Three-lined salamander

Last updated

Three-lined salamander
Eurycea guttoli(1).jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Plethodontidae
Genus: Eurycea
Species:
E. guttolineata
Binomial name
Eurycea guttolineata
(Holbrook, 1838)
Synonyms [2]
  • Salamandra gutto-lineataHolbrook, 1838

The three-lined salamander (Eurycea guttolineata) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the south-eastern United States. [1] [2]

Contents

Description

Eurycea guttolineata is a mid-sized, slender stream salamander which ranges from about 10-15.9 cm in its adult form. It is tan to light yellow with three black longitudinal stripes running from the eyes down the length of the body to the tail. The tail is very long at approximately two-thirds its total body length. Additionally, the ventrum (belly) of the three-lined salamander is boldly marked with black and white marbling. [3]

Reproduction

Hatchlings are generally around 10-13 mm and undergo metamorphosis when they are 22-27 mm snout-to-vent length. This is typically a 4-6 month larval stage. The effects that elevation has on larval stages have been studied extensively showing that at lower elevations larvae metamorphosized sooner than those at higher elevations which had delayed metamorphosis mostly due to overwintering. [4]

Distribution

The species is distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. [5] It can be found in the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia and Tennessee south through the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the Gulf Coast, including eastern Louisiana and western Florida. [1]

Habitat

Its natural habitats are forested floodplains, ditches, streamsides, and seepages. With wet weather, the species may enter wooded terrestrial habitats. [1]

It is not uncommon in suitable habitat. [1] Some subpopulations have likely been extirpated by loss of bottomland hardwood forests. [1]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barton Springs salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Barton Springs salamander is an endangered lungless salamander. It is endemic to Texas, United States. It was first found in Barton Springs in Austin, but is now also known from other localities in the nearby Travis and Hays Counties. Barton Springs is located within Zilker Park which is situated in the Edwards Aquifer in Austin, Texas. Eliza Springs, located within Barton Springs, has one of the largest populations of Barton Springs salamanders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Texas blind salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Texas blind salamander is a rare cave-dwelling troglobite amphibian native to San Marcos, Hays County, Texas, specifically the San Marcos Pool of the Edwards Aquifer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Streamside salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The streamside salamander is a species of mole salamander from North America, occurring in several Midwestern states of the US.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Long-toed salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The long-toed salamander is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species, typically 4.1–8.9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long when mature, is characterized by its mottled black, brown, and yellow pigmentation, and its long outer fourth toe on the hind limbs. Analysis of fossil records, genetics, and biogeography suggest A. macrodactylum and A. laterale are descended from a common ancestor that gained access to the western Cordillera with the loss of the mid-continental seaway toward the Paleocene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taylor's salamander</span> Species of amphibian

Taylor's salamander, Ambystoma taylori, is a species of salamander found only in Laguna Alchichica, a high-altitude crater lake to the southwest of Perote, Mexico. It was first described in 1982 but had been known to science prior to that. It is a neotenic salamander, breeding while still in the larval state and not undergoing metamorphosis. The lake in which it lives is becoming increasingly saline and less suitable for the salamander, which is declining in numbers. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has rated it as being "critically endangered".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cheat Mountain salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Cheat Mountain salamander is a species of small woodland salamander found only on Cheat Mountain, and a few nearby mountains, in the eastern highlands of West Virginia. It and the West Virginia spring salamander are the only vertebrate species with geographic ranges restricted to that state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lovely poison frog</span> Species of amphibian

The lovely poison frog or lovely poison-arrow frog is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae. It is found on the Caribbean versant of Central America from southeastern Nicaragua through Costa Rica to northwestern Panama, with one record just west of the Panama Canal. Populations from the Pacific versant, formerly included in this species, are now identified as Phyllobates vittatus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abe's salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Abe's salamander is a species of salamander in the family Hynobiidae. It is endemic to Japan and known from southwestern Honshu in northern parts of the Fukui, Kyoto, and Hyōgo Prefectures. The specific name abei honours professor Yoshio Abe, a Japanese zoologist.

Dendrotriton megarhinus, also known as the longnose bromeliad salamander or long-nosed bromeliad salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to southwestern Chiapas, Mexico, where it is only known from the Cerro Tres Picos, the type locality.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seepage salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The seepage salamander is a small, terrestrial species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the United States. They are found in small areas of Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, intermittent rivers, and freshwater springs. It gets its name from the seepages around which it lives. It is very similar in its appearance and life history to the pygmy salamander. These two species differ greatly from the other Desmognathus species. They are the smallest salamanders in the genus, measuring only 3–5 cm (1–2 in) in length. They are also the only two terrestrial, direct-developing Desmognathus species. However, the two species are not often seen to coexist, differing in distribution by elevation; although there are exceptions. The seepage salamander is currently listed as Near Threatened, with its numbers declining in most of states in which it is found. It is threatened by habitat loss, with logging having a major effect.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ocoee salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The ocoee salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. This salamander has a variety of colors and patterns, and got its name from Tennessee state wildflower. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater springs and wet rocks in mountainous areas of the Southeastern United States. It was first described by Nicholls in 1949.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern two-lined salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The northern two-lined salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae found in Canada and the United States. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, temperate shrubland, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater marshes, freshwater springs, arable land, and urban areas. It is more water-oriented than the related northern redback salamander, and can often be found in and around water such as rain puddles, streams, swamps, and damp stream beds, whereas the northern redback tends to be found in damp ground, but usually not near open water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Junaluska salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Junaluska salamander is a species of lungless salamander native to the south-eastern United States. It was first described by David M. Sever, Harold M. Dundee, and Charles D. Sullivan who found the species in the range from the Cheoah River, Santeetlah Creek, and Tululah Creek in Graham County of North Carolina. Adults of this species can be found near large, rocky streams and on rainy nights on roads in the areas specified. The salamander is characterized by brownish-yellow coloration with a series of small dots along the body and a robust build compared to the other salamanders in Eurycea. The Junaluska salamander's breeding habits tend to be in large streams where the eggs are laid and attached to the bottom of rocks in the streams where they are found. According to the overall conservation listing for IUCN, this species is listed as Vulnerable. Conservation acts are important in both North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee, since the population of this species in each state is so small.

<i>Eurycea longicauda</i> Species of amphibian

Eurycea longicauda, commonly known as the long-tailed salamander or longtail salamander, is a species of lungless salamander native to the Appalachian Region of the eastern United States. It is a "cave salamander" that frequents twilight zones of caves and also inhabits springs and surrounding forest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Blue Ridge two-lined salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Blue Ridge two-lined salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae, endemic to the United States. This species is found in the southern Appalachian Mountains, mostly south of Virginia. To the north is a similar salamander, Eurycea bislineata, or the northern two-lined salamander. Its genus, Eurycea contains 33 species and includes taxa that have either a metamorphic life cycle or larval-form paedomorphosis. In species that metamorphose, there can be within-and among-population variation in larval life-history characteristics, e.g., duration of the larval period and size at metamorphosis. Intraspecific geographic variation in species of Eurycea has been attributed to several factors: temperature, stream order and productivity of the larval habitat.

The Georgia blind salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the south-eastern United States where its natural habitats are inland karsts, caves and subterranean habitats. It is listed as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN and is threatened by habitat loss.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shenandoah salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The Shenandoah salamander is a small, terrestrial salamander found exclusively in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. The Shenandoah salamander inhabits a very small range of land on just three mountain peaks. Due to the small habitat range, interspecies competition, and climate change, the population of the Shenandoah salamander is vulnerable to extinction. Mitigating human effects on the habitat of the species will be essential in attempting to preserve and grow the population

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mud salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The mud salamander, is a bright red salamander of the family Plethodontidae. It is found in streams, seeps and swamps and underneath logs, rocks and leaves. It is endemic to the eastern half of the United States with one isolated population in central Mississippi. Mud salamanders have short stocky bodies ranging from 7.5 to 16 cm long. Body color ranges with age and locality with coastal mud salamanders being more dark and drab whilst inland mud salamanders are brighter and have more contrast against the black polka dots that sporadically pattern their bodies. In the earlier years of a mud salamanders life, they tend to have crimson colored body and unspotted stomachs, as they age the salamander becomes a dark red almost purple color and acquires a spotted stomach. mud salamanders have 16 to 17 costal grooves found along the sides of the salamanders body. These salamanders are ectothermic meaning that they cannot control their body temperature and it fluctuates with the temperature. The mud salamander is readily confused with two other species, the red salamander and the spring salamander. It can be distinguished from the Red salamander by having golden pupils and a shorter snout, and can be distinguished from the spring salamander by having a shorter body length and missing the nasal ridge associated with this species. There are four subspecies in the mud salamander complex, these are the Gulf Coast mud salamander, rusty mud salamander, Midland mud salamander and the eastern mud salamander.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The red salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae endemic to the eastern United States. Its skin is orange/red with random black spots. Its habitats are temperate forests, small creeks, ponds, forests, temperate shrubland, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater, trees springs. Overall this species is common and widespread, but locally it has declined because of habitat loss and it is considered threatened in Indiana. Red salamanders eat insects, earthworms, spiders, small crustaceans, snails and smaller salamanders. The red salamander, as a member of the family Plethodontidae, lacks lungs and respires through its skin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spotted-tail salamander</span> Species of amphibian

The spotted-tail salamander, also known as a "cave salamander", is a species of brook salamander.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2014). "Eurycea guttolineata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2014: e.T59265A64163403. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T59265A64163403.en . Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  2. 1 2 Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Eurycea guttolineata (Holbrook, 1838)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  3. Bruce, Richard C. (1970-12-12). "The Larval Life of the Three-Lined Salamander, Eurycea longicauda guttolineata". Copeia. 1970 (4): 776. doi:10.2307/1442330. ISSN   0045-8511.
  4. Bruce, Richard C. “The Larval Life of the Three-Lined Salamander, Eurycea Longicauda Guttolineata.” Copeia, vol. 1970, no. 4, 1970, pp. 776–79, https://doi.org/10.2307/1442330. Accessed 29 Apr. 2022.
  5. "Eurycea guttolineata". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.