|Adult onion thrips ( Thrips tabaci , left) and|
tobacco thrips ( Frankliniella fusca , right)
The Thripinae are a subfamily of thrips, insects of the order Thysanoptera. The Thripinae belong to the common thrips family Thripidae and include around 1,400 species in 150 genera.A 2012 molecular phylogeny found that the Thripinae was paraphyletic; further work will be needed to clarify the relationships within the group.
In biological classification, a subfamily is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae".
Thrips are minute, slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts. Different thrips species feed mostly on plants by puncturing and sucking up the contents, although a few are predators. Approximately 6,000 species have been described. They fly only weakly and their feathery wings are unsuitable for conventional flight; instead, thrips exploit an unusual mechanism, clap and fling, to create lift using an unsteady circulation pattern with transient vortices near the wings.
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Arthropoda. As used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; they include more than a million described species and represent more than half of all known living organisms. The total number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million; potentially over 90% of the animal life forms on Earth are insects. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.
Notable members – some of them economically significant pests – are for example Anaphothrips susanensis , Megalurothrips distalis , Sciothrips caramomi , Scirtothrips dorsalis (chili thrips), Sorghothrips jonnaphilus , T. hawaiiensis , T. palmi (melon thrips) and T. tabaci (onion thrips).
A pest is any animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns, including crops, livestock and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.
The chilli thrips or yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is an extremely successful invasive species of pest-thrips which has expanded rapidly from Asia over the last twenty years, and is gradually achieving a global distribution. It has most recently been reported in St. Vincent (2004) Florida (2005), Texas (2006), and Puerto Rico (2007). It is a pest of economic significance with a broad host range, with prominent pest reports on crops including pepper, mango, citrus, strawberry, grapes, cotton, tea, peanuts, blueberry, and roses. Chilli thrips appear to feed preferentially on new growth, and infested plants usually develop characteristic wrinkled leaves, with distinctive brown scarring along the veins of leaves, the buds of flowers, and the calyx of fruit. Feeding damage can reduce the sale value of crops produced, and in sufficient numbers, kill plants already aggravated by environmental stress. This thrips has also been implicated in the transmission of three tospoviruses, but there is some controversy over its efficiency as a vector.
Thrips palmi is an insect from the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is known commonly as the melon thrips.
The subfamily includes many pests, some of them invasive species. The chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis , is an Asian pest on many crops, including chili peppers, roses, strawberry, tea, ground nuts, and castor bean. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis , has recently expanded its range from western North America to large portions of Europe and Asia through the trade of greenhouse plants.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location, and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
The chili pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli, is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum which are members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines as a spice to add heat to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.
Thrips angusticeps is an insect of the order Thysanoptera and the family of Thripidae. It is a pest on crops of flax, cereals and peas.
Thrips tabaci is a species of very small insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is commonly known as the onion thrips, the potato thrips, the tobacco thrips or the cotton seedling thrips. It is an agricultural pest that can damage crops of onions and other plants, and it can additionally act as a vector for plant viruses.
These 76 genera belong to the subfamily Thripinae:
Ctenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about nine described species in Ctenothrips.
Echinothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least four described species in Echinothrips.
Neohydatothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least 30 described species in Neohydatothrips.
Data sources: i=ITIS,c=Catalogue of Life, g=GBIF, b=Bugguide.net
Phlaeothripidae is a family of thrips with hundreds of genera. The name sometimes is misspelt "Phaleothripidae". They are the only family of the suborder Tubulifera, and are themselves ordered into two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae with 80 genera, and the Phlaeothripinae with almost 400. Some 3,400 species are recognised in this family, and many are fungivores living in the tropics.
The Thripidae are the most speciose family of thrips, with over 290 genera representing just over two thousand species. They can be distinguished from other thrips by a saw-like ovipositor curving downwards, narrow wings with two veins, and antennae of six to ten antennomeres with stiletto-like forked sense cones on antennal segments III and IV.
The Aeolothripidae are a family of thrips. They are particularly common in the holarctic region, although several occur in the drier parts of the subtropics, including dozens in Australia. Adults and larvae are usually found in flowers, but they pupate on the ground. While they normally prey on other arthropods, many feed also on flowers.
The Orthotospoviruses are a genus of negative RNA virus found within the family Tospoviridae of the order Bunyavirales. The genus takes its name from the discovery of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Australia in 1919. It remained the only member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of viruses discovered in plants became more common. There are now at least twenty viral species in the family with more being recorded and described on a relatively regular basis. Together, these viruses have been documented infecting over eight hundred different plant species from 82 different families.
Haplothrips is a genus of Phlaeothripid thrips.
The common blossom thrips is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in many parts of the world and is an important pest insect in agriculture.
Psilothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least two described species in Psilothrips.
Elaphrothrips is a genus of tube-tailed thrips in the family Phlaeothripidae. There are about 10 described species in Elaphrothrips.
Gynaikothrips is a genus of tube-tailed thrips in the family Phlaeothripidae. There are about five described species in Gynaikothrips.
Panchaetothripinae is a subfamily of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about 11 genera and at least 20 described species in Panchaetothripinae.
Erythrothrips is a genus of predatory thrips in the family Aeolothripidae. There are about five described species in Erythrothrips.
Aeolothrips is a genus of predatory thrips in the family Aeolothripidae. There are at least 70 described species in Aeolothrips.
Merothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Merothripidae. There are about eight described species in Merothrips.
Merothripidae is a family of thrips in the order Thysanoptera. There are at least 4 genera and 20 described species in Merothripidae.
Heterothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Heterothripidae. There are at least 30 described species in Heterothrips.
Heterothripidae is a family of thrips in the order Thysanoptera. There are about 6 genera and at least 70 described species in Heterothripidae.