SSAT (The Schools Network)

Last updated

  • City Technology Colleges Trust (1987–1996)
  • Technology Colleges Trust (TCT, 1996–2003)
  • Specialist Schools Trust (SST, 2003–2005)
  • Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT, 2005–2012)
Type Private limited
Industry Education
Founded1987;36 years ago (1987)
FounderSir Cyril Taylor
Headquarters Islington, London,
United Kingdom
Area served
Europe, North America, Australia, Asia
Key people
Sue Williamson (Chief Executive and Director)
Revenue91,013,000 pound sterling (2010)  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Number of employees
544 (2010)  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Divisions iNet Global Network
Website OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Footnotes /references
[1] [2] [3] [4]

SSAT (The Schools Network) Limited (branded as SSAT, the Schools, Students and Teachers network) is a UK-based, independent educational membership organisation working with primary, secondary, special and free schools, academies and UTCs. It provides support and training in four main areas: teaching and learning, curriculum, networking, and leadership development.


The company was set up in May 2012, [2] to carry out the business of the previous Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. [5] Based in the UK, SSAT operates worldwide through its international arm, iNet. [6] SSAT has almost 3,000 member schools in England and overseas.

The Chief Executive of SSAT is Sue Williamson, a former headteacher of Monks' Dyke Technology College in Lincolnshire, [7] and former Strategic Director of Leadership and Innovation at the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. [8]



City Technology Colleges Trust logo City Technology Colleges Trust logo.svg
City Technology Colleges Trust logo

In January 1986, a Centre for Policy Studies meeting was held in the House of Lords. The meeting was organised by Cyril Taylor and focused on the growing issue of unemployment amongst the youth. Among the attendees were Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Secretary of State for Employment David Young and 60 other business leaders and politicians. It was decided that around 100 schools would be funded to specialise in technology via direct grants to fulfil business qualifications. The resulting City Technology Colleges (CTC) programme was announced at that year's Conservative Party Conference by Secretary of State for Education and Science Kenneth Baker. [9] CTCs were state specialist schools independent from local authority control, specialising in science and technology. [9] [10] [11] Baker and Thatcher requested that Taylor establish the City Technology Colleges Trust to oversee the establishment of CTCs. Taylor became Baker's adviser and founded the trust in 1987. [9] [12] It was given government grants amounting to, at most, £200,000 by 1991. These grants would fund the trust's efforts in acquiring campuses and attracting potential sponsors for CTCs. [13] [14] The first chief executive, Susan Fey, was appointed in 1988. [9]

In 1990, Susan Fey appointed the trust's six curriculum development directors (CDDs), individuals who would visit CTCs to develop their ethos and curricula and support teacher trainees. The Department for Education and Science granted a sum of £2 million to support their appointment. CDDs influenced the creation of the specialist schools programme and the CTC Trust's affiliation scheme, both of which were first conceptualised in 1992. The affiliation scheme's first meeting was held in December 1992 and was hosted by the BRIT School CTC. [9]

Originally, the target for schools with CTC status was 200, but only 15 could be established over a five-year period. [15] In response, Cyril Taylor proposed the creation of the new specialist Technology College. [9] [16] As a result, in 1992, the Major government released their education white paper Technology colleges: schools for the future. New Technology Colleges specialising in mathematics, technology and science were to be established from already existing secondary schools in hopes of furthering the CTC programme's impact and adding diversity to the school system. [9] The next year's education white paper Choice and Diversity: a New Framework for Schools resulted in the policies implemented by the Education Act 1993. The act allowed secondary schools to specialise in non-core subjects, thus introducing the new Technology Colleges (later specialist schools) programme. [17] The trust was assigned to deliver the programme on behalf of the Department for Education [18] and did so by helping schools raise the required sponsorship bid of £100,000 and then £50,000 for specialist designation. [9]

In 1993, the trust was appointed by Secretary of State for Education John Patten to manage the CTC training scheme. The scheme trained teachers from five CTCs and Technology Colleges and was initially found by education inspectorate Ofsted as "failing". Later inspections reported the scheme as "satisfactory". The trust also had a new chief executive, Kathleen Lund. [19] Lund led the CTC Trust's efforts to cooperate with local authorities from 1994, who had previously opposed the trust due to the CTC and specialist schools programmes (which, in the case of the specialist schools programme, had excluded them until 1994). Specialist schools in language were also introduced at this time. [9]


In 1996 the majority of specialist schools were Technology Colleges; the CTC Trust became the Technology Colleges Trust (TCT) to reflect this fact. The affiliation scheme grew to include 300 schools and Arts and Sports Colleges were introduced. [9] Unlike the other specialist schools, Sports Colleges were instead supported by the Youth Sports Trust. [20] The trust's first annual conference was held, in which Labour's Shadow Secretary of State for Education David Blunkett was a guest. In December the trust's founder and chairman, Cyril Taylor, convinced Labour leader Tony Blair to support the specialist schools programme. [9] [21] Labour were in opposition but were largely expected to win the 1997 general election. Once this had occurred, Blunkett became education secretary. Blunkett pledged to expand the programme in order to modernise the comprehensive system. [22]

In 2000 Professor David Jesson authored a study that compared results at GCSE with the comparative key stage 2 (KS2) primary school data from 1995. The analysis showed a value added score of +5.4 for specialist schools compared with −1.1 for non-specialist schools. For the first time, there was evidence that specialist status was linked to higher results at GCSE, whether it was on the 5+ A*-C measure, value-added or contextual value added. Schools began to make extensive use of the data themselves to evaluate their performance. The study became an annual project and is still provided today, known as Educational Outcomes.

The 2001 Green Paper Schools: Building on success introduced four new specialisms: science, mathematics & computing, business & enterprise and engineering.

The Trust was moving from an organisation which primarily provided bidding advice and support, to an organisation that held a much extended role.


In 2002 Charles Clarke succeeded Estelle Morris as Secretary of State for Education, and quickly announced a lifting of the financial cap that had previously limited the number of schools that could be designated in any bidding round. A collaborative rather than a competitive approach would further accelerate the growth of specialist schools, and a new target was set of 2000 specialist schools by 2006.

A second aspect of Clarke's vision for what he termed a 'specialist system' was a more balanced approach to the spread of specialisms in any one area. As many schools struggled to raise the required £50,000 sponsorship, he established a Partnership Fund – a mix of private money (donated by the Garfield Weston Foundation) and public money – to which schools could apply to make up any shortfall.

The effect of lifting the cap on new designations, plus the four new specialisms (as announced in the 2001 Green Paper) was a rapid rise in the number of specialist schools. In 2002 there were 992 specialist schools and by 2004 their number had risen to 1954.

In 2003 a further two new specialisms were announced: humanities and music. An SEN specialism for special schools was announced in 2004. In 2003 the Trust changed its name to the Specialist Schools Trust (SST). The Trust's network of schools continued to grow – the number of schools affiliated passed 1500 in 2002 and reached 2500 in 2004.

A regional structure was established in 2002, to cope with the size of the network. Full-time regional coordinators worked with a committee of volunteer headteachers in their region, setting the local agenda for events and other activities. 2003 saw the establishment of the National Headteachers Steering Group, initially made up of the chairs of each regional steering group. Its task was to steer the Trust's strategy for its services to schools. This was the 'by schools, for schools' model taking shape.

Practitioner-led programmes become more prominent between 2002 and 2004, with leadership programmes beginning with courses for aspirant headteachers and 'developing leaders'.

A major venture of the Trust between 2002 and 2004 was the development of its international arm – International Networking for Educational Transformation – known as iNet. This network grew in response to demand from schools in England and overseas, starting principally in Australia. It exists and flourishes today, with networks in the United States, China, the Netherlands and Wales.

The Leading Edge programme was announced in 2003 as a response to the idea of specialism in school improvement, first proposed by Estelle Morris in 1998. Again a practitioner-led philosophy, many schools had joined the programme by 2004. [23]

Following a challenge[ when? ] from the then Schools Minister David Miliband, the Trust began working with headteachers to define personalising learning. Professor David Hargreaves held a series of workshops with 200 headteachers and identified the nine gateways to personalising learning. A series of five conferences with ASCL (then SHA) followed to examine the gateways. After each conference, Hargreaves produced a pamphlet with case studies from schools. By the time of the last conference in January 2006, the nine gateways had been clustered into four groups: deep learning, deep experience, deep support and deep leadership. The National Conference in 2006 focused on these four topics and consequently a number of schools restructured their leadership teams on this basis.


In September 2005 the Trust took on a central role in the government's academies programme. Originally announced by David Blunkett in 2000, its aim was to challenge under achievement in the country's poorest performing schools. The programme had many similarities to the CTC programme of the early 1990s and required the Trust to once again change its name, it became the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT).

In 2007, the Trust formed a system redesign network – initially partnering 10 highly successful, innovative schools – to determine the building blocks of system redesign in education for the 21st century in England.

By 2008, the structure of the Trust's funding had changed dramatically. In 2003/4 the DfES specialist schools grant represented 43% of funding. By 2007/8 it accounted for 24% while 37% came from other commissioned work from the DfES and 35% from commercial income – work won by competitive tender along with affiliation fees and income earned from events, training provision and so on.


In May 2010, after a hung parliament, the coalition Government were sworn into office. In September 2010, Government decided to end ring-fencing of grants to schools to fund their specialist status.

Throughout 2010 and 2011, the organisation decreased in size but continued to win contracts overseas. The most notable of these was in Abu Dhabi where, as SSAT Middle East, it continues to operate a network of schools and work closely with the Abu Dhabi Educational Council.

The trust's contract with the Department for Education to support the sponsored academies programme ended in August 2011 although it continues its close links with academy principals and sponsors, and supports schools converting to academy status.

The Trust was now supported primarily by affiliation fees from its thousands of affiliated schools and the delivery of its events and activities. As a result, the Trust changed its name to The Schools Network – reflecting the organisation's new position in education. Its affiliation scheme, regional steering groups and practitioner-led training programmes all contributed to the feeling that a country-wide schools network was now established.

Chief Executive, Elizabeth Reid left the Network in December 2011 and was replaced by Sue Williamson.

2012 to date

In June 2012, after an announcement the previous month that The Schools Network would be going into administration, a management buy-out ensured that a new company, SSAT (The Schools Network) would continue The School Network's work. SSAT purchased parts of the UK operations of the Trust from the administrators and has since traded profitably, delivering education improvement services to schools in the UK.

SSAT (The Schools Network) relocated to Islington, London with around 50 full-time staff. In December 2012, the 20th National Conference was held in Liverpool. The conference saw the launch of Redesigning Schooling, SSAT's campaign to ensure that the future of education is shaped by high quality practice and research within the profession.

The 2013 National Conference was held at Manchester Central on 5–6 December and welcomed over 800 delegates across two days of keynotes, workshops and panel debates. The importance of professional capital was a key aspect of the overarching theme of a new professionalism for the country's leaders and teachers.

Subsequent conferences included:

In September 2015, the organisation rebranded as "SSAT, the Schools, Students and Teachers network" under a new corporate identity.

The SSAT National Conference 2017: "Illuminating learning" will take place in Manchester Central from 30 November to 1 December 2017.

The company continues to trade profitably and now has over 70 full-time staff.

Redesigning Schooling

Redesigning Schooling logo.jpg

Redesigning Schooling gathered pace in the Spring of 2013 through a series of events in London and Manchester. These events gave delegates an opportunity to engage in lively debate with leading educational thinkers and academics, and to examine much needed change in education from a variety of perspectives. Speakers including Andy Hargreaves, Dylan Wiliam and Tim Oates led workshops that have provided the foundation for a series of publications that have been distributed to SSAT member schools.

Current work

SSAT runs a number of continuous professional development programmes for teachers, and offers support to sponsored academies and schools converting to academy status. It also offers support to schools and academies in the use of data analysis and supports networks of schools and academies across a number of subject areas.

It runs numerous events for teachers and school leaders, including the annual SSAT National Conference.


SSAT National Conference

Each December, SSAT's National Conference brings together leading educationalists, thinkers and researchers with headteachers and practitioners from all over the world. The SSAT National Conference 2017: Illuminating learning will be held at Manchester Central on 30 November - 1 December 2017.

SSAT Achievement Show

Each June, The SSAT Achievement Show provides a one-day opportunity for the country's outstanding practitioners to share their best practice and successes with their peers. The event is divided into subject areas, with a full programme providing a huge range of different workshops and keynotes for attendants.

SSAT Annual Lecture and Debate

The SSAT Annual Lecture and Debate will take place in October 2017.

International work

SSAT supports the iNet network of schools in 34 countries. iNet was established in 2004 and currently includes schools in Wales, China, the United States of America, New Zealand, Mauritius, the United Arab Emirates and South Africa. [24]

In 2006 the trust established the world's first school-based Confucius Institute, in partnership with the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) the Confucius Institute now has a network of 34 Confucius Classrooms in schools, specialising in the teaching of Mandarin Chinese. This work was sold to the Department for Education in 2011. [25] [26]

In November 2010 the trust signed an agreement with Hanban to train 1,000 teachers of Chinese. [27]

The trust also manages a number of schools in Abu Dhabi. [28]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">City Technology College</span>

In England, a City Technology College (CTC) is an urban all-ability specialist school for students aged 11 to 18 specialising in science, technology and mathematics. They charge no fees and are independent of local authority control, being overseen directly by the Department for Education. One fifth of the capital costs are met by private business sponsors, who also own or lease the buildings. The rest of the capital costs, and all running costs, are met by the Department.

The Emmanuel Schools Foundation (ESF) is a charitable trust which has been involved in education since 1989.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Specialist schools programme</span> UK Government programme for schools

The specialist schools programme (SSP), first launched as the Technology Colleges programme and also known as the specialist schools initiative, specialist schools policy and specialist schools scheme, was a government programme in the United Kingdom which encouraged state schools in England and Northern Ireland to raise private sponsorship in order to become specialist schools – schools that specialise in certain areas of the curriculum – to boost achievement, cooperation and diversity in the school system. First introduced in 1993 to England as a policy of John Major's Conservative government, it was relaunched in 1997 as a flagship policy of the New Labour governments, expanding significantly under Prime Minister Tony Blair and his successor Gordon Brown. The programme was introduced to Northern Ireland in 2006, lasting until April 2011 in England and August 2011 in Northern Ireland. By this time, it had established a near-universal specialist system of secondary education in England, with almost every state-funded secondary school in England having specialised. This system replaced the comprehensive system which had been in place since the 1970s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Academy (English school)</span> English school funded by the central government and independent of local authority control

An academy school in England is a state-funded school which is directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual academy funding agreements. 80% of secondary schools, 39% of primary schools and 43% of special schools are already academies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Halley Academy</span> High school in London, England

The Halley Academy is a secondary school and sixth form with academy status located on Corelli Road and near the Kidbrooke area of the Royal Borough of Greenwich in southeast London. It originally opened as Kidbrooke School in 1954 as an all-girls school and was one of Britain's first purpose-built comprehensive schools. It started admitting boys in 1982. It changed its name to Corelli College in September 2011 when it became an Academy. It adopted its current name in March 2018, when it joined the Leigh Academies Trust.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Business and Enterprise College</span>

Business and Enterprise Colleges (BECs) were introduced in 2002 as part of the Specialist Schools Programme in England. The system enabled secondary schools to specialise in certain fields. Schools that successfully applied to the Specialist Schools Trust and became Business and Enterprise Colleges received extra funding for applied business teaching from this joint private sector and government scheme. Business and Enterprise Colleges act as a local point of reference for other schools and businesses in the area, with an emphasis on promoting enterprise and commercial awareness within the community.

Harris Academy Rainham is a mixed secondary school with academy status located in the London Borough of Havering in Rainham, London, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arts College (United Kingdom)</span>

An Arts College, in the United Kingdom, is a type of specialist school that specialises in the subject fields of the performing, visual, digital and/or media arts. They were announced in 1996 and introduced alongside Sports Colleges to England in 1997, being one of the five "practical specialisms" of the specialist schools programme. They were then introduced to Scotland in 2005 and Northern Ireland in 2006. By 2011, when the programme ended, there were over 491 Arts Colleges in England. More have been introduced since then, however schools must be an academy, free school or use the Dedicated Schools Grant to become one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Technology College</span> Specialist secondary school in the UK

In the United Kingdom, a Technology College is a specialist school that specialises in design and technology, mathematics and science. Beginning in 1994, they were the first specialist schools that were not CTC colleges. In 2008, there were 598 Technology Colleges in England, of which 12 also specialised in another subject.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Science College</span> School program in the United Kingdom

Science Colleges were introduced in 2002 as part of the now defunct Specialist Schools Programme in the United Kingdom. The system enabled secondary schools to specialise in certain fields, in this case, science and mathematics. Schools that successfully applied to the Specialist Schools Trust and became Science Colleges received extra funding from this joint private sector and government scheme. Science Colleges act as a local point of reference for other schools and businesses in the area, with an emphasis on promoting science within the community.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Burnt Mill Academy</span> Academy in Harlow, Essex, England

Burnt Mill Academy is a secondary school academy and specialist performing arts college situated on First Avenue in Harlow, Essex, England. The school originally opened in May 1962 as Burnt Mill Comprehensive School, de jure keeping this name until academisation in 2011. In 2003, it became a specialist performing arts college, specialising in dance, drama and music. It joined the Confucius institute programme in 2007, partnering with Suzhou Lida Middle School in Jiangsu, China. This granted the school an International School Award. It gained academy status in 2011 and formed the Burnt Mill Academy Trust (BMAT) in 2013. BMAT has since become a multi-academy trust, with 12 member schools as of 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kingsford Community School</span> Community school in Beckton, London, England

Kingsford Community School is a secondary school in Beckton in the London Borough of Newham, East London, England. It opened in September 2000, and educates full-time students from the ages of 11 to 16. The current headteacher is Joan Deslandes, who was appointed an OBE in 2017 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List for her services to education. Ofsted has described the school as "a harmonious community in which everyone lives and breathes the school’s values of aspiration, achievement and excellence."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Specialist schools in the United Kingdom</span>

Specialist schools in the United Kingdom are schools with an emphasis or focus in a specific specialised subject area, which is called a specialism, or alternatively in the case of some special schools in England, in a specific area of special educational need. They intend to act as centres of excellence in their specialism and, in some circumstances, may select pupils for their aptitude in it. Though they focus on their specialism, specialist schools still teach the full curriculum. Therefore, as opposed to being a significant move away from it, the specialism is viewed as enriching the original curricular offer of the school.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cyril Taylor (educationist)</span> British educator and social entrepreneur (1935–2018)

Sir Cyril Julian Hebden Taylor was a British educator and social entrepreneur, who founded the American Institute For Foreign Study (AIFS) in 1964. He served as an education reformer and special adviser to successive elected British Governments from 1987 to 2007 and founded the City Technology Colleges Trust, subsequently the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Hollins</span> Academy in Accrington, Lancashire, England

The Hollins is a coeducational secondary school located in Accrington in the English county of Lancashire.

Walker Riverside Academy is a co-educational secondary school and sixth form located in the Walker area of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England.

The rural dimension was an optional initiative in curriculum for English specialist schools applying through the specialist schools programme. The initiative added an extra "dimension" of curriculum meant to give specialist school students an expanded "awareness and understanding of the countryside as a living, working environment". It was introduced to first-time specialist applications in October 2003 and to re-designation applications in 2004. The rural dimension focused on rural schools but was also seen as important to all schools, including those in urban areas. Therefore, urban and suburban schools were also granted the ability to apply to the initiative. The specialist schools programme was discontinued in 2011. Since then, schools with academy status may fund their own rural dimension as a specialism. Non-academy schools can no longer provide the rural dimension curriculum as they are bound to the National Curriculum.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maths school</span> Specialist school

A maths school is a type of specialist free school sixth form college in England which specialises in the study of mathematics. Each maths school is sponsored by a university and, frequently, also a nearby established sixth form college or multi-academy trust. All students in a maths school must follow a course of study that includes A-levels in mathematics and further mathematics. Maths schools receive additional funding from central government, above what a standard sixth form college would receive, with the aim of providing an enriched curriculum and student experience, so that students are better prepared for studies in mathematics or related subjects at competitive universities, or for careers requiring high levels of mathematical skill. Maths schools are selective and all students seeking to apply must have, at minimum, a grade 8 in GCSE mathematics. Students must also sit an entry exam before being admitted.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fresh Start programme</span>

The Fresh Start programme, also known as the Fresh Start scheme, is an educational initiative in England, Wales and Northern Ireland introduced by the first Blair government in 1998. The programme aims to improve underperforming schools in inner cities by reopening them with renovated buildings and new names, curricula, staff and leadership. These schools, known as Fresh Start schools, benefit from an additional £400,000 every two years and have further financial support from their local education authorities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Specialist school</span> Type of school

Specialist schools, also known as specialised schools or specialized schools, are schools which specialise in a certain area or field of curriculum. In some countries, for example New Zealand, the term is used exclusively for schools specialising in special needs education, which are typically known as special schools.


  1. "A history of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust" (PDF). Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  2. 1 2 "SSAT (THE SCHOOLS NETWORK) LIMITED". Companies House. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  3. "Sue Williamson". Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  4. "iNet Global membership". SSAT. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  5. "SSAT | Our Journey". Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.
  6. "SSAT | iNet". Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
  7. "Sue Williamson | SSAT 2014". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014.
  8. [ dead link ]
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "A history of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust" (PDF). Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  10. "The Development of the City Technology College Programme: 1980s conservative ideas about English secondary education" (PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. "The Standards Site: CTCs (City Technology Colleges)". 4 March 2005. Archived from the original on 4 March 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  12. "City Technology Colleges pioneer Cyril Taylor dies aged 82". Schools Week. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  13. "City Technology Colleges Volume 135: debated on Monday 13 June 1988". Hansard . Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  14. Whitty, Geoff; Edwards, Anthony Davies; Edwards, Tony; Gewirtz, Sharon (1993). Specialisation and Choice in Urban Education: The City Technology College Experiment. Taylor & Francis. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-415-08527-4.
  15. "The Development of the City Technology College Programme: 1980s conservative ideas about English secondary education" (PDF). Retrieved 8 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. Smithers, Alan; Robinson, Pamela (2009). Specialist science schools (PDF). Centre for Education and Employment Research, University of Buckingham. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009.
  17. Dorey, Peter (27 July 2016). The Major Premiership: Politics and Policies under John Major, 1990–97. Springer. p. 149. ISBN   978-1-349-27607-3.
  18. "Sponsorship". Archived from the original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  19. "Trust halts Pounds 150,000 grant for training". TES Magazine . Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  20. "Specialist Schools Programme Initial Application Guidance 2006/2007". 29 August 2006. Archived from the original on 29 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  21. "A different sort of missionary". The Guardian . 18 July 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  22. "BBC News | UK | Blunkett boosts specialist schools". BBC News . Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  23. Tickle, Louise (2004). "Partnerships that seek the bigger picture". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. The Schools Network country networks
  25. Hanban News article on The Schools Network Confucius Institute
  26. The Schools Network Confucius Institute
  27. Education Department article on Mandarin teaching and UK-China partnership
  28. The Schools Network Abu Dhabi