Thorius arboreus

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Thorius arboreus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Plethodontidae
Genus: Thorius
Species:
T. arboreus
Binomial name
Thorius arboreus
Hanken & Wake, 1994 [2]

Thorius arboreus, commonly known as the arboreal minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico. [1] [3] [4] The specific name arboreus, derives from the Latin word arbor, meaning tree, referring to the arboreal habitat of this species. [2]

Salamander order of amphibians

Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere and most species are found in the Holarctic ecozone, with some species present in the Neotropical zone.

Plethodontidae family of amphibians

Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders. Most species are native to the Western Hemisphere, from British Columbia to Brazil, although a few species are found in Sardinia, Europe south of the Alps, and South Korea. In terms of number of species, they are by far the largest group of salamanders.

Oaxaca State of Mexico

Oaxaca, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of usos y costumbres with recognized local forms of self-governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez.

Contents

Description

With males measuring 16.1–18.4 mm (0.63–0.72 in) and females 15.2–20.0 mm (0.60–0.79 in) in snout–vent length, it is a very small species even among the generally small Thorius. [2] [4] [5] It has a slender habitus. The head is relatively wide; the snout is bluntly pointed. The eyes are relatively large. Maxillary teeth are lacking. The limbs are relatively long. There is a reddish dorsal stripe; some individuals have an ornate pattern where the dorsolateral margins of the stripe are "pinched" over the shoulders. [2]

Habitat and conservation

Its natural habitat is cloud forest. It is an arboreal species typically occurring in the leaf axils of bromeliads. It tolerates some habitat degradation provided that shade remains. Main threats to it are encroachment of agriculture and logging. [1]

Habitat ecological or environmental area inhabited by a particular species; natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population

In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction.

Cloud forest Type of rainforest

A cloud forest, also called a water forest and primas forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus. Cloud forests often exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are also referred to as mossy forests. Mossy forests usually develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture introduced by settling clouds is more effectively retained.

Related Research Articles

The Sierra Juarez hidden salamander, also known as the Sierra Juarez moss salamander, or simply Sierra Juarez salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the Caribbean slopes of the Sierra de Juarez and Sierra Mazateca, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Pseudoeurycea unguidentis is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to northern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it is known from its type locality, Cerro San Felipe, and some other mountains, although the identity of animals from these other locations is uncertain. Its common names are claw-toothed salamander, clawtooth false brook salamander, and clawtoed false brook salamander.

Thorius, also known as minute salamanders, pigmy salamanders, or Mexican pigmy salamanders, is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. They are endemic to Mexico and found in southern Veracruz and Puebla to Guerrero and Oaxaca.

Thorius aureus, the golden thorius, is a species of salamander in the genus Thorius, the Mexican pigmy salamanders, part of the lungless salamander family. It is endemic to mountainous areas of north central Oaxaca State in Mexico. It is one of the largest Thorius species.

Thorius boreas, commonly known as the boreal thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the Sierra Juárez. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and fir forests, often at forest edges. It is threatened by habitat loss (logging), although it does explain the dramatic decline that this species has seen.

Thorius dubitus, commonly known as the Acultzingo pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Veracruz and adjacent Puebla. Its natural habitats are pine-oak cloud forests. It occurs under wood chips, logs, and rocks, and under the bark of logs and inside logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, livestock, and subsistence agriculture.

Thorius grandis, commonly known as the grand minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero. Its natural habitats are pine-fir and pine-oak-fir forests; it tolerates some habitat modification. It usually occurs under logs or the bark of fallen rotting logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

Thorius infernalis, commonly known as the Atoyac minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is only known from its type locality in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero. Its natural habitat is riparian vegetation along hillsides, presumably in forest. It is only known from two specimens, and it has not been seen since early 1980's. Much of the potential habitat is already converted into coffee plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by expanding agriculture and human settlements.

Thorius insperatus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the holotype collected near Vista Hermosa, at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) asl. The specimen was collected under a log in forest. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

Thorius macdougalli, commonly known as MacDougall's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and is known from Cerro de Humo and Sierra de Juárez. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest, but it also occurs in degraded habitats. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by clear-cutting and livestock grazing.

Thorius minydemus, commonly known as the La Hoya minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near La Joya, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are cloud and pine-oak forests with many bromeliads.

Thorius munificus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Las Vigas, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and pine forests, woodlands, and Arbutus forests with abundant shrubby and ericaceous plants. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, agriculture, and human settlement.

Thorius narisovalis is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality, Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca. Its natural habitats are cloud forests and mixed forests. It lives under bark or under fallen trees.

Thorius omiltemi is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Mexico, at elevations of 2,500–2,950 m (8,200–9,680 ft) asl.

Thorius pennatulus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae and one of the smallest tetrapods, with adults reaching a length of about 15 to 21 millimetres . It is endemic to the mountains of Veracruz, Mexico.

Thorius pulmonaris, commonly known as the lower cerro pigmy salamander or Cerro San Felipe salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico.

Thorius schmidti, commonly known as Schmidt's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the mountains near the village of Zoquitlán in southern Puebla, possibly also from Oaxaca. It is named after Karl Patterson Schmidt, American herpetologist.

Thorius smithi, commonly known as Smith's salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near the towns of Vista Hermosa and Metates in Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca. Its natural habitats are cloud and tropical forests where it occurs on the ground under rocks and logs. It is a very rare species known only from two locations, despite attempts to find it. Presumably, habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agricultural development are threats to its forest habitat.

Thorius spilogaster, commonly known as the spotted thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the south and southeast flanks of Pico de Orizaba in central Veracruz, at elevations of 2,500–2,725 m (8,202–8,940 ft) asl.

Thorius troglodytes, commonly known as Taylor's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae that is endemic to Mexico. It is found only in mountains near the village of Acultzingo (Veracruz) at elevations of 2,380–3,000 m (7,810–9,840 ft) asl.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Gabriela Parra-Olea, David Wake, James Hanken, Mario García-París (2008). "Thorius arboreus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008: e.T59407A11930409. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T59407A11930409.en.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 Hanken, James; Wake, David B. (1994). "Five new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from northern Oaxaca, Mexico". Copeia. 1994 (3): 573–590. doi:10.2307/1447174. JSTOR   1447174.
  3. Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Thorius arboreus Hanken and Wake, 1994". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  4. 1 2 "Thorius arboreus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  5. Rovito, Sean M.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Hanken, James; Bonett, Ronald M.; Wake, David B. (2013). "Adaptive radiation in miniature: the minute salamanders of the Mexican highlands (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Thorius)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 109 (3): 622–643. doi:10.1111/bij.12083.