|Highest governing body||Union Mondiale de Billard (UMB)|
|Equipment||Cue stick, billiard balls, billiard table|
|World Games||Yes (three-cushion billiards) 2001 – present|
Three-cushion billiards, also called three-cushion carom, is a popular form of carom billiards.
The object of the game is tothe off both and contact the at least three times before the last object ball. A point is scored for each successful carom. In most shots the cue ball hits the object balls one time each, although hitting them any number of times is allowed as long as both are hit. The contacts between the cue ball and the cushions may happen before and/or after hitting the first object ball. The cue ball does not have to contact three different cushions as long as they have been in contact at least three times in total.
In modern three-cushion, the two players' cue balls are white and yellow, while the third ball is red. The introduction of the yellow ball is a relatively recent change to make it easier for spectators to follow the game; previously two white balls with small markings on one or both in order to distinguish them were used.
Three-cushion dates to the 1870s, and while the origin of the game is not entirely known, it evolved from one-cushion carom, which in turn developed from straight rail billiards for the same reason that balkline also arose from straight rail. Such new developments made the game more challenging, less repetitive, and more interesting for spectators as well as players, by thwarting the ability of highly skilled players to rack up point after point at will by relying on.
It is undisputed that the Internal Revenue Collector of the Port of St. Louis, Missouri, one Wayman Crow McCreery, born June 14, 1851 in St. Louis, [ page needed ] At least one publication categorically states he invented the game as well.popularized the game.
The first three-cushion billiards tournament took place January 14–31, 1878 in C. E. Mussey's billiard room in St. Louis, with McCreery a participant. The tourney was won by New Yorker Leon Magnus. The high run for the tournament was just 6 points, and the high average a .75. The game was infrequently played prior to 1907, with many top carom players of the era[ who? ] voicing their dislike of it. However, after the introduction of the Lambert Trophy in 1907, the game became increasingly popular both in the United States and internationally. [ page needed ]
By 1924, three-cushion had become so popular that two giants in other billiard disciplines agreed to take up the game especially for a challenge match. On September 22, 1924 Willie Hoppe, the world's balkline champion (who later took up three-cushion with a passion), and Ralph Greenleaf, the world's straight pool title holder, played a well advertised, multi-day [ page needed ] Over time, three-cushion completely supplanted balkline billiards, once the world championship carom game.to 600 . Hoppe was the eventual winner with a final score of 600–527. The game's decline in the United States began in 1952 when Hoppe, then 51-time billiards champion, announced his retirement.
Three-cushion retains great popularity in parts of Europe, Asia, and Latin America, and is the most popular carom billiards game played in the United States today, where pool is far more widespread. [ page needed ] The game's slow resurgence in United States popularity is due in part to the introduction of the Sang Lee International Open tournament in Flushing, New York in 2005, with first-place prize money up to US$25,000. The game has also seen increased coverage in cue sports publications based in the United States, such as Billiards Digest and Pool & Billiard Magazine.
Three-cushion billiards is a very difficult game. Averaging one point peris usually national-level play, and averaging 1.500 or more is world-class play. An average of 1.000 means that for every turn at the table, a player point success rate is 50%. An average of 2.000 means a success rate of 66%.
The high run at three-cushion billiards for many years was 25, set over two games (fourteen and out and starting with eleven in the next game) by the American Willie Hoppe in 1918 during an exhibition in San Francisco. In 1968 Raymond Ceulemans improved the record to 26 in a match in the Simonis Cup tournament. In 1993 Junichi Komori set the record to 28 in a Dutch league match, a feat repeated by Ceulemans in 1998 in the same league.In 2012 Roland Forthomme tied the record in Zundert. In the 2013 European Championships in Brandenburg, Germany, Frederic Caudron became the fourth member of the "28" club. Ceulemans reputedly had a high run of 32 in a non-tournament, non-exhibition match. The highest run so far in a World Cup match is 24, set by Jérémy Bury on 7 September 2013 in Guri, South Korea (see result sheet on the right).
When allowing for interruptions by opponents starting new games, the current record high run is 34 by the Dutchman Dick Jaspers: in his 2008 European Championship Final match against the Swede Torbjörn Blomdahl, played in three games of 15 points each, he ended Game One by going 13 and out, ran 15 and out in the only inning of Game Two (started by Blomdahl), and ran six in his first inning of Game Three.
The best game at the standard 50 points in a league is six innings (8.333 average) by Eddy Merckx (:4-9-26-7-0-4) in the German Bundesliga in 2011. The best such game in a tournament is nine innings (5.555 average) by Torbjörn Blomdahl in 2000, while South Korean and later U.S. national champion Sang Lee scored 50 points in four innings ( : 19-11-9-11, a 12.5 average) in a game at Sang Lee Billiards in Queens, New York.
The best tournament match average is 5.625 (45 in eight innings over three games; i.e. only five misses), scored by Dick Jaspers in the above-mentioned European Cup finals in Florange, France, in 2008. Remarkably, his opponent Blomdahl averaged 3.0 in his losing effort.The highest average at an international tournament is 2.537 (345 caramboles in 136 innings) by Dick Jaspers in 2002 at a seven-match Crystal Kelly tournament in Monaco, while Jaspers reached a record average of 2.666 (200 caramboles in 75 innings) at a four-match national tournament in Veldhoven in 2005.
Raymond Ceulemans from Belgium has won a probably unmatchable 21 three-cushion billiards world-championships.
The principal governing body of the sport is the Union Mondiale de Billard (UMB). It had been staging world three-cushion championships since the late 1920s.It is a member organization of the World Confederation of Billiard Sports. From 1985 to 1999, the Billiards World Cup Association (BWA) organized the Three-Cushion World Cup with UMB, but later shut down due to financial problems, with UMB assuming full responsibility for the tournament.
The game was featured in the 1959 animated Disney short film Donald in Mathmagic Land , in which Donald Duck attempts to learn the game by mastering the, which uses the diamond markings on the rails as a guide for calculating where the cue ball will strike based on player aim and cueing technique. The game also features prominently in the 2007 Goya Award-winning Spanish film Seven Billiard Tables (Siete mesas de billar francés), about a woman who inherits a troubled billiard hall and is searching for her missing husband. In the 1961 Season 4, Episode 10 of the American TV western series The Rifleman , the 3-cushion game is featured, with Mark Twain playing a local hustler.
In a Japanese animated TV series featuring Lupin the Third , one of the opening themes shows Lupin playing three-cushion with his comrade Jigen.
English billiards, called simply billiards in the United Kingdom, where it originated, and in many former British colonies such as Australia, is a cue sport that combines the aspects of carom billiards and pocket billiards. Two and a red are used. Each player or team uses a different cue ball. It is played on a billiards table with the same dimensions as a snooker table and points are scored for and pocketing the balls. English billiards has also, but less frequently, been referred to as "the English game", "the all-in game" and (formerly) "the common game".
Carom billiards, sometimes called carambole billiards or simply carambole, is the overarching title of a family of cue sports generally played on cloth-covered, billiard tables. In its simplest form, the object of the game is to score or "counts" by one's own off both the opponent's cue ball and the on a single shot. The invention as well as the exact date of origin of carom billiards is somewhat obscure but is thought to be traceable to 18th-century France.
Straight rail, sometimes called straight billiards, three-ball billiard, and the free game, is a discipline of carom billiards that is the most basic form of the game. The game is played on a unmarked billiard table, usually 10 by 5 feet in size, and three billiard balls, one, usually white, that serves as the for the first player, a second cue ball for the second player, and a third object ball, usually red. The object of the game is to score points striking the player's assigned cue ball with a cue stick so it makes contact with both the opponent's cue ball and the object ball in the same , known as a . Games are played to a predetermined number of points.
Semih Saygıner, nicknamed Mr. Magic or The Turkish Prince, is a Turkish world champion professional carom billiards player specialized in three-cushion event.
Dingeman Jacobus Johannes "Dick" Jaspers is a Dutch professional carom billiards player who specializes in the three-cushion event.
Five-pin billiards or simply five-pins or 5-pins, is today usually a carom billiards form of cue sport, though sometimes still played on a pocket table. In addition to the customary three balls of most carom games, it makes use of a set of five upright pins (skittles) arranged in a "+" pattern at the center of the table. The game is popular especially in Italy and Argentina, but also in some other parts of Latin America and Europe, with international, televised professional tournaments. It is sometimes referred to as Italian five-pins or Italian billiards, or as italiana. A variant of the game, goriziana or nine-pins, adds additional skittles to the formation. A related pocket game, with larger pins, is played in Scandinavia and is referred to in English as Danish pin billiards, with a Swedish variant that has some rules more similar to the Italian game.
The Union Mondiale de Billard is the world governing body for carom (carambole) billiard games.
Torbjörn Blomdahl is a Swedish professional carom billiards player from Helsingborg, Sweden. He is a six time World Champion in three-cushion billiards, having won the titles in 1987, 1988, 1991, 1997, 2015 and in 2019.
Marco Zanetti is an Italian professional three-cushion billiards player and a two-time world champion from Bolzano, Italy.
Daniel Sánchez Gálvez is a Spanish professional carom billiards player who plays for FC Porto a club he has represented for the last 21 years.
The Verhoeven Open is a three-cushion billiards tournament held in Flushing, Queens. The event is sanctioned by the Union Mondiale de Billard and the United States Billiard Association. The event was known as Sang Lee International Open between 2005 and 2008.
The CEB European Three-cushion Championship is three-cushion billiards tournament organized by the Confédération Européenne de Billard. Held since 1932, it is one of longest-running tournaments in the sport. The 2007 event offered a total purse of €18,500 (US$26,134) with €4,000 ($5,651) for the winner.
Eddy Merckx is a Belgian professional three-cushion billiards player.
Eddy Leppens is a Belgian professional three cushion billiards player.
The Crystal Kelly Cup or Crystal Kelly Tournament was a prestigious, generously funded carom billiards invitational tournament in the discipline of three-cushion, which has been held at different venues from 1994 to 2011, a total of 18 times, mostly in Monte Carlo and Nice.
The Three-Cushion World Cup is an international tournament series in three-cushion billiards, which is held every year since 1986 between three and ten times a year.
Edmond Soussa was an Egyptian carom billiards player in various disciplines and 11-time world champion. To date, Soussa was the only African to win world titles in the sport.
Choi Sung-won is a South Korean professional billiards player. He won the 2011 AGIPI Billiard Masters, 2012 Three-Cushion World Cup, 2014 UMB World Three-cushion Championship. In the final of the UMB World championship, Choi defeated Torbjorn Blomdahl 40–37.
Pedro Leopoldo Carrera was an Argentine carom billiards player and the first player to set a of 1,000 or more. Carrera was a five time carom billiards world champion. He won the straight rail world championship in 1950 and 1953, the 47.2 balkline world championship in 1951, and the Union Internationale des Fédérations des Amateurs de Billard (UIFAB) World Three-cushion Championship in 1952 and UIFAB pentathlon world cup in 1954. In 1980, more than 17 years after his death, Carrera was awarded the Premios Konex in platinum posthumously as the best billiard player in Argentine history and also with the "Diploma al Mérito".