|Subfamily:|| Tillandsioideae |
Tillandsioideae is a subfamily of plants in the bromeliad family Bromeliaceae. This subfamily contains the greatest number of species (about 1,400). Most are epiphytic or lithophytic, growing in trees or on rocks where they absorb water and nutrients from the air. Spanish moss of the genus Tillandsia is a well-known species. Bromeliads in the genera Guzmania and Vriesea are the more commonly cultivated members of this subfamily.
Nearly all bromeliads have specialized cell groups called trichomes which form scales on the foliage. The trichomes occurring on Tillandsioideae may cover the plants so completely that they appear grey or white, like Spanish moss. In addition to absorbing nutrients, the trichomes may serve to insulate the plant from freezing weather.
Plants in this group have smooth or entire leaf margins, unusual color and markings, with many producing fragrant flowers. All their leaves are spineless (unarmed) and their fruit is a dry capsule containing winged seeds which are usually dispersed by breezes. Feathery seed plumes help them to adhere to a suitable epiphytic surface for germination. This subfamily is probably the most derived with special adaptations for survival in very dry conditions, with many described as xerophytes.
Tillandsioideae is the largest of the subfamilies of the family Bromeliaceae, with upwards of 1,400 species. Molecular phylogenetic studies from 1997 onwards repeatedly showed the monophyly of the subfamily. However, the division of the subfamily into genera has varied considerably. A 1997 monograph used six genera: Catopsis, Glomeropitcairnia, Guzmania, Mezobromelia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Other genera were later segregated from Tillandsia and Vriesea, of which three, Alcantarea, Racinaea, and Werauhia, gained general acceptance. Molecular phylogenetic studies from 2001 onwards showed that Mezobromelia, Tillandsia and Vriesea in particular were not monophyletic, and that the circumscription of other accepted genera was problematic in relation to these three genera. A major monograph published in 2016 used plastid and nuclear DNA as well as morphological characters to produce a new phylogeny and classification for the subfamily. Their preferred cladogram is shown below.
The 2016 study was unable to fully resolve the two genera Cipuropsis and Mezobromelia because the type species of Cipuropsis, Cipuropsis subandina , was not available for study. As of November 2022 [update] , the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads accepted both genera, as well as the closely related Josemania, whereas Plants of the World Online treated all three in the single broadly defined genus Cipuropsis – marked as Cipuropsis s.l. on the cladogram above. Waltillia was not included in the 2016 study as a separate genus, but is accepted by both the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads and Plants of the World Online.In 2017, Gouda added a new species to Cipuropsis ( Cipuropsis asmussii ) and clarified the distinction between Cipuropsis and Mezobromelia, leaving the former with three species.
The classification produced by the 2016 monograph uses four tribes, Catopsideae, Glomeropitcairnieae, Tillandsieae and Vrieseeae, the last of which is divided into two subtribes, Cipuropsidinae and Vrieseinae.
Genera placed in the subfamily as of October 2022 [update] by the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads are listed below. Plants of the World Online did not accept Josemania and Mezobromelia, sinking them into Cipuropsis. Tribe and subtribe placements are from the 2016 monograph and the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads.
|Image||Genus||Tribe and subtribe|
|Alcantarea (E.Morren ex Mez) Harms.||Vrieseeae: Vrieseinae|
|Barfussia Manzan. & W.Till||Tillandsieae|
|Cipuropsis Ule||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Goudaea W.Till & Barfuss||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Gregbrownia W.Till & Barfuss||Tillandsieae|
|Guzmania Ruiz & Pav.||Tillandsieae|
|x Guzlandsia Gouda (Guzmania × Tillandsia)||Tillandsieae|
|Jagrantia Barfuss & W.Till||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Josemania W.Till & Barfuss||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Lemeltonia Barfuss & W.Till||Tillandsieae|
|Lutheria Barfuss & W.Till||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Mezobromelia L.B.Smith||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Pseudalcantarea (Mez) Pinzón & Barfuss||Tillandsieae|
|Stigmatodon Leme, G.K.Br. & Barfuss||Vrieseeae: Vrieseinae|
|Vriesea Lindl.||Vrieseeae: Vrieseinae|
|Wallisia (Regel) É.Morren||Tillandsieae|
|Waltillia Leme, Barfuss & Halbritter||Vrieseeae: Vrieseinae|
|Werauhia J.R.Grant||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
|Zizkaea W.Till & Barfuss||Vrieseeae: Cipuropsidinae|
The Bromeliaceae are a family of monocot flowering plants of about 80 genera and 3700 known species, native mainly to the tropical Americas, with several species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.
Tillandsia is a genus of around 650 species of evergreen, perennial flowering plants in the family Bromeliaceae, native to the forests, mountains and deserts of northern Mexico and south-eastern United States, Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to mid Argentina. Their leaves, more or less silvery in color, are covered with specialized cells (trichomes) capable of rapidly absorbing water that gathers on them.
Guzmania is a genus of over 120 species of flowering plants in the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. They are mainly stemless, evergreen, epiphytic perennials native to Florida, the West Indies, southern Mexico, Central America, and northern and western South America. They are found at altitudes of up to 3,500 m (11,483 ft) in the Andean rainforests.
Bromelioideae is a subfamily of the bromeliads (Bromeliaceae). This subfamily is the most diverse, represented by the greatest number of genera with about 40. Most of the plants in this group are epiphytes, though some have evolved in, or will adapt to, terrestrial conditions. This subfamily features the most plant types which are commonly cultivated by people, including the pineapple.
Pitcairnioideae is a subfamily of the bromeliad family, Bromeliaceae. Traditionally, it was a large subfamily, comprising all those species with winged or more rarely naked seeds. Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that traditional Pitcairnioideae was not monophyletic, and the subfamily was more narrowly circumscribed. As of November 2022, the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads placed five genera in the subfamily. Members of the subfamily are found from the Andes to the coast of Brazil, with one genus (Fosterella) found northwards to Mexico.
Glomeropitcarnia is a genus of the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. The genus name is from the Latin “glomero” and the genus Pitcairnia. It has two known species, native to Venezuela, Trinidad and the Lesser Antilles.
Mezobromelia is a genus of the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. The genus name is for Carl Christian Mez, German botanist (1866-1944). Some authorities treat Mezobromelia as a synonym of Cipuropsis.
Pseudalcantarea viridiflora is a species of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to Mexico and Central America. It was first described by Johann Georg Beer in 1856.
Mezobromelia bicolor is a plant species in the family Bromeliaceae. This species is native to Ecuador and Colombia.
Josemania truncata is a species of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to Colombia and Ecuador. It was first described by Lyman Bradford Smith in 1954 as Tillandsia truncata. Plants of the World Online sinks the genus Josemania into Cipuropsis, treating this species as Cipuropsis truncata.
Josemania asplundii, synonym Tillandsia asplundii, is a species in the genus Josemania, native to Ecuador and Peru. It was first acquired by the 1842 United States Expedition in South America.
Josemania singularis, synonym Cipuropsis singularis, is a species of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae. This species is native to Costa Rica and Panama.
Cipuropsis is a genus of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to the Caribbean, southern Central America and northwestern South America. The genus was first described by Ule in 1907.
Wallisia is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Bromeliaceae. It is also in the Tillandsioideae subfamily.
Pseudalcantarea is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Bromeliaceae. Its native range is Mexico to Central America. It was first described as the subgenus Pseudalcantarea of Tillandsia before being raised to a full genus in 2016.
Josemania is a genus of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, first described in 2016.
Josemania delicatula, synonym Cipuropsis delicatula, is a species in the family Bromeliaceae, native to Colombia.
Mezobromelia hospitalis, synonym Cipuropsis hospitalis, is a species of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to Colombia. It was first described by Lyman Bradford Smith in 1948 as Tillandsia hospitalis.
Mezobromelia magdalenae, synonym Cipuropsis magdalenae, is a species of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to Colombia. It was first described by Lyman Bradford Smith in 1963 as Vriesea magdalenae.
Rokautskyia is a genus of flowering plant in the family Bromeliaceae, native to eastern Brazil. The genus was first established in 2017, and is placed in subfamily Bromelioideae.