Siege of Breteuil

Last updated

Siege of Breteuil
Part of the Edwardian Phase of the Hundred Years' War
Siege of a city, medieval miniature.jpg
A Medieval depiction of a fortification being assaulted
DateApril 20 August 1356
Location 48°50′13″N0°54′53″E / 48.8369°N 0.9147°E / 48.8369; 0.9147 Coordinates: 48°50′13″N0°54′53″E / 48.8369°N 0.9147°E / 48.8369; 0.9147
Result French victory
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Navarre.svg Navarrese garrison Blason pays fr FranceAncien.svg Kingdom of France
Commanders and leaders
Blason comte fr Valois.svg John II of France
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The siege of Breteuil was the investment of the Norman town of Breteuil, held by partisans of Charles II, King of Navarre, by French forces. It lasted from April to about 20 August 1346. It was interrupted on 5 July when a small English army commanded by Henry, Earl of Lancaster relieved and resupplied it. The French king, John II attempted to bring Lancaster to battle with the much larger French royal army, but Lancaster marched away and the attempt failed. John then renewed the siege of Breteuil.


The French force attracted great contemporary praise for its splendour and the high status of many of its participants. However, it made little progress as the town was well garrisoned and had been left by Lancaster with food for a year. John attempted to mine under the walls, to no avail. Meanwhile, the Black Prince, son and heir of the English King, had assembled an Anglo-Gascon army at Bergerac and marched into French-held territory, devastating the countryside as he went. At some point in August an unusually large mobile siege tower was pushed up to the walls of Breteuil and a large assault launched. The defenders set fire to the tower and repulsed the attack, inflicting many casualties. Taking Breteuil became a matter of prestige for John and he refused to take the army south to face the Black Prince.

Eventually, some time around 20 August, John gave the garrison of Breteuil free passage to the Cotentin and a huge bribe in order to persuade them to vacate Breteuil. The French army promptly marched south as all available forces were concentrated at Chartres to oppose the Black Prince. John and his army pursued the Black Prince's force, cut off their retreat and forced it to battle at Poitiers. The French army was heavily defeated by the Black Prince's smaller force and John was captured, along with most of his court and much of the nobility of France.


Since the Norman Conquest of 1066, English monarchs had held titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals of the kings of France. [1] On 24 May 1337, following a series of disagreements between Philip VI of France (r. 1328–1350) and Edward III of England (r. 1327–1377), Philip's Great Council in Paris agreed that the lands held by Edward III in France should be taken into Philip's direct control on the grounds that Edward III was in breach of his obligations as a vassal. This marked the start of the Hundred Years' War, which was to last 116 years. [2]

In 1346 Edward led an army across northern France, defeating the French at the Battle of Crécy and laying siege to the port of Calais. With French finances and morale low after Crécy, Philip failed to relieve the town and it surrendered on 3 August 1347. [3] [4] Following further inconclusive military manoeuvres by each side, and given that both sides were financially exhausted, emissaries despatched by Pope Clement VI found willing listeners. By 28 September the Truce of Calais, intended to bring a temporary halt to the fighting, had been agreed. This strongly favoured the English, confirming them in possession of all of their territorial conquests. [5] It was to run for nine months to 7 July 1348, but was extended repeatedly over the years until it was formally set aside in 1355. [6] The truce did not stop ongoing naval clashes between the two countries, nor small-scale fighting in Gascony and the Duchy of Brittany, nor occasional fighting on a larger scale. [7] [8]

A treaty ending the war was negotiated at Guînes and signed on 6 April 1354. The French king, now John II, decided not to ratify it and it did not take effect. The latest extension to the truce was due to expire on 24 June. It was clear that from then both sides would be committed to full-scale war. [9] [10] In April 1355 Edward and his council, with the treasury in an unusually favourable financial position, decided to launch offensives that year in both Northern France and Gascony. [11] [12] John attempted to strongly garrison his northern towns and fortifications against the expected descent by Edward III, at the same time assembling a field army; after allocating garrisons the French field army was unimpressive, largely due to lack of money to recruit more men. [13]


While French attention was focused on the north [14] [15] Edward III's eldest son, Edward of Woodstock, later commonly known as the Black Prince, arrived in Bordeaux, the capital of English-held Gascony, in September 1355 accompanied by 2,200 English soldiers. [16] [17] [18] During October and November 1355 an Anglo-Gascon force of between 5,000 and 6,000 men marched from Bordeaux 300 miles (480 km) to Narbonne and back to Gascony. Known as the Black Prince's chevauchée, it devastated a wide swathe of French territory and sacked many French towns. [19] [20] While no territory was captured, enormous economic damage was done to France; [21] the modern historian Clifford Rogers concluded that "the importance of the economic attrition of the chevauchée can hardly be exaggerated." [22] The English component resumed the offensive after Christmas to great effect, and more than 50 French-held towns or fortifications in south-west France were captured during the following four months. [23] Several local lords went over to the English, bringing a further 30 fortified places with them. [24]

Money and enthusiasm for the war were running out in France. The modern historian Jonathan Sumption describes the French national administration as "fall[ing] apart in jealous acrimony and recrimination". [25] Much of the north of France was openly defying John and a contemporary chronicler recorded that "the King of France was severely hated in his own realm". The town of Arras rebelled and killed loyalists. The major nobles of Normandy refused to pay taxes. On 5 April 1356 several of these nobles were dining at the table of Charles, John's eldest son, the dauphin, when John arrived and arrested ten of the most outspoken; four were summarily executed. [26] The Norman nobles who had not been arrested sent to Navarre for reinforcements [27] and turned to Edward for assistance. One of those imprisoned was the notoriously treacherous Charles II, King of Navarre, who was one of the largest landholders in Normandy. [26] [note 1] The Norman nobles who had not been arrested, sent to Navarre for reinforcements, where one of Charles' younger brothers, Louis, was administering the country. On receiving the news Louis began raising troops. [27]

First siege

Normandy, with Breteuil shown a little to the right of centre Carte Normandie Historique.png
Normandy, with Breteuil shown a little to the right of centre

The French took control of most of Normandy and laid siege to those fortifications which refused to surrender. [30] The Cotentin area in the north-west was pro-Navarrese, but the French concentrated on mopping up Navarrese strongholds in central Normandy. [31] Charles, who was also the duke of Normandy, took charge of suppressing these holdouts. [32] The major Navarrese strongholds in central Normandy were Pont-Audemer, Breteuil, Tillières-sur-Avre and Évreux. [33] The French King was at Chartres concentrating an army with which to respond to whatever moves the English might make. [34] An arrière-ban , a formal call to arms for all able-bodied males, was announced by the French on 14 May. The response was unenthusiastic and the call was repeated in late May and again in early June. [35]

Évreux was the capital of Navarre's holdings in Normandy as Count of Évreux and Charles took personal command of its siege, ordering several assaults, which were unsuccessful. [36] In early June another attack breached the walls and the defenders were forced back to the citadel, leaving the town in flames. A surrender of the citadel was negotiated, in exchange for granting the garrison, which included Navarre's senior councillors, free passage to Breteuil. [37] The town of Pont-Audemer fell to a French force commanded by Robert de Houdetot, but as with Évreux the citadel held out. Houdetot ordered assaults on the citadel, which failed; so he drove mines towards its walls in an attempt to sap them. [36] The third Navarrese-held town in central Normandy, Breteuil, was a walled town with a strong citadel, built some 300 years earlier. [note 2] The town was prosperous, but as a fortification it was strategically unimportant. [40] It was besieged by a large French force, but no siege works were undertaken against it. [41]

Philip of Navarre, another younger brother of Charles of Navarre, took command of several adherents of his brother and withdrew to the northern Cotentin. From there he appealed to the English king for military assistance. [42] Edward decided to back the Navarrese. He had been preparing an expedition to Brittany under Henry, Earl of Lancaster, as part of the War of the Breton Succession; Edward diverted this to Normandy to support the French rebels. [30] On 18 June 1356 Lancaster arrived at St. Vaast la Hogue in the north-east Cotentin [32] with 500 men-at-arms and 800 longbowmen. They were reinforced by 200 Normans under Philip of Navarre. The English commander Robert Knolles joined Lancaster in Montebourg with a further 800 men detached from English garrisons in Brittany. The historian Clifford Rogers suggests that these 2,300 men [note 3] were reinforced by up to 1,700 men from Navarrese-held fortifications over the following month. [43]


Henry of Lancaster Portrait of Henry, Duke of Lancaster - William Bruges's Garter Book (c.1440-1450), f.8 - BL Stowe MS 594 (cropped).jpg
Henry of Lancaster

On 24 June the English set out from Montebourg, burning and looting their way through western Normandy. Lancaster's small army arrived at Pont-Audemer on the 30th. The town was close to falling, as the French had nearly succeeded in driving their mines under its walls. They fled on hearing of Lancaster's approach, abandoning their baggage and siege equipment. The English spent two days provisioning the town and filling in the French excavations. Detaching 100 men to reinforce the garrison, Lancaster marched south on 2 July, reaching Breteuil on the 5th. Its besiegers retired in good order, and it was resupplied sufficiently to stand a siege for a year. [34] [44] [45]

The English continued their march on 4 July to Verneuil, seized it, looted it and took prisoner anyone who it was considered might be worth a ransom. The citadel held out until the 6th, when its defenders negotiated a surrender. [39] The attack on Verneuil was probably motivated by the prospect of looting a rich town; [41] no attempt was made to relieve Navarrese-held Tillières-sur-Avre, 7 miles (11 km) to the east. [46] The same day Vereuil's citadel fell, reports of the approach of the French army were being received. It was much stronger than the English force, with perhaps ten times the number of men. It had moved to Condé-sur-Iton from Rouen and so was 3 miles (5 km) from the freshly-provisioned Breteuil and only 7 miles (11 km) from Verneuil. On the 7th Lancaster rested his men and horses, [47] [48] but they did so arrayed in battle order outside Verneuil in case of a French attack. [48]

The French at Condé-sur-Iton also rested, having marched hard to get there in two days from Rouen; in addition John probably wished for all of his stragglers and detachments to join his army before offering battle. On the 8th the English marched 14 miles (23 km) west to L'Aigle. [49] The French army, which Rogers describes as "vastly superior ... in numbers", halted 2 or 3 miles (3 to 5 km) away. [50] John sent heralds to Lancaster inviting him to commit his force to a formal battle. Lancaster replied ambiguously, but John, convinced that Lancaster's main reason for landing in Normandy was to seek a battle, believed that an agreement had been reached and camped for the night. [note 4] [52] [53] The English, however, broke camp during the night and set off on a long march of 28 miles (45 km) to Argentan. Attempting a pursuit was clearly hopeless, [54] so the French returned to Breteuil and re-established their siege. [51] A force was sent to Tillières-sur-Avre, which promptly capitulated. [46]

Second siege

A contemporary image of John II JeanIIdFrance.jpg
A contemporary image of John II

John took personal charge of this second siege, which commenced on 12 July. The royal army attracted great contemporary praise for its splendour and the high status of many of its participants. However, it made little progress, as Breteuil was well garrisoned and had been left by Lancaster with food for a year. Numbers alone could not overcome its strong defences. John attempted to mine under the walls, something which Norman fortifications were frequently susceptible to; on this occasion it was to no avail. [55]

Meanwhile, the Black Prince had assembled an Anglo-Gascon army at Bergerac and on 4 August it marched north 6,000 strong, devastating the countryside as it went. [56] The French had been concerned regarding a possible offensive by the Black Prince since at least 26 July. At some point in August an unusually large belfry, or mobile siege tower, was pushed up to the walls of Breteuil and a large assault launched. The defenders set fire to the belfry and repulsed the attack. Sumption describes the French losses in this attack as "terrible" and the entire second siege as "a pointless endeavour". [57] The historian Kenneth Fowler describes the siege as "magnificent but archaic". [58]

Despite it being clear that Breteuil could be neither stormed nor starved, John felt unable to abandon the siege as this would undermine his prestige as a warrior-king. He declined to march against the Black Prince, declaring that the garrison of Breteuil posed a more serious threat. Eventually he had to give way to the pressure to do something to prevent the destruction being wrecked in south-west France. Some time around 20 August he gave the garrison of Breteuil free passage to the Cotentin, a huge bribe and permission to take their valuables and goods, in order to persuade them to vacate the town. The French army promptly marched south, as all available forces were concentrated against the Black Prince. [59]


Philip of Navarre and Godfrey d'Harcourt (a prominent and influential Norman noble) acknowledged Edward III as king of France and did homage to him for their Norman lands. [60] [61] Lancaster moved on to Brittany with 2,500 men. [58]

John assembled the royal army at Chartres and pursued the Anglo-Gascons under the Black Prince. He succeeded in cutting off their retreat and forced them to battle at Poitiers. The French army was heavily defeated by the Black Prince's smaller force and John was captured, along with most of his court and much of the nobility of France. [62]

Notes, citations and sources


  1. Known as "Charles the Bad", he had repeatedly plotted with the English and in 1354 had murdered the constable of France, one of John's closest advisors, in his bedroom and boasted of it. [28] [29]
  2. The citadel, known as the Grey Tower (Tour Grise), had been constructed by the English king Henry I (r. 1100–1135) [38] [39]
  3. Lancaster's initial force of 2,300 men was made up of 900 men-at-arms and 1,400 archers, mostly longbowmen. [43]
  4. Lancaster having spent the day of the 7th stationary in battle order outside Verneuil probably contributed to John's belief that the English were eager for battle. [51]


  1. Prestwich 2007, p. 394.
  2. Sumption 1990, p. 184.
  3. Jaques 2007, p. 184.
  4. Burne 1999, pp. 144–147, 182–183, 204–205.
  5. Sumption 1990, p. 585.
  6. Wagner 2006a, pp. 74–75.
  7. Wagner 2006a, p. 74.
  8. Harari 2007, p. 114.
  9. Wagner 2006c, pp. 142–143.
  10. Sumption 1999, pp. 139–142.
  11. Sumption 1999, pp. 153, 160.
  12. Madden 2014, p. 6.
  13. Sumption 1999, pp. 171–172.
  14. Sumption 1999, p. 174.
  15. Madden 2014, pp. 14–15, 359.
  16. Curry 2002, p. 40.
  17. Sumption 1999, pp. 168, 175.
  18. Madden 2014, pp. 79ff.
  19. Burne 1999, pp. 252, 258.
  20. Curry 2002, p. 43.
  21. Rogers 2014, p. 324.
  22. Rogers 1994, p. 101.
  23. Burne 1999, p. 259.
  24. Rogers 2014, p. 330.
  25. Sumption 1999, pp. 102, 111, 115.
  26. 1 2 Rogers 2014, pp. 332–334.
  27. 1 2 Sumption 1999, p. 209.
  28. Sumption 1999, pp. 124–125.
  29. Wagner 2006b, pp. 93–94.
  30. 1 2 Rogers 2014, p. 341.
  31. Rogers 2014, p. 334.
  32. 1 2 Fowler 1969, p. 151.
  33. Rogers 2014, p. 342.
  34. 1 2 Fowler 1969, p. 152.
  35. Sumption 1999, p. 211.
  36. 1 2 Sumption 1999, p. 208.
  37. Sumption 1999, pp. 208, 220.
  38. Burne 1999, p. 267.
  39. 1 2 Rogers 2014, p. 345.
  40. Sumption 1999, pp. 211, 224.
  41. 1 2 Sumption 1999, p. 221.
  42. Sumption 1999, pp. 208–209.
  43. 1 2 Rogers 2014, p. 341, 341 n.70.
  44. Rogers 2014, pp. 342, 344.
  45. Burne 1999, pp. 265–267.
  46. 1 2 Sumption 1999, p. 222.
  47. Burne 1999, pp. 263, 267–269, 271–272.
  48. 1 2 Rogers 2014, pp. 345–346.
  49. Burne 1999, pp. 268, 272.
  50. Rogers 2014, p. 346.
  51. 1 2 Rogers 2014, p. 347.
  52. Rogers 2014, pp. 346–347.
  53. Burne 1999, p. 268.
  54. Burne 1999, pp. 269–270.
  55. Sumption 1999, pp. 223–224.
  56. Rogers 2014, pp. 352–353.
  57. Sumption 1999, p. 224.
  58. 1 2 Fowler 1969, p. 154.
  59. Sumption 1999, p. 225.
  60. Burne 1999, p. 271.
  61. Fowler 1969, p. 153.
  62. Wagner 2006a, p. 20.


  • Burne, Alfred (1999) [1955]. The Crecy War. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions. ISBN   978-1-84022-210-4.
  • Curry, Anne (2002). The Hundred Years' War 1337–1453 (PDF). Oxford: Osprey Publishing (published 2002-11-13). ISBN   978-1-84176-269-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-09-27.
  • Fowler, Kenneth (1969). The King's Lieutenant: Henry of Grosmont, First Duke of Lancaster, 1310–1361 . New York: Barnes & Noble. OCLC   164491035.
  • Harari, Yuval N. (2007). "For a Sack-full of Gold Écus: Calais 1350". Special Operations in the Age of Chivalry, 1100–1550. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. pp. 109–124. ISBN   978-1-84383-292-8.
  • Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN   978-0-313-33537-2.
  • Madden, Mollie Marie (2014). The Black Prince at War: The Anatomy of a Chevauchée (PDF) (PhD thesis). Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
  • Prestwich, Michael (2007). Plantagenet England 1225–1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-922687-0.
  • Rogers, Clifford J. (1994). "Edward III and the Dialectics of Strategy, 1327-1360". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 4: 83–102. doi:10.2307/3679216. JSTOR   3679216. OCLC   931311378.
  • Rogers, Clifford J. (2014) [2000]. War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327–1360. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN   978-0-85115-804-4.
  • Sumption, Jonathan (1990). Trial by Battle. The Hundred Years' War. I. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN   978-0-571-20095-5.
  • Sumption, Jonathan (1999). Trial by Fire. The Hundred Years' War. II. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN   978-0-571-13896-8.
  • Wagner, John A. (2006a). "Calais, Truce of (1347)". Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 74–75. ISBN   978-0-313-32736-0.
  • Wagner, John A. (2006b). "Charles the Bad, King of Navarre (1332–1387)". Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 74–75. ISBN   978-0-313-32736-0.
  • Wagner, John A. (2006c). "Guines, Treaty of". Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 160–164. ISBN   978-0-313-32736-0.

Related Research Articles

Charles II of Navarre King of Navarre

Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 14th-century English duke

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster was an English statesman, diplomat, soldier, and Christian writer. The owner of Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, Grosmont was a member of the House of Plantagenet, which was ruling over England at that time. He was the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm.

Siege of Calais (1346–1347) Siege by King Edward III during the Hundred Years War

The siege of Calais occurred at the conclusion of the Crécy campaign, when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French town of Calais during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Blanchetaque Battle during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Blanchetaque was fought on 24 August 1346 between an English army under King Edward III and a French force commanded by Godemar du Fay. The battle was part of the Crécy campaign, which took place during the early stages of the Hundred Years' War. After landing in the Cotentin Peninsula on 12 July, the English army had burnt a path of destruction through some of the richest lands in France to within 20 miles (32 km) of Paris, sacking a number of towns on the way. The English then marched north, hoping to link up with an allied Flemish army which had invaded from Flanders. They were outmanoeuvred by the French king, Philip VI, who garrisoned all of the bridges and fords over the River Somme and followed the English with his own field army. The area had previously been stripped of food stocks by the French, and the English were essentially trapped.

Battle of Auberoche Battle during the Hundred Years War (1345)

The Battle of Auberoche was fought on 21 October 1345 during the Gascon campaign of 1345 between an Anglo-Gascon force of 1,200 men under Henry, Earl of Derby, and a French army of 7,000 commanded by Louis of Poitiers. It was fought at the village of Auberoche near Périgueux in northern Aquitaine. At the time, Gascony was a territory of the English Crown and the "English" army included a large proportion of native Gascons. The battle resulted in a heavy defeat for the French, who suffered very high casualties, with their leaders killed or captured.

Battle of Caen (1346) Battle during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Caen was an assault conducted on 26 July 1346 by forces from the Kingdom of England, led by King Edward III, on the French-held town of Caen and Normandy as a part of the Hundred Years' War.

Philip of Navarre, Count of Longueville (1336–1363) was a younger brother and supporter of Charles II of Navarre, a claimant to the French throne. The son of Philip III of Navarre and Joan II of Navarre, he married Yolande of Flanders in 1353. She was the daughter of Robert of Flanders and Joan of Brittany and the widow of Henry IV of Bar. The marriage was childless, though by his mistress Jeannette d'Aisy Philip had two illegitimate children - Lancelot and Robine. Philip and his brother Charles fought against John II of France in 1353.

Battle of Bergerac Battle during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Bergerac was fought between Anglo-Gascon and French forces at the town of Bergerac in Gascony, in August 1345 during the Hundred Years' War. In early 1345 Edward III of England decided to launch a major attack on the French from the north, while sending smaller forces to Brittany and Gascony, the latter being both economically important to the English war effort and the proximate cause of the war. The French focused on the threat to northern France, leaving comparatively small forces in the south west.

Battle of Calais Battle of the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Calais took place in 1350 when an English force defeated an unsuspecting French army which was attempting to take the city. Despite a truce being in effect the French commander Geoffrey de Charny had planned to take the city by subterfuge, and bribed Amerigo of Pavia, an Italian officer of the city garrison, to open a gate for them. The English king, Edward III, became aware of the plot and personally led his household knights and the Calais garrison in a surprise counter-attack. The French were routed by this smaller force, with significant losses and all their leaders captured or killed.

Gascon campaign of 1345 Military campaign during the Hundred Years War

The Gascon campaign of 1345 was conducted by Henry, Earl of Derby, as part of the Hundred Years' War. The whirlwind campaign took place between August and November 1345 in Gascony, an English-controlled territory in south-west France. Derby, commanding an Anglo-Gascon force, oversaw the first successful English land campaign of the war. He twice defeated large French armies in battle, taking many noble and knightly prisoners. They were ransomed by their captors, greatly enriching Derby and his soldiers in the process. Following this campaign, morale and prestige swung England's way in the border region between English-occupied Gascony and French-ruled territory, providing an influx of taxes and recruits for the English armies. As a result, France's ability to raise tax money and troops from the region was much reduced.

Siege of Aiguillon Siege during the Hundred Years War

The siege of Aiguillon, an episode in the Hundred Years' War, began on 1 April 1346 when a French army commanded by John, Duke of Normandy, laid siege to the Gascon town of Aiguillon. The town was defended by an Anglo-Gascon army under Ralph, Earl of Stafford.

Lancasters <i>chevauchée</i> of 1346 Campaign during the Hundred Years War

Lancaster's chevauchée of 1346 was a series of offensives directed by Henry, Earl of Lancaster, in southwestern France during autumn 1346, as a part of the Hundred Years' War.

Crécy campaign 1346–1347 military campaign during the Hundred Years War

The Crécy campaign was a series of large-scale raids (chevauchées) conducted by the Kingdom of England throughout northern France in 1346 that devastated the French countryside on a wide front, culminating in the eponymous Battle of Crécy. The campaign was part of the Hundred Years' War.

Black Princes <i>chevauchée</i> of 1356

The Black Prince's chevauchée of 1356, which began on 4 August at Bordeaux and ended with the Battle of Poitiers on 19 September, was a devastating raid of Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King Edward III of England. This expedition of the Black Prince devastated large parts of Bergerac, Périgord, Nontronnais, Confolentais, Nord-Ouest, Limousin, La Marche, Boischaut, Champagne Berrichonne, Berry, Sologne, south of Touraine and Poitou.

Black Princes <i>chevauchée</i> of 1355 1355 mounted raid during the Hundred Years War

The Black Prince's chevauchée, also known as the grande chevauchée, was a large-scale mounted raid carried out by an Anglo-Gascon force under the command of Edward, the Black Prince, between 5 October and 2 December 1355 as a part of the Hundred Years' War. John, Count of Armagnac, who commanded the local French forces, avoided battle, and there was little fighting during the campaign.

Lancaster's chevauchée of 1356 in Normandy was an English offensive directed by Henry, Earl of Lancaster, in northern France during 1356, as a part of the Hundred Years' War. The offensive took the form of a chevauchée, a large mounted raid and lasted from 22 June to 13 July. During its final week the English were pursued by a much larger French army under King John II that failed to force them to battle.

Siege of Guînes (1352) Siege of Hundred Years War

The siege of Guînes took place in 1352 when a French army under Geoffrey de Charny unsuccessfully attempted to recapture the French castle at Guînes which had been seized by the English. The siege was part of the Hundred Years' War and marked the resumption of full-scale hostilities after six years of uneasy and ill-kept truce.

Treaty of Guînes Unratified treaty of the Hundred Years War

The Treaty of Guînes was a draft settlement to end the Hundred Years' War, negotiated between England and France and signed at Guînes on 6 April 1354. The war had broken out in 1337 and was further aggravated in 1340 when the English king, Edward III, claimed the French throne. The war went badly for France: the French army was heavily defeated at the Battle of Crécy and the French town of Calais was besieged and captured. With both sides exhausted, a truce was agreed that, despite being only fitfully observed, was repeatedly renewed.

Lancaster's Loire campaign was the march south from Brittany in August 1356 by an English army led by Henry, Duke of Lancaster. He was attempting to join the army of Edward, the Black Prince, near Tours. The French had broken the bridges over the River Loire and Lancaster was forced to turn back, returning to Brittany in September.

Hundred Years War (1345–1347) Series of military campaigns in 1345–1347

English offensives in 1345–1347, during the Hundred Years' War, resulted in repeated defeats of the French, the loss or devastation of much French territory and the capture by the English of the port of Calais. The war had broken out in 1337 and flared up in 1340 when the king of England, Edward III laid claim to the French crown and campaigned in northern France. There was then a lull in the major hostilities, although much small-scale fighting continued.