Thripidae

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Thripidae
Taeniothrips inconsequens adult - AE.png
Pear thrips ( Taeniothrips inconsequens ) imago
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Thysanoptera
Suborder: Terebrantia
Family:Thripidae
Stevens, 1829
Diversity
4 subfamilies

The Thripidae are the most speciose family of thrips, with over 290 genera representing just over two thousand species. [1] They can be distinguished from other thrips by a saw-like ovipositor curving downwards, narrow wings with two veins, and antennae of six to ten antennomeres with stiletto-like forked sense cones on antennal segments III and IV. [2]

Thrips order of insects

Thrips are minute, slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts. Different thrips species feed mostly on plants by puncturing and sucking up the contents, although a few are predators. Approximately 6,000 species have been described. They fly only weakly and their feathery wings are unsuitable for conventional flight; instead, thrips exploit an unusual mechanism, clap and fling, to create lift using an unsteady circulation pattern with transient vortices near the wings.

Ovipositor anatomical structure for laying eggs

The ovipositor is an organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs. In insects an ovipositor consists of a maximum of three pairs of appendages. The details and morphology of the ovipositor vary, but typically its form is adapted to functions such as transmitting the egg, preparing a place for it, and placing it properly. In some insects the organ is used merely to attach the egg to some surface, but in many parasitic species it is a piercing organ as well.

Contents

They are considered to be among the more derived of thrips, having evolved many traits key to specializing as cryptophilous phytovores, living in the narrow spaces at the bases of leaves and within flowers. [3] [4]

Several species are economically significant pests, some of them invasive. Almost all of them are typical thrips which belong in the largest subfamily, the Thripinae.

Pest (organism) Animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns

A pest is any animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns, including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.

Invasive species Organism occurring in a new habitat

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location, and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

In biological classification, a subfamily is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae".

Systematics

Many of the divisions within the Thripidae are not based on common ancestry, but are instead based on common environment and morphological homoplasy, and these distinctions tend to be irrelevant to true phylogenetic relationships. [5] As a result, many species of the Thripidae have undergone recent drastic taxonomic revision, splitting and promoting two tribes, Dendrothripini and Sericothripini, to subfamily status, [6] with the possibility of greater reorganizations to come as modern phylogenetic methods and a more comprehensive morphological analysis provide additional evidence defining evolutionary relationships. [7] This revision is probably necessary, as more than half of the genera in family Thripidae are monobasic, with the majority of monotypic species concentrated in subfamily Thripinae. [8] However, a 2012 molecular phylogeny found that the Thripinae was paraphyletic; further work will be needed to clarify the relationships within the group. [9]

Homoplasy gain or loss of the same trait independently in separate lineages over the course of evolution

Homoplasy, in biology and phylogenetics, is when a trait has been gained or lost independently in separate lineages over the course of evolution. This is different from homology, which is the similarity of traits due to common ancestry. Homoplasy can arise from both similar selection pressures acting on adapting species, and the effects of genetic drift.

Subfamilies

The Thripidae are thus ordered into four subfamilies:

Panchaetothripinae subfamily of insects

Panchaetothripinae is a subfamily of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about 11 genera and at least 20 described species in Panchaetothripinae.

Thripinae subfamily of insects

The Thripinae are a subfamily of thrips, insects of the order Thysanoptera. The Thripinae belong to the common thrips family Thripidae and include around 1,400 species in 150 genera. A 2012 molecular phylogeny found that the Thripinae was paraphyletic; further work will be needed to clarify the relationships within the group.

Related Research Articles

Phlaeothripidae family of insects

Phlaeothripidae is a family of thrips with hundreds of genera. The name sometimes is misspelt "Phaleothripidae". They are the only family of the suborder Tubulifera, and are themselves ordered into two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae with 80 genera, and the Phlaeothripinae with almost 400. Some 3,400 species are recognised in this family, and many are fungivores living in the tropics.

<i>Orthotospovirus</i> genus of viruses

The Orthotospoviruses are a genus of negative RNA virus found within the family Tospoviridae of the order Bunyavirales. The genus takes its name from the discovery of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Australia in 1919. It remained the only member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of viruses discovered in plants became more common. There are now at least twenty viral species in the family with more being recorded and described on a relatively regular basis. Together, these viruses have been documented infecting over eight hundred different plant species from 82 different families.

<i>Scirtothrips dorsalis</i> species of insect

The chilli thrips or yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is an extremely successful invasive species of pest-thrips which has expanded rapidly from Asia over the last twenty years, and is gradually achieving a global distribution. It has most recently been reported in St. Vincent (2004) Florida (2005), Texas (2006), and Puerto Rico (2007). It is a pest of economic significance with a broad host range, with prominent pest reports on crops including pepper, mango, citrus, strawberry, grapes, cotton, tea, peanuts, blueberry, and roses. Chilli thrips appear to feed preferentially on new growth, and infested plants usually develop characteristic wrinkled leaves, with distinctive brown scarring along the veins of leaves, the buds of flowers, and the calyx of fruit. Feeding damage can reduce the sale value of crops produced, and in sufficient numbers, kill plants already aggravated by environmental stress. This thrips has also been implicated in the transmission of three tospoviruses, but there is some controversy over its efficiency as a vector.

<i>Thrips</i> (genus) genus of insects

Thrips is a genus of thrips.

<i>Scirtothrips</i> genus of insects

Scirtothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae.

The common blossom thrips is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in many parts of the world and is an important pest insect in agriculture.

Salpingothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least three described species in Salpingothrips.

Ctenothrips bridwelli is a species of thrip in the family Thripidae. It is found in North America.

Ctenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about nine described species in Ctenothrips.

Gynaikothrips ficorum, the Cuban laurel thrip, is a species of tube-tailed thrip in the family Phlaeothripidae. It is found in Africa and North America.

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, the greenhouse thrips, is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in Africa, Europe & Northern Asia, Central America, North America, and Southern Asia.

Heliothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least three described species in Heliothrips.

Parthenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There is at least one described species in Parthenothrips, P. dracaenae.

Echinothrips americanus is a species of thrip in the family Thripidae. It is found in North America.

Echinothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least four described species in Echinothrips.

Neohydatothrips variabilis, the soybean thrip, is a species of thrip in the family Thripidae. It is found in Central America and North America.

Selenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There is at least one described species in Selenothrips, S. rubrocinctus.

References

  1. Mound, L. A. 2002. So many thrips – so few tospoviruses?, pp. 15 - 18. In L. A. Mound and R. Marullo [eds.], Thrips and Tospoviruses: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. CSIRO Entomology, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
  2. Mound, L. A. 1998. Thysanoptera: an identification guide. CAB International, Oxon, New York.
  3. Gentile, A. G., and S. F. Bailey. 1968. A revision of the genus Thrips Linnaeus in the New World, with a catalogue of world species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  4. Lewis, T. 1973. Thrips. Their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic Press, London, GB.
  5. Mound, L. A., and D. C. Morris. 2004. Thysanoptera Phylogeny – the Morphological Background. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 39: 101 - 113.
  6. Moritz, G., D. C. Morris, and L. A. Mound. 2001. Thrips ID: an interactive identification and information system (CD), Pest thrips of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
  7. Grimaldi, D., A. Shmakov, and N. Fraser. 2004. Mesozoic Thrips, and early evolution of the Order Thysanoptera (Insecta). Journal of Paleontology 78: 941 - 952.
  8. Mound, L. A. 2005. Thysanoptera: diversity and interactions. Annual Review of Entomology 50: 247 - 269.
  9. Buckman, Rebecca S.; Mound, Laurence A.; Whiting, Michael F. (2012). "Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci". Systematic Entomology. 38 (1): 123–133. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00650.x.

Further reading

Thrips on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site