Thyrsanthera

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Thyrsanthera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Acalyphoideae
Tribe: Chrozophoreae
Subtribe: Doryxylinae
Genus:Thyrsanthera
Pierre ex Gagnep.
Species:T. suborbicularis
Binomial name
Thyrsanthera suborbicularis
Pierre ex Gagnep.

Thyrsanthera is a genus of plants in the Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1925. [1] [2] It contains only one known species, Thyrsanthera suborbicularis, native to Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and possibly Laos. [3] [4] [5]

Euphorbiaceae family of plants

The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants. In common English, they are sometimes called euphorbias, which is also the name of a genus in the family. Most spurges such as Euphorbia paralias are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are shrubs or trees, such as Hevea brasiliensis. Some, such as Euphorbia canariensis, are succulent and resemble cacti because of convergent evolution. This family occurs mainly in the tropics, with the majority of the species in the Indo-Malayan region and tropical America a strong second. A large variety occurs in tropical Africa, but they are not as abundant or varied as in the two other tropical regions. However, Euphorbiaceae also has many species in nontropical areas such as the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, South Africa, and the southern United States.

Thailand Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.

Cambodia Southeast Asian sovereign state

Cambodia, officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. The sovereign state of Cambodia has a population of over 16 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practised by approximately 95 percent of the population. The country's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 hill tribes. The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh, the political, economic and cultural centre of Cambodia. The kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with a monarch, currently Norodom Sihamoni, chosen by the Royal Throne Council as head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Hun Sen, the longest serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia, ruling Cambodia since 1985. In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring Khmer princes of Chenla under the name "Kambuja". This marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire, which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth. The Indianised kingdom facilitated the spread of first Hinduism and then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia and undertook many religious infrastructural projects throughout the region, including the construction of more than 1,000 temples and monuments in Angkor alone. Angkor Wat is the most famous of these structures and is designated as a World Heritage Site. After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened Cambodia was then ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863, Cambodia became a protectorate of France, which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand.

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  1. Epiprinus balansae(Pax & K.Hoffm.) Gagnep. - Vietnam
  2. Epiprinus lanceifoliusCroizat - Vietnam
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Cnesmone is a genus of plant of the family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1826. It is native to southern China and to much of Southeast Asia.

Pachystylidium is a genus of plant of the family Euphorbiaceae. It contains only one known species, Pachystylidium hirsutum, found in eastern India, Indochina, the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and Java.

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Droceloncia is a genus of plant of the family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1959. It contains only one known species, Droceloncia rigidifolia, native to Madagascar and to the nearby island of Mayotte.

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Pantadenia is a genus of plants under the family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1925. It is native to Madagascar and Indochina.

  1. Pantadenia adenantheraGagnep. - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
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Oligoceras is a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae, first described as a genus in 1924. It contains only one known species, Oligoceras eberhardtii, endemic to Vietnam.

Ashtonia is a genus of flowering plant belonging to the family Phyllanthaceae first described as a genus in 1968. It is native to the Malay Peninsula and Borneo.

  1. Ashtonia excelsa Airy Shaw - Borneo
  2. Ashtonia praeterita Airy Shaw - S Thailand, W Malaysia

Chorisandrachne, is a genus of plants in the flowering plant family Phyllanthaceae first described as a genus in 1969. It contains only one known species, Chorisandrachne diplosperma, native to southern Thailand.

References

  1. Gagnepain, François. 1925. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 71: 878
  2. Tropicos
  3. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.