This article needs additional citations for verification . (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of the first of Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions|
Jiang Wei surrenders to Zhuge Liang. Portrait in the Long Corridor of the Summer Palace, Beijing
|Shu Han||Cao Wei|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Zhuge Liang |
| Cao Zhen |
|>60,000[ citation needed ]||>50,000[ citation needed ]|
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown||Unknown, but estimated to be around 55,000[ citation needed ]|
The Tianshui revolts refer to the rebellions that broke out in the southern part of Liang Province (covering parts of present-day Gansu and Shaanxi) in the spring of 228 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Military forces from the state of Shu Han, led by their chancellor-regent Zhuge Liang, planned to seize control of Chang'an, a strategic city in Shu's rival state, Cao Wei. The three commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding were captured by Shu forces, but these territorial gains were later lost after the Battle of Jieting. As mentioned in the biography of the Wei general Zhang He: "The commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding rebelled and defected to (Zhuge) Liang, (Zhang) He pacified all of them."
Liang Province or Liangzhou (涼州) was a province in the northwest of ancient China, in the approximate location of the modern-day province of Gansu. It was bordered in the east by Sili Province.
Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.
At Hanzhong Commandery, during a war council meeting, Zhuge Liang proposed a wide left flanking manoeuvre to seize the upper Wei River valley to capture the city itself. Wei Yan objected to the plan and proposed a strike through a pass in the Qinling Mountains with 10,000 elite troops to take Chang'an by surprise. Zhuge Liang rejected the plan because it was too ambitious and went for a more cautious approach. The objective was to seize Chang'an along with Tianshui (天水; around present-day Tianshui, Gansu), Anding (安定; around present-day Zhenyuan County, Gansu) and Nan'an (南安; around present-day Longxi County, Gansu) commanderies, and Mount Qi (祁山; the mountainous regions around present-day Li County, Gansu).
Hanzhong is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shaanxi province, China, bordering the provinces of Sichuan to the south and Gansu to the west.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces. It is the largest tributary of the Yellow River and very important in the early development of Chinese civilization.
Wei Yan, courtesy name Wenchang, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Originally a subordinate of the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Wei Yan rose through the ranks and became a general when Liu Bei seized control of Yi Province in 214. His performance in battle helped him to become a prominent figure in the Shu military in a short period of time. He was later appointed as the Administrator of Hanzhong Commandery and as an Area Commander in 219. Between 228 and 234, he participated actively in the Northern Expeditions led by the Shu regent Zhuge Liang against Shu's rival state, Cao Wei. After Zhuge Liang's death in 234, Wei Yan was killed by another Shu general, Ma Dai, for alleged treason.
In 228, Zhuge Liang declared that he would march through the Xie Gorge to take Mei County (郿縣; southeast of present-day Fufeng County, Shaanxi). He sent Zhao Yun and Deng Zhi as decoys to give the appearance of threatening Mei County and to occupy Ji County (冀縣; present-day Gangu County, Gansu). Cao Zhen led his armies to oppose them. Zhuge Liang personally led the armies to besiege Mount Qi; the ranks were ordered, discipline severe and authority apparent. The three commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding all revolted and defected from the Wei side to Zhuge Liang, sending shockwaves throughout Liang Province. Cao Rui moved to Chang'an to oversee the defences. Cao Zhen secured Mei County against Zhao Yun, while a combined cavalry-infantry force of 50,000 under Zhang He went west to oppose Zhuge Liang's main army.
Fufeng County is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Baoji, in the west-central part of Shaanxi Province, China. The county lies on the north bank of the Wei River between Xi'an, 110 km (68 mi) to the east, and Baoji, 95 km (59 mi) to the west. It has a land area of 751 km2 (290 sq mi), and a population of 460,000.
Gangu County is a county in the southeast of Gansu province, the People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Tianshui City. Its postal code is 741200, and in 1999 its population was 570,318 people.
Cao Rui, courtesy name Yuanzhong, was the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. His parentage is in dispute: his mother, Lady Zhen, was Yuan Xi's wife, but she later remarried Cao Pi, the first ruler of Wei. Based on conflicting accounts of his age, Pei Songzhi calculated that, in order to be Cao Pi's son, Cao Rui could not have been 36 when he died as recorded, so the recorded age was in error; Lu Bi and Mou Guangsheng argued instead that Cao Rui was Yuan Xi's son.
At that moment, Jiang Wei was patrolling the outskirts with his commanding officer Ma Zun (馬遵), the Administrator of Tianshui Commandery. Afraid that Jiang Wei might be colluding with the Shu army, Ma Zun fled secretly at night to Shanggui County (上邽縣; in present-day Tianshui, Gansu). When Jiang Wei discovered about that, it was already too late and on returning to Shanggui County, the defenders refused to open the gates for him. As a result, Jiang Wei defected to the Shu side along with his colleagues Liang Xu (梁緒), Yin Shang (尹賞) and Liang Qian (梁虔).
Jiang Wei, courtesy name Boyue, was a military general of the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in Ji County, Jiang Wei started his career as a military officer in his native Tianshui Commandery, which was a territory of the state of Wei. In 228, when Wei's rival state Shu launched an invasion, Jiang Wei had no choice but to defect to Shu due to the circumstances. Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor and regent of Shu, highly regarded Jiang Wei and allowed him to serve as a general in Shu. After Zhuge Liang's death in 234, Jiang Wei continued serving as a general during the regencies of Zhuge Liang's successors, Jiang Wan and Fei Yi. Between 240 and 262, he continued Zhuge Liang's legacy of waging war against Wei by leading another 11 military campaigns. However, Jiang Wei failed to make any significant gains from the campaigns as each was ultimately aborted due to inadequate food supplies, heavy losses on the battlefield, or other reasons. The campaigns also severely depleted Shu's already limited resources and took a toll on the Shu population; Jiang Wei also incurred much resentment from the people for his warmongering behaviour. While Jiang Wei was away at the frontline, the palace eunuch Huang Hao, whom the Shu emperor Liu Shan favoured, gradually became more influential in Shu's internal politics. After the 11th campaign in 262, Jiang Wei suspected that Huang Hao was plotting to remove from power so he did not return to the capital Chengdu and instead remained in Tazhong. In 263, when Wei launched a massive invasion of Shu, Jiang Wei led Shu forces to resist the invaders at Tazhong, Yinping and Jiange, but he was caught off guard when the Wei forces under Deng Ai took a shortcut and showed up at Chengdu unexpectedly. Liu Shan surrendered to Deng Ai without putting up resistance and ordered Jiang Wei to surrender to the Wei general Zhong Hui; this event marked the end of Shu's existence. In the following year, Jiang Wei instigated Zhong Hui to launch a rebellion in Chengdu against the Wei regent Sima Zhao and hoped to use the opportunity to gain military power and restore Shu. However, some of Zhong Hui's officers, who were unwilling to participate in the rebellion, started a mutiny against Zhong Hui and killed him and Jiang Wei.
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China. Its population is approximately 3.5 million. The city and its surroundings have played an important role in the early history of China, as still visible in the form of historic sites.
There was in fact no battle at Tianshui; only a revolt took place. The area surrounding the city submitted quickly to Shu, enabling the army to advance steadily but the Shu army had suffered a setback at the Battle of Jieting, when Zhang He defeated Ma Su who was sent by Zhuge Liang to handle him. Zhuge Liang gave the order for a retreat back to Shu territory. Zhao Yun and Deng Zhi were also ordered to counter Cao Zhen, but their troop strength were inadequate to that of the enemy. Hence they were defeated at Ji Gorge (箕谷; east of present-day Baoji, Shaanxi), but their centre held firm and thus avoided a great defeat. Zhao Yun and his army withdrew. The commanderies that rose in revolt to join Shu were later pacified by Zhang He and returned to Wei control.
The Battle of Jieting was fought between the states of Cao Wei and Shu Han in 228 during the Three Kingdoms period in China. The battle was part of the first Northern Expedition led by Shu's chancellor-regent, Zhuge Liang, to attack Wei. The battle concluded with a decisive victory for Wei.
Ma Su (190–228), courtesy name Youchang, was a military general and strategist of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a younger brother of Ma Liang. Ma Su had conspicuous talent in military theories and was admired by the Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang. However, a tactical blunder by Ma Su at the Battle of Jieting resulted in Shu being dealt a huge defeat by Zhang He, a general of the rival state of Wei.
In Chapters 92 and 93 of the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms , Jiang Wei was one of the reasons Zhuge Liang went on this expedition, and getting Jiang to defect to Shu became a goal after his quick battle with Zhao Yun. Zhuge Liang sent Zhao Yun ahead first, and after a skirmish and some scheming he comes onto the battlefield. During the battle, Ma Zun (馬遵) suspected Jiang Wei of plotting with the enemy. When Jiang Wei was outside Tianshui, Ma Zun closed the city gates and denied Jiang Wei entry. Jiang Wei had no choice but to defect to Zhuge Liang's side.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms or Sanguo Yanyi is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong. It is set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.
Starting from the fourth instalment in Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors , there is a playable stage called "Battle of Tian Shui" that is based on the fictional account of the revolt in Romance of the Three Kingdoms . If the player is playing as Jiang Wei, Wei forces will win the battle, but Jiang himself would later join Shu. If the player is playing on the Shu side, he must defeat Jiang Wei to make him defect to Shu.
Zhao Yun, courtesy name Zilong, was a military general who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. Originally a subordinate of the northern warlord Gongsun Zan, Zhao Yun later came to serve another warlord, Liu Bei, and had since accompanied him on most of his military exploits, from the Battle of Changban (208) to the Hanzhong Campaign (217–219). He continued serving in the state of Shu Han – founded by Liu Bei in 221 – in the Three Kingdoms period and participated in the first of the Northern Expeditions until his death in 229. While many facts about Zhao Yun's life remain unclear due to limited information in historical sources, some aspects and activities in his life have been dramatised or exaggerated in folklore and fiction. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, he was lauded as a member of the Five Tiger Generals under Liu Bei.
Zhang He, courtesy name Junyi, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He continued serving in the state of Cao Wei under its first two rulers, Cao Pi and Cao Rui, during the Three Kingdoms period until his death.
Shu or Shu Han was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu. Shu Han's founder Liu Bei had named his state "Han" as he considered it the legitimate successor to the Han dynasty, while "Shu" is added to the name as a geographical prefix to differentiate it from the many "Han" states throughout Chinese history.
Xiahou Yuan, courtesy name Miaocai, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is known for his exploits in western China in the 210s, during which he defeated Cao Cao's rivals Ma Chao and Han Sui in Liang Province and the surrounding areas, and forced several Di and Qiang tribal peoples into submission. He was killed in action at the Battle of Mount Dingjun while defending Hanzhong Commandery from attacks by a rival warlord Liu Bei. Xiahou Yuan's death was highly dramatised in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, in which he was slain by Liu Bei's general Huang Zhong during a surprise raid.
Liu Shan (207–271), courtesy name Gongsi, was the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. As he ascended the throne at the age of 16, Liu Shan was entrusted to the care of the Chancellor Zhuge Liang and Imperial Secretariat Li Yan. His reign of 40 years was the longest of all in the Three Kingdoms era. During Liu Shan's reign, many campaigns were led against the rival state of Cao Wei, primarily by Zhuge Liang and his successor Jiang Wei, but to little avail. Liu Shan eventually surrendered to Wei in 263 after Deng Ai led a surprise attack on the Shu capital Chengdu. He was quickly relocated to Luoyang, capital of Wei, and enfeoffed as "Duke Anle". There he enjoyed his last years peacefully before dying, most probably of natural causes, in 271.
Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions were a series of five military campaigns launched by the state of Shu Han against the rival state of Cao Wei from 228 to 234 during the Three Kingdoms period in China. All five expeditions were led by Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor and regent of Shu. Although they proved unsuccessful and ended up as a stalemate, the expeditions have become some of the best known conflicts of the Three Kingdoms period and one of the few battles during it where each side fought against each other with hundreds of thousands of troops, as opposed to other battles where one side had a huge numerical advantage.
Cao Zhen, courtesy name Zidan, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was an adopted son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power in the late Eastern Han dynasty and laid the foundation for Wei. After Cao Cao's death and the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Cao Zhen served under Cao Pi and Cao Rui, the first two emperors of Wei. He is best known for leading a successful defence of Wei from the first two of a series of invasions by Wei's rival state, Shu Han, between 228 and 229.
Xiahou Mao, courtesy name Zilin, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the second son of Xiahou Dun, a general who served under the warlord Cao Cao, who laid the foundation for the Cao Wei state in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He married Princess Qinghe, one of Cao Cao's daughters, and held the title of a marquis.
Guo Huai, courtesy name Boji, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He started his career towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty under the warlord Cao Cao as a subordinate of Cao Cao's generals Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He. During the Three Kingdoms period, he served in Wei, the state established by Cao Cao's son Cao Pi, and lived through the reigns of four Wei emperors. From the 220s until his death in 255, he governed and defended Wei's western borders in Yong and Liang provinces. During this time, he resisted multiple invasions by Wei's rival state, Shu Han, and quelled some rebellions by local Qiang, Di and other non-Han Chinese tribes.
Fei Shi, courtesy name Gongju, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Hu Ji, courtesy name Weidu, was a military general of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Fei Yao was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Zhang Ni, courtesy name Boqi, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was instrumental in pacifying the indigenous tribes residing within and around the border of Shu. He spent at least 18 years dealing with the continuum of domestic uprisings around Yuexi/Yuesui and Ba commanderies, and only entered the central government after numerous petitions. He was killed in battle by the Wei general Xu Zhi during one of Jiang Wei's Northern Expeditions. His name is sometimes rendered as Zhang Yi.
Zhang Yi, courtesy name Bogong, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Zhang Yi was a 10th-generation descendant of Zhang Liang. He started his career as a scribe under the warlord Liu Bei, who founded Shu later, and gradually rose to the positions of a county prefect and commandery administrator. In the early 230s, he served as an area commander tasked with maintaining the peace in Shu's southern commanderies. In 234, he led the Shu vanguard during the Battle of Wuzhang Plains against Shu's rival state Wei. From 238 to 259, Zhang Yi steadily rose through the ranks to become one of Shu's top generals. During this time, although he strongly opposed the Shu general Jiang Wei's aggressive stance towards Wei, he still accompanied Jiang Wei on his military campaigns against Wei. In 263, he surrendered to Wei forces along with the Shu emperor Liu Shan when Wei launched a large-scale invasion of Shu. In the following year, Zhang Yi was killed by mutineers during a rebellion by the Wei general Zhong Hui.
The Battle of Didao, also known as the Battle of Taoxi, was fought between the states of Shu Han and Cao Wei in 255 during the Three Kingdoms period in China. The battle concluded with a Wei Pyrrhic victory.
The Three Rebellions in Shouchun were a series of revolts that occurred in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. The rebellions broke out in the later years of Wei when the Sima clan, headed by Sima Yi, usurped state power. The military governors of Shouchun rose in revolt thrice in the name of a rebellion to oust the Sima clan from power. The respective leaders of the three rebellions were Wang Ling, Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin, and Zhuge Dan. All the revolts were eventually suppressed.
Zhuge Xu was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The Battle of Mount Qi was a military conflict which took place around Mount Qi between the states of Cao Wei and Shu Han in 231 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. It was also the most vigorous of the five Shu invasions of Wei, resulting in thousands of deaths on both sides. Although Zhuge Liang was able to make significant achievement in the beginning of the battle, the battle finally concluded with a strategic Wei victory due to the insufficient food supply for the Shu Han army. The insufficient food supply was caused by heavy rain and mistakes made by Li Yan. The Shu regent, Zhuge Liang, spent three years recuperating before launching another invasion on Wei in 234.