Thorius

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Thorius
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Plethodontidae
Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae
Genus:Thorius
Cope, 1869
Species

See table.

Thorius, also known as minute salamanders, [1] pigmy salamanders, or Mexican pigmy salamanders, is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. They are endemic to Mexico and found in southern Veracruz and Puebla to Guerrero and Oaxaca. [2]

Salamander order of amphibians

Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere and most species are found in the Holarctic ecozone, with some species present in the Neotropical zone.

Plethodontidae family of amphibians

Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders. Most species are native to the Western Hemisphere, from British Columbia to Brazil, although a few species are found in Sardinia, Europe south of the Alps, and South Korea. In terms of number of species, they are by far the largest group of salamanders.

Veracruz State of Mexico

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with Mexico city, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.

Thorius is the most species-rich tropical salamander genus relative to its distribution area ( Bolitoglossa and Pseudoeurycea have many more species but also much wider distribution areas). It is not uncommon for two or even three species to occur in the same place. In such cases, species have diverged in terms of body size and dentition, apparently facilitating niche differentiation. [3]

<i>Bolitoglossa</i> genus of amphibians

Bolitoglossa is a genus of lungless salamanders, also called mushroom-tongued salamanders, tropical climbing salamanders, or web-footed salamanders, in the family Plethodontidae. Their range is between northern Mexico through Central America to Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, northeastern Brazil, and central Bolivia. Neotropical salamanders of the Bolitoglossa make up the largest genus in the order Caudata, consisting of approximately one-fifth of all known species of salamanders. Adult salamanders range anywhere from 45mm to 200mm in length depending on their specific species. They are notorious for their ability to project their tongue at prey items, as indicated from their name. They are also known for their webbed feet, having significantly more webbing than any other species outside their genus with the exception of the cave-dwelling Mexican bolitoglossine Chiropterotriton magnipes. Although webbed feet are a common characteristic of these salamanders, only about half of the species in this genus contain webbed feet.

Pseudoeurycea is a genus of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. The members of this genus are commonly known as the false brook salamanders. They are found in Mexico and Guatemala.

The members of this genus are characterized by a small body — some species are less than 2 cm (0.79 in) in snout–vent length (tail roughly doubles the total body length). Their extreme miniaturization is accompanied by determinate growth and skeletal reduction. Their skeleton also shows unique features, such as ossifications of many elements that remain cartilaginous in other salamanders. Consequently, they are easy to distinguish from other salamanders. In contrast, they tend to be similar in appearance, making it difficult to distinguish species. [3] However, molecular genetic methods have greatly facilitated identification of new species. [1]

Ossification The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance.

Ossification in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts. It is synonymous with bone tissue formation. There are two processes resulting in the formation of normal, healthy bone tissue: Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme), while endochondral ossification involves cartilage as a precursor. In fracture healing, endochondral osteogenesis is the most commonly occurring process, for example in fractures of long bones treated by plaster of Paris, whereas fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with metal plates, screws, pins, rods and nails may heal by intramembranous osteogenesis.

Species

As of November 15, 2016, this genus is composed of the following 29 species: [2] [4] [5]

Binomial Name and AuthorCommon Name
Thorius adelos
(Papenfuss and Wake, 1987)
Sierra Juarez salamander
Thorius arboreus
Hanken & Wake, 1994
Arboreal minute salamander
Thorius aureus
Hanken & Wake, 1994
Golden minute salamander
Thorius boreas
Hanken & Wake, 1994
Northern minute salamander
Thorius dubitus
Taylor, 1941
Acultzingo minute salamander
Thorius grandis
Hanken, Wake & Freeman, 1999
Grand minute salamander
Thorius hankeni
Campbell, Brodie, Flores-Villela, and Smith, 2014
Hanken's minute salamander
Thorius infernalis
Hanken, Wake & Freeman, 1999
Atoyac minute salamander
Thorius insperatus
Hanken & Wake, 1994
Vista Hermosa minute salamander
Thorius lunaris
Hanken & Wake, 1998
Orizaba minute salamander
Thorius macdougalli
Taylor, 1949
MacDougall's minute salamanders
Thorius magnipes
Hanken & Wake, 1998
Big-footed minute salamander
Thorius maxillabrochus
Gehlbach, 1959
Zoquitlan pigmy salamander
Thorius minutissimus
Taylor, 1949
Oaxacan minute salamander
Thorius minydemus
Hanken & Wake, 1998
La Hoya minute salamander
Thorius munificus
Hanken & Wake, 1998
McDiarmid minute salamander
Thorius narismagnus
Shannon & Werler, 1955
San Martin minute salamander
Thorius narisovalis
Taylor, 1940
Upper Cerro minute salamander
Thorius omiltemi
Hanken, Wake & Freeman, 1999
Omiltemi minute salamander
Thorius papaloae
Hanken & Wake, 2001
Papalo minute salamander
Thorius pennatulus
Cope, 1869
Veracruz minute salamander
Thorius pulmonaris
Taylor, 1940
Lower Cerro minute salamander
Thorius schmidti
Gehlbach, 1959
Schmidt's minute salamander
Thorius smithi
Hanken & Wake, 1994
Smith's minute salamander
Thorius spilogaster
Hanken & Wake, 1998
Spotted minute salamander
Thorius troglodytes
Taylor, 1941
Taylor's minute salamander
Thorius pinicola
Parra-Olea et al., 2016
Pine-dwelling minute salamander
Thorius longicaudus
Parra-Olea et al., 2016
Long-tailed minute salamander
Thorius tlaxiacus
Parra-Olea et al., 2016
Heroic minute salamander

Related Research Articles

<i>Chiropterotriton</i> genus of amphibians

Chiropterotriton, also known as splayfoot salamanders or flat-footed salamanders, is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. The genus is endemic to Mexico.

Thorius arboreus, commonly known as the arboreal minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico. The specific name arboreus, derives from the Latin word arbor, meaning tree, referring to the arboreal habitat of this species.

Thorius aureus, the golden thorius, is a species of salamander in the genus Thorius, the Mexican pigmy salamanders, part of the lungless salamander family. It is endemic to mountainous areas of north central Oaxaca State in Mexico. It is one of the largest Thorius species.

Thorius boreas, commonly known as the boreal thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the Sierra Juárez. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and fir forests, often at forest edges. It is threatened by habitat loss (logging), although it does explain the dramatic decline that this species has seen.

Thorius dubitus, commonly known as the Acultzingo pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Veracruz and adjacent Puebla. Its natural habitats are pine-oak cloud forests. It occurs under wood chips, logs, and rocks, and under the bark of logs and inside logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, livestock, and subsistence agriculture.

Thorius insperatus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the holotype collected near Vista Hermosa, at 1,500 m (4,900 ft) asl. The specimen was collected under a log in forest. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

Thorius macdougalli, commonly known as MacDougall's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and is known from Cerro de Humo and Sierra de Juárez. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest, but it also occurs in degraded habitats. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by clear-cutting and livestock grazing.

Thorius magnipes is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Acultzingo, Veracruz. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest. It can be found in bromeliads, leaf axils, under rocks and leaf-litter, and inside piles of wood chips. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and agriculture.

Thorius minydemus, commonly known as the La Hoya minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near La Joya, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are cloud and pine-oak forests with many bromeliads.

Thorius munificus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Las Vigas, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and pine forests, woodlands, and Arbutus forests with abundant shrubby and ericaceous plants. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, agriculture, and human settlement.

Thorius narismagnus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the San Martin Tuxtla volcano, in the Sierra de los Tuxtlas range in southern Veracruz state, Mexico. Its common name is San Martin pigmy salamander. Natural habitats of Thorius narismagnus are lowland and intermediate tropical forests. It occurs under rotten logs and among leaf-litter, and especially under fallen bromeliads.

Thorius pennatulus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae and one of the smallest tetrapods, with adults reaching a length of about 15 to 21 millimetres . It is endemic to the mountains of Veracruz, Mexico.

Thorius pulmonaris, commonly known as the lower cerro pigmy salamander or Cerro San Felipe salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico.

Thorius schmidti, commonly known as Schmidt's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the mountains near the village of Zoquitlán in southern Puebla, possibly also from Oaxaca. It is named after Karl Patterson Schmidt, American herpetologist.

Thorius spilogaster, commonly known as the spotted thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the south and southeast flanks of Pico de Orizaba in central Veracruz, at elevations of 2,500–2,725 m (8,202–8,940 ft) asl.

Thorius troglodytes, commonly known as Taylor's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae that is endemic to Mexico. It is found only in mountains near the village of Acultzingo (Veracruz) at elevations of 2,380–3,000 m (7,810–9,840 ft) asl.

Chinanteca salamander species of amphibian

The Chinanteca salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico. Its sister taxon is Bolitoglossa occidentalis.

Aquiloeurycea is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. They are endemic to Mexico. The genus corresponds to the former "Pseudoeurycea cephalica species group", which was established in order to preserve Ixalotriton and Bolitoglossa while avoiding paraphyly of Pseudoeurycea.

<i>Isthmura</i> genus of Amphibia

Isthmura is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. They are endemic to Mexico. The genus, which corresponds to the former "Pseudoeurycea bellii species group" and was first described as a subgenus of Pseudoeurycea, was raised to full generic level in 2015 in order to preserve Ixalotriton and Bolitoglossa while avoiding paraphyly of Pseudoeurycea.

References

  1. 1 2 Hanken, James; Wake, David B. (1998). "Biology of tiny animals: systematics of the minute salamanders (Thorius: Plethodontidae) from Veracruz and Puebla, México, with descriptions of five new species". Copeia. 1998 (2): 312. doi:10.2307/1447427. JSTOR   1447427.
  2. 1 2 Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Thorius Cope, 1869". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  3. 1 2 Rovito, Sean M.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Hanken, James; Bonett, Ronald M.; Wake, David B. (2013). "Adaptive radiation in miniature: the minute salamanders of the Mexican highlands (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Thorius)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 109 (3): 622–643. doi:10.1111/bij.12083.
  4. "Plethodontidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  5. Phys.org PeerJ: Three new species of miniaturized tropical salamanders are already endangered; Parra-Olea G, Rovito SM, García-París M, Maisano JA, Wake DB, Hanken J (2016). "Three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico". Biology of Tiny Animals. 4: e2694. doi:10.7717/peerj.2694. PMC   5119241 .CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)