarked at Honfleur,landing at Rye on 18 May. On 9 October Edward crossed to Calais, and on the 24 October, with some amendments, finally ratified the Treaty of Brétigny, in the church of Saint-Nicolas, received payment and hostages, and liberating John II, to whom he accorded the title of king of France. Edward returned to England at the beginning of November and kept Christmas at Woodstock.
The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John, along with his youngest son, and much of the French nobility who were present.
Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England, and the heir to the English throne. He died before his father and so his son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne instead. Edward nevertheless earned distinction as one of the most successful English commanders during the Hundred Years' War, being regarded by his English contemporaries as a model of chivalry and one of the greatest knights of his age. He is on the other hand remembered in France for his well documented brutality and the massacres he ordered.
Charles V, called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death. His reign marked an early high point for France during the Hundred Years' War, with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, and successfully reversed the military losses of his predecessors.
John II, called John the Good, was King of France from 1350 until his death.
Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset was an important Lancastrian military commander during the English Wars of the Roses. He is sometimes numbered the 2nd Duke of Somerset, because the title was re-created for his father after his uncle died. He also held the subsidiary titles of 5th Earl of Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and 2nd Earl of Dorset.
The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France. In retrospect, it is seen as having marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) as well as the height of English power on the Continent.
The Treaty of London was proposed by England, accepted by France, and signed in 1359. After Edward the Black Prince soundly defeated the French at Poitiers, where they captured John II of France, the French king was forced to accept the terms of the English. Based on the terms of the accord, England was permitted to annex much of western France, including Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Aquitaine within its ancient limits, Calais and Ponthieu, as well as suzerainty over the Duchy of Brittany. This would restore the ancient territories of Henry II, and in full sovereignty rather than as a fief. In addition, France would pay a ransom of four million écus for the king.
Guînes is a commune in the northern French department of Pas-de-Calais. Historically it was spelt Guisnes.
Ponthieu was one of six feudal counties that eventually merged to become part of the Province of Picardy, in northern France. Its chief town is Abbeville.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.
The Edwardian War was the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England. It was named after King Edward III of England, who claimed the French throne in defiance of King Philip VI of France. The dynastic conflict was caused by disputes over the French feudal sovereignty over Aquitaine and the English claims over the French royal title. The Kingdom of England and its allies dominated this phase of the war.
Arnoul d'Audrehem was a Marshal of France, who fought in the Hundred Years' War.
The ransom of King John II of France was an incident during the Hundred Years War between France and England. Following the English capture of the French king during the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, John was held for ransom by the English crown. Finally settled in the Treaty of Brétigny, the incident had serious consequences for the degrading stability of France and helped increase English power.
The Pale of Calais was a region in what is now France, controlled by the monarchs of England following the Battle of Crécy in 1346 and the subsequent siege. A Pale is an "area, jurisdiction". Its capture by the English is the subject of Auguste Rodin's 1889 sculpture The Burghers of Calais. In 1558, the expanding Kingdom of France annexed the Pale of Calais in the aftermath of the Siege of Calais.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts in Western Europe from 1337 to 1453, waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of stronger national identities in both countries.
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France were the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.
A free company was an army of mercenaries between the 12th and 14th centuries recruited by private employers during wars. They acted independently of any government, and were thus "free". They regularly made a living by plunder when they were not employed; in France they were the routiers and écorcheurs who operated outside the highly structured law of arms. The term "free company" is most applied to those companies of soldiers which formed after the Peace of Brétigny during the Hundred Years' War and were active mainly in France, but it has been applied to other companies, such as the Catalan Company and companies that operated elsewhere, such as in Italy and the Holy Roman Empire.
The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France. It commenced on 21 October 1422 upon the death of King Charles VI of France, who had signed the Treaty of Troyes which gave the French crown to his son-in-law Henry V of England and Henry's heirs. It excluded King Charles's son, the Dauphin Charles, who by right of primogeniture was the heir to the Kingdom of France. Although the Treaty was ratified by the Estates-General of France, the act was a contravention of the French law of succession which decreed that the French crown could not be alienated. Henry VI, son of Henry V, became king of both England and France and was recognized only by the English and Burgundians until 1435 as King Henry II of France. He was crowned King of France on 16 December 1431.
Black Monday took place on Easter Monday (1360) during the Hundred Years' War (1337–60), when a freak hail storm struck and killed an estimated 1,000 English soldiers. The storm was so devastating that it caused more English casualties than any of the previous battles of the war.
The Truce of Calais was a truce agreed to by King Edward III of England and King Philip VI of France on 28 September 1347, that was mediated by Pope Clement VI. Originally agreed to last for nine months, it was repeatedly renewed until 1355.