Thorius arboreus

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Thorius arboreus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Plethodontidae
Genus: Thorius
Species:
T. arboreus
Binomial name
Thorius arboreus
Hanken & Wake, 1994 [2]

Thorius arboreus, commonly known as the arboreal minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico. [1] [3] [4] The specific name arboreus, derives from the Latin word arbor, meaning tree, referring to the arboreal habitat of this species. [2]

Contents

Description

With males measuring 16.1–18.4 mm (0.63–0.72 in) and females 15.2–20.0 mm (0.60–0.79 in) in snout–vent length, it is a very small species even among the generally small Thorius. [2] [4] [5] It has a slender habitus. The head is relatively wide; the snout is bluntly pointed. The eyes are relatively large. Maxillary teeth are lacking. The limbs are relatively long. There is a reddish dorsal stripe; some individuals have an ornate pattern where the dorsolateral margins of the stripe are "pinched" over the shoulders. [2]

Habitat and conservation

Its natural habitat is cloud forest. It is an arboreal species typically occurring in the leaf axils of bromeliads. It tolerates some habitat degradation provided that shade remains. Main threats to it are encroachment of agriculture and logging. [1]

Related Research Articles

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Thorius aureus, the golden thorius, is a species of salamander in the genus Thorius, the Mexican pigmy salamanders, part of the lungless salamander family. It is endemic to mountainous areas of north central Oaxaca State in Mexico. It is one of the largest Thorius species.

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Thorius grandis, commonly known as the grand minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero. Its natural habitats are pine-fir and pine-oak-fir forests; it tolerates some habitat modification. It usually occurs under logs or the bark of fallen rotting logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

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Thorius insperatus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the holotype collected near Vista Hermosa, at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) asl. The specimen was collected under a log in forest. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

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Thorius macdougalli, commonly known as MacDougall's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and is known from Cerro de Humo and Sierra de Juárez. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest, but it also occurs in degraded habitats. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by clear-cutting and livestock grazing.

Thorius magnipes is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Acultzingo, Veracruz. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest. It can be found in bromeliads, leaf axils, under rocks and leaf-litter, and inside piles of wood chips. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and agriculture.

Thorius minydemus, commonly known as the La Hoya minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near La Joya, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are cloud and pine-oak forests with many bromeliads.

Thorius munificus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Las Vigas, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and pine forests, woodlands, and Arbutus forests with abundant shrubby and ericaceous plants. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, agriculture, and human settlement.

Thorius omiltemi is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Mexico, at elevations of 2,500–2,950 m (8,200–9,680 ft) asl.

Thorius papaloae, commonly known as the Papalo minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from one locality near the village of Concepción Pápalo in Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca.

Thorius pennatulus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae and one of the smallest tetrapods, with adults reaching a length of about 15 to 21 millimetres . It is endemic to the mountains of Veracruz, Mexico.

Thorius smithi, commonly known as Smith's salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near the towns of Vista Hermosa and Metates in Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca. Its natural habitats are cloud and tropical forests where it occurs on the ground under rocks and logs. It is a very rare species known only from two locations, despite attempts to find it. Presumably, habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agricultural development are threats to its forest habitat.

References

  1. 1 2 3 IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Thorius arboreus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2020: e.T59407A53985124. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Hanken, James; Wake, David B. (1994). "Five new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from northern Oaxaca, Mexico". Copeia. 1994 (3): 573–590. doi:10.2307/1447174. JSTOR   1447174.
  3. Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Thorius arboreus Hanken and Wake, 1994". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  4. 1 2 "Thorius arboreus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  5. Rovito, Sean M.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Hanken, James; Bonett, Ronald M.; Wake, David B. (2013). "Adaptive radiation in miniature: the minute salamanders of the Mexican highlands (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Thorius)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 109 (3): 622–643. doi: 10.1111/bij.12083 .