Time-out (sport)

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New York Giants quarterback Eli Manning calls for a time-out during a 2011 National Football League game. Eli Manning timeout.jpg
New York Giants quarterback Eli Manning calls for a time-out during a 2011 National Football League game.

In sports, a time-out or timeout is a halt in the play. This allows the coaches of either team to communicate with the team, e.g., to determine strategy or inspire morale, as well as to stop the game clock. Time-outs are usually called by coaches or players, although for some sports, TV timeouts are called to allow media to air commercial breaks. Teams usually call timeouts at strategically important points in the match, or to avoid the team being called for a delay of game-type violation, such as the five-second rule in basketball.


List of time-out rules by sport


Having lost his batting helmet, Anthony Alford requests time after reaching base safely during a 2022 Minor League Baseball game. Anthony Alford (20220508) (cropped).jpg
Having lost his batting helmet, Anthony Alford requests time after reaching base safely during a 2022 Minor League Baseball game.

Baseball players and managers of both the offense and defense can request time out for a number of purposes, such as for a batter to step out of the batter's box to better prepare for a pitch, a foreign object entering a batter's eye such as dust or a bug, for a manager to speak with a player or umpire, or to replace one player with another (for which a time-out is required by the rules), etc. The requested time out is not effective unless an umpire grants it verbally or by hand signal (both hands raised). The umpire also has the ability to call time out for his/her own purposes, or for purposes of the game, such as replacing a worn ball. Since there is no clock in baseball, the main effect of a time out is to temporarily prevent the defensive team from tagging base runners out or delivering a pitch as well as to prevent base runners from advancing. However, the catcher may also request timeout once the pitcher has stepped on the rubber, usually with the intention of either "resetting" the play, or to deliver some information to the pitcher via either signals or a visit to the mound. Under certain (uncommon) circumstances specified by the rules, umpires are required to call time out, even while a play is in progress, such as certain cases of interference. Unlike many other sports, the rules of baseball do not limit time outs, either by number or duration. The end of the time out is indicated by an umpire verbally declaring "Play!" and/or by pointing at the pitcher while he is holding the ball (these umpire signals are identical to those used to start a game or resume play after the ball has become "dead", for example due to a half-inning ending). Since baseball provides natural breaks in the action when teams exchange offensive and defensive roles between half-innings (two minutes, five seconds normally; two minutes and twenty-five seconds for nationally televised games [1] ), TV timeouts are not necessary.

Other than coaching visits, which the umpires ensure stay brief, timeouts theoretically have no time limits. However, when no runners occupy a base, a pitcher must deliver the pitch within twelve seconds of receiving the ball from the catcher or else a "delay of game" is called, resulting in a ball. [2] Also, any relief pitcher is limited to eight warm-up throws before play resumes, except in special circumstances (such as a pitcher substitution due to injury).

Though not officially recognized as a "timeout", a stoppage in play can also be requested by the defense. This can be accomplished in several ways. First, once in his "set" position, the pitcher may stop play by stepping off the rubber prior to his windup. Secondly, the catcher may visit the pitcher at any point before he steps on the rubber. Finally, the manager or pitching coach may also visit the pitcher before he steps on the rubber (called a "coaching visit"). Under MLB rules, a team is limited to one visit per inning and a maximum of three per game. Under NFHS (high school) rules, a team receives three mound visits for the game and can use more than one an inning. If a team exceeds the limit in either MLB or high school ball, the pitcher must be removed immediately.



In the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), there are two systems of timeouts used. In games that are not broadcast, each team is allowed four 75-second and two 30-second timeouts per regulation game. In games which are being broadcast, as of the 2015-16 season, each team is granted one 60-second timeout and three 30-second timeouts per game in addition to the media timeouts (at the first dead ball under 16, 12, 8 and 4 minutes remaining in each half). A maximum of two 30-second timeouts may carry over into the second half. Any called timeout that occurs within the 30 seconds prior to a scheduled media timeout break automatically takes the place of the upcoming media timeout, with the only exception to this rule being the first called timeout of the second half. A timeout cannot be called by a coach when the ball is live. Previously, under NCAA rules in prior seasons, teams had a total of five timeouts, and timeouts superseding media timeouts were only used in the women's rules. [3]


High school basketball allots five timeouts per game, with three 60-second and two 30-second timeouts. [4] In overtime games, each team is given one additional 60-second timeout, and is allowed to carry over any unused timeouts from regulation or – if the case may be – previous overtimes. Media timeouts are typically reserved for televised state tournament games only.

Coaches and players can call timeouts. While the ball is live, only the team in control of the ball can request a timeout.


In the National Basketball Association (NBA), teams are allowed seven timeouts, each of 1 minute, 15 seconds. There is no limit on substitutions. In overtime periods, each team is allowed two timeouts. A timeout can only be requested by a player in the game or the head coach, and only when the ball is dead or in control of the team making the request. If a request for a timeout is made with none remaining, the offending team is assessed a technical foul and loses possession.

In each quarter, there are two mandatory timeouts. If no team has taken a timeout prior to 6:59 of the period, the official scorer declares it at the first dead ball and charges it to the home team. If no subsequent timeouts have been taken prior to 2:59 of the period, the official scorer declares it and charges it to the team not previously charged. The first and second timeouts in a quarter are extended to 2:45 for locally televised games and 3:15 for nationally televised games, to accommodate advertising.

A team is limited to a maximum of four timeouts in the fourth quarter, losing any timeouts not yet taken. With three minutes remaining in the fourth quarter, a team is limited to two timeouts. However, if one team has yet to be charged its mandatory timeout, then the limit applies after the mandatory timeout is taken.

With less than two minutes to go in the game or overtime period, if the offensive team takes a timeout prior to inbounding the ball or if it secures the ball from a rebound or turnover but prior to advancing it, the team may choose to inbound the ball at midcourt. [5]

The rules were changed before the 2017-18 NBA season to eliminate the distinction between "full" and "20-second" timeouts (which were actually 60 seconds by rule) and eliminate a third mandatory timeout in the second and fourth quarters. [6] The changes sped up the pace of play and addressed a common fan complaint that the last few minutes of a game dragged due to excessive timeouts. [7] However, some coaches call several timeouts before the three-minute mark to avoid losing them. [8]


The Serbia men's national basketball team huddles to discuss strategy during a time-out at EuroBasket 2013 Serbian team timeout Eurobasket 2013.jpg
The Serbia men's national basketball team huddles to discuss strategy during a time-out at EuroBasket 2013

Under FIBA rules, each team is allowed two time-outs in the first half, three time-outs in the second half, and one time-out in each overtime period. [9] Only two time-outs may be granted to each team during the last two minutes of the fourth quarter.

Unlike in most other rule sets, only coaches are allowed to call time-outs. A time-out request may be made to the scorer's table at any time, but it may only be granted by a referee when the ball is dead and the game clock is not running. A time-out may also be granted after a scored goal, but only to the team that was scored upon. If a time-out is granted to the team in possession of the ball during the last two minutes of the fourth quarter or any overtime, the head coach of the team calling the time-out may choose to have the game resumed with a throw-in either from a designated line in the team's frontcourt or from the place in the backcourt nearest to where the game was stopped.

In televised games, media time-outs may be used at the discretion of the game's organizing body. They may be up to 100 seconds long. One of these time-outs will occur in each quarter, but no media time-outs are allowed during overtime. If a time-out is requested by either team during the first five minutes of a quarter, this time-out will be considered a media time-out and will also be charged to the appropriate team. If neither team has requested a time-out by the first dead ball after the five-minute mark in a quarter, a media time-out shall be taken. This time-out is not charged to either team.

Beach volleyball

In beach volleyball, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) stipulates one 30-second time-out allowed per team, per set. In FIVB World Competitions, there is an additional 30-second technical time-out in sets 1–2 when the sum of both scores is equal to 21. [10]


During the 2009 season of the Indian Premier League of T20 cricket, the halfway point of each innings contained a seven-and-a-half minute television timeout, two-thirds of which were devoted to additional advertising time. After complaints by viewers and players (criticizing its commercial purpose and for breaking the flow of the game), the following season replaced them with two sponsored and compulsory two-and-a-half minute "strategic timeouts" that must be taken by each side at certain points during the innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the 6th to 10th overs, and the batting team between the 11th to 16th overs. [11] [12] [13]


In floorball, each team is allowed one thirty-second time-out per game, which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. The time-out is measured from when all the players are gathered around the team benches.

Gridiron football

Coach Paul Johnson (center) discusses strategy with Navy Midshipmen football players during a time out at the 2004 Emerald Bowl. Midshipmen in huddle at 2004 Emerald Bowl 041230-N-9693M-335.jpg
Coach Paul Johnson (center) discusses strategy with Navy Midshipmen football players during a time out at the 2004 Emerald Bowl.

In gridiron football, the use and rationing of time-outs is a major part of clock management strategy; calling time-out stops the clock (which normally is running between plays except in the case of a penalty, an incomplete pass, officials requiring time to re-spot the ball and/or down markers, or when the ball is run out of bounds), extending the time a team has to score. Timeouts can be called by both players (typically the quarterback or a linebacker) and the head coach. The number of timeouts is limited to three per team per half in the National Football League, and college and high school levels; to two per half in amateur Canadian football, and to one per half in the Canadian Football League. Unused timeouts carry over between the first and second quarters and between the third and fourth quarters, but they do not carry over between halves. If overtime is required in the NFL, each team is given two timeouts during a ten-minute regular season sudden-death period (overtime periods are fifteen minutes in the playoffs), while in college football each team gets one timeout per possession. In the CFL, overtime is untimed and teams receive no additional timeouts. If a timeout above these limits is called, it is usually ignored and no penalty is assessed (however, in many leagues, a coach attempting to call a timeout when he has no timeouts left can be assessed a 5-yard Delay of Game penalty).

Teams use several methods to stop the clock without exhausting a timeout. These include:

In the NFL, college football, and CFL, a timeout is assessed against a team if a head coach unsuccessfully challenges a play.

A common practice in gridiron football is to call a timeout right before a potential game-winning or game-tying field goal, a strategy known as "icing the kicker". In theory, this strategy is based on the presumption that the kicker has prepared himself mentally to make the kick only to have the timeout break his concentration. While this strategy has seemingly worked on occasion, statistics suggest that not only is this an ineffective strategy, but is actually counterproductive because kickers are more likely to make a field goal after a timeout is called—possibly because they have come to expect a timeout to be called, if the opposing team still has one. [14] There have also been times when the tactic has directly backfired; for example, in an NFL game played on November 19, 2007, between the Denver Broncos and Tennessee Titans, Broncos head coach Mike Shanahan called a timeout to ice the kicker. It was difficult to hear the whistle and the play continued, with Titans kicker Rob Bironas badly shanking a 56-yard field goal. The play was restarted, this time without a timeout, and the kick was good. Since a team is not allowed to call multiple timeouts between plays, they are prohibited from trying to ice a kicker more than once on the same kick; attempting to do so results in an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty, giving the kicking team 15 yards and an automatic first down. It has only happened once in the NFL, in a 2007 game between the Buffalo Bills and the Washington Redskins, when Redskins head coach Joe Gibbs called a timeout just before Bills kicker Rian Lindell attempted a 51-yard field goal. The kick was good, but Gibbs was awarded the timeout. Gibbs then called a second timeout when Lindell was preparing to kick the ball again, because Gibbs was unaware of the rule. Gibbs was issued an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty, which narrowed the attempt from 51 yards to 36 yards out. Lindell made the 36-yard field goal to win the game for the Bills, 18–17.

Another common practice, particularly in high school, college and the NFL, is for a team that, with its defense on the field, is trailing the opposing team near the end of the regulation by a touchdown or less to use their time outs when the winning team is using the victory formation to run out the clock. Since winning teams using the quarterback kneel can run off the last 90 seconds to 2 minutes of a game (depending on the level) with three successive kneels, the losing team will call a time out to stop the clock, force the winning team to run a standard play (as only a few seconds are taken off the clock with the kneel itself, the clock restarting only upon the snap) or make a first down and thus increase the chances that the trailing team will get the ball back on offense.

Game officials also have the authority to call their own time-outs, which unlike the team time-outs are unlimited. Such official time-outs can be used for instant replay reviews, to tend to an injury, to measure the spot of the ball with the chain crew or (in televised contests) to insert television commercials into the telecast.

Ice hockey

In ice hockey, each team is allowed one thirty-second time-out per game, which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. In the National Hockey League, only one team is permitted a time out during stoppage. However, in the International Ice Hockey Federation rules, both teams are permitted a time out during the same stoppage, but the second team must notify the referee before the opponent's time-out expires.

In the NHL, teams lose their time-out if they unsuccessfully challenge a goaltender interference call, and cannot challenge if they are already without their time-out.

Since the 2017–18 season, teams cannot utilize their time-out after an icing, except for the team who was not charged with the icing. In addition, they retain their timeout after every successful goaltender interference challenge; unsuccessful offside challenges result in a minor penalty for delay of game.

Team handball

In team handball, one sixty-second time-out per half per team is allowed. Time-outs are called by the head coach by handing a green time-out card to the match official, and can only be called when the team is in possession of the ball.


In volleyball, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) stipulates two 30-second time-outs allowed per team, per set. In FIVB World and Official Competitions, there are two additional 60-second technical time-outs in each set when the leading team reaches the 8th and 16th points, however there is no technical time-out in a tie-breaking set (5th set) (though there is a change of ends at 8 points). [15]

Water polo

In water polo, each team is entitled two sixty-second time-outs in regular time, and one extra time-out in extra time. The time-out can only be called if the team is in possession of the ball.


Time-outs have been criticized for slowing games down and thus diminishing their entertainment value. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Overtime or extra time is an additional period of play specified under the rules of a sport to bring a game to a decision and avoid declaring the match a tie or draw where the scores are the same. In some sports, this extra period is played only if the game is required to have a clear winner, as in single-elimination tournaments where only one team or players can advance to the next round or win the tournament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Comparison of American and Canadian football</span> Differences between the two most common types of gridiron football

American and Canadian football are gridiron codes of football that are very similar; both have their origins partly in rugby football, but some key differences exist between the two codes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American football rules</span>

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In gridiron football, clock management is an aspect of game strategy that focuses on the game clock and/or play clock to achieve a desired result, typically near the end of a match. Depending on the game situation, clock management may entail playing in a manner that either slows or quickens the time elapsed from the game clock, to either extend the match or hasten its end. When the desired outcome is to end the match quicker, it is analogous to "running out the clock" seen in many sports. Clock management strategies are a significant part of American football, where an elaborate set of rules dictates when the game clock stops between downs, and when it continues to run.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rules of basketball</span> Rules governing the game of basketball

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quarterback kneel</span> American football and Canadian football play

In American football and Canadian football, a quarterback kneel, also called taking a knee, genuflect offense, kneel-down offense, or victory formation, occurs when the quarterback touches a knee to the ground immediately after receiving the snap, thus downing himself and ending the play. It is primarily used to run the clock down, either at the end of the first half or the game itself, to preserve a lead. Although it generally results in a loss of some yardage and uses up a down, it minimizes the risk of a fumble, which would give the other team a chance at recovering the ball.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penalty (gridiron football)</span> Penalty in American football

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rules of water polo</span> Rules and regulations covering the play, procedure, and equipment of water polo

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pitch clock</span> Clock used in baseball

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pace of play</span>

In baseball, pace of play refers to the length of time between in-game action, specifically the length of time a pitcher takes between their pitches. A slow pace of play can extend the length of games, which is regarded as an issue in college baseball and professional baseball. To accelerate the pace of play, leagues have instituted rule changes, such as the implementation of a pitch clock in Major League Baseball.


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