Tigon language

Last updated
Mbembe
Tigon
Native to Cameroon, Nigeria
Region Northwest Region in Cameroon, Taraba State in Nigeria
Native speakers
(60,000 cited 1987–2005) [1]
Dialects
  • Ashuku (Kitsipki)
  • Nama (Dama, Namu)
  • Nzare (Izale)
  • Kporo
  • Eneeme
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nza
Glottolog tigo1236 [2]

Mbembe, or more specifically Tigon Mbembe, is a Jukunoid language of Cameroon and Nigeria.

Cameroon Republic in West Africa

Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Biafra, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and historically in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history. The country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country.

Writing system

The alphabet is based on the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages (GACL):

The General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages is an orthographic system created in the late 1970s for all Cameroonian languages. Consonant and vowel letters are not to contain diacritics, though ⟨ẅ⟩ is a temporary exception. The alphabet is not used sufficiently for the one unique letter, for a bilabial trill, to have been added to Unicode.

[3]
Upper case A B Ch D E Ɛ F G Gb H I J K Kp L M N Ny Ŋ O Ɔ P R S Sh T U V W Z Zh
Lowercaseaɑbchdeɛfggbhijkkplmnnyŋoɔprsshtuvwzzh

Tones are indicated by vowels with acutes, graves, circumflexes and carons.

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal languages are common in East and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas; as many as seventy percent of world languages may be tonal.

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Fula, also known as Fulani or Fulah, is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa. Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages. More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo. It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people from the Senegambia region and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley. It is also spoken as a second language by various peoples in the region, such as the Kirdi of northern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria.

Latin alpha letter of the Latin script


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Bulu is the language of the Bulu people of Cameroon. The language had 174,000 native speakers in 1982, with some 800,000 second language speakers in 1991. Colonial and missionary groups formerly used Bulu as a lingua franca in the region for commercial, educational, and religious purposes, though it is today becoming less frequent in those spheres. Dialects include Bene, Yelinda, Yembana, Yengono, and Zaman.

Languages of Cameroon languages of a geographic region

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Achille Mbembe Cameroonian political scientist

Joseph-Achille Mbembe, known as Achille Mbembe, is a Cameroonian philosopher, political theorist, and public intellectual.

Mbembe can be:

Cross River languages language family

The Cross River or Delta–Cross languages are a branch of the Benue–Congo language family spoken in south-easternmost Nigeria, with some speakers in south-westernmost Cameroon. The branch was first formulated by Joseph Greenberg; it is one of the few of his branches of Niger–Congo that has withstood the test of time.

Jukunoid languages

The Jukunoid languages are a branch of the Central Nigerian languages spoken by the Jukun and related peoples of Nigeria and Cameroon.

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Mfumte (Nfumte) is a Grassfields Bantu language of Cameroon. It is not clear if the four varieties spoken by ethnic Mfumte—Ndaktup, Kwaja, Fum and Mfumte proper—are mutually intelligible or distinct languages; ability to communicate may be either due to inherent intelligibility or to bilingualism, while Fum and Mfumte may simply be the Nigerian and Cameroonian names for the same language.

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Nama may refer to:

References

  1. Mbembe at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tigon Mbembe". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Eyoh & Echebi 2009.