|Family:|| Tityridae |
Gray, GR, 1840
|Cladogram of the genera in Tityridae based on the results of Tello and colleagues published in 2009.|
Tityridae is family of suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The 45 species in this family were formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae and Cotingidae (see Taxonomy ). As yet, no widely accepted common name exists for the family, although tityras and allies and tityras, mourners and allies have been used. They are small to medium-sized birds. Under current classification, the family ranges in size from the buff-throated purpletuft, at 9.5 cm (3.7 in) and 10 grams (0.35 ounces), to the masked tityra, at up to 24 cm (9.5 in) and 88 grams (3.1 ounces). Most have relatively short tails and large heads.
The family Tityridae (as the subfamily Tityrinae) containing the genera Tityra and Pachyramphus was introduced by the English zoologist George Robert Gray in 1840.
Traditionally, the genus Laniocera was included in the family Tyrannidae, the genera Iodopleura , Laniisoma , Tityra , Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris were included in the family Cotingidae, and Schiffornis was included in the family Pipridae. Three of these genera, Tityra, Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris, were later moved to Tyrannidae based on the morphology of their skull and syrinx.
The existence of the family Tityridae (although simply treated as a clade) was first proposed in 1989 based on the morphology of several syringeal and skeletal features.The existence of this family has later been confirmed by multiple studies involving both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA. Evidence suggests there are two basal clades within this family, the first including the genera Schiffornis, Laniocera, and Laniisoma (with strong bootstrap support), and the second include Iodopleura, Tityra, Xenopsaris, and Pachyramphus (with poor bootstrap support).
A molecular phylogenetic study of passerine families published in 2019 sampled species from five genera in Tityridae. The resulting tree indicates that if the family Tityridae is defined to include the genera Oxyruncus , Myiobius and Onychorhynchus then it becomes paraphyletic: a clade containing the genera Tityra and Schiffornis is basal to a clade that contains the genera Oxyruncus, Myiobius, Onychorhynchus and the family Tyrannidae.
The family contains 46 species divided into 11 genera:
|Oxyruncus Temminck, 1820|
|Onychorhynchus Fischer von Waldheim, 1810|
|Myiobius Gray, GR, 1839|
|Terenotriccus Ridgway, 1905|
|Tityra Vieillot, 1816|
|Schiffornis Bonaparte, 1854|
|Laniocera Lesson, 1841|
|Iodopleura Lesson, 1839|
|Laniisoma Swainson, 1832|
|Xenopsaris Ridgway, 1891|
|Pachyramphus Gould & G.R. Gray, 1839|
The manakins are a family, Pipridae, of small suboscine passerine birds. The group contains 55 species distributed through the American tropics. The name is from Middle Dutch mannekijn "little man".
The cotingas are a large family, Cotingidae, of suboscine passerine birds found in Central America and tropical South America. Cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges, that are primary frugivorous. They all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. They range in size from 12–13 cm (4.7–5.1 in) of the fiery-throated fruiteater up to 48–51 cm (19–20 in) of the Amazonian umbrellabird.
The sharpbill is a small passerine bird in the family Tityridae. Its range is from the mountainous areas of tropical South America and southern Central America.
The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They are considered the largest family of birds known to exist in the world, with more than 400 species. They are the most diverse avian family in every country in the Americas, except for the United States and Canada. The members vary greatly in shape, patterns, size and colors. Some tyrant flycatchers may superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, which they are named after but are not closely related to. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines), which do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of most other songbirds.
The Tyranni (suboscines) are a suborder of passerine birds that includes more than 1,000 species, the large majority of which are South American. It is named after the type genus Tyrannus.
Carpornis, the berryeaters, is a genus of birds in the family Cotingidae. These primarily frugivorous birds are endemic to the southern half of the Atlantic forest.
The Brazilian laniisoma, also known as the shrike-like laniisoma, the shrike-like cotinga or the elegant mourner, is a species of bird in the family Tityridae. As suggested by its common name, it was formerly considered a cotinga. As it is far from being "shrike-like", this means that the widely used common name is entirely misleading.
A becard is a bird of the genus Pachyramphus in the family Tityridae.
The Jamaican becard is a species of bird in the family Tityridae. Its genus, Pachyramphus, has traditionally been placed in Cotingidae or Tyrannidae, but evidence strongly suggest it is better placed in Tityridae.
The swallow-tailed cotinga is a species of passerine bird in the family Cotingidae. It is the only member of the genus Phibalura.
The brown-winged schiffornis, is a species of Neotropical bird in the family Tityridae.
Snowornis is a genus of birds in the family Cotingidae. The species were formerly included in the genus Lipaugus,
The black-and-gold cotinga is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is endemic to humid Atlantic Forest in the highlands of the Serra do Mar in south-eastern Brazil. It is threatened by habitat loss, but remains common within several national parks, e.g. Serra dos Órgãos and Itatiaia. Males are highly vocal, and their loud, piercing whistle is frequently heard. It is strongly sexually dimorphic. Except for a bright yellow wing-speculum, males are superficially similar to the male common blackbird, while the far less conspicuous females are overall olive. The female resemble both sexes of the only other member of the genus, the grey-winged cotinga, but is larger, has a thicker bill, and yellowish-olive remiges.
The grey-winged cotinga is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is endemic to Brazil where it is restricted to the Serra dos Órgãos and Serra do Tinguá in Rio de Janeiro State. Its natural habitat is tropical moist montane forest.
The white-naped xenopsaris, also known as the reed becard and white-naped becard, is a species of suboscine bird in the family Tityridae, the only member of the genus Xenopsaris. It is found in South America, in humid subtropical and tropical savanna climates in most of the countries east of the Andes: Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina. Living in open woodland and other open forest habitats, it is mostly sedentary, though some populations may be migratory. The species, which is closely related to becards and tityras, was thought to be either a tyrant-flycatcher or cotinga, before it was placed in Tityridae.
The yellow-cheeked becard is a passerine bird in the family Tityridae. It is treated variously as a distinct species or as a subspecies of the green-backed becard, Pachyramphus viridis. It has traditionally been placed in Cotingidae or Tyrannidae, but evidence strongly suggest it is better placed in Tityridae, where now placed by the South American Classification Committee. It is mainly found in Ecuador and Peru.
Tyrannides is a clade of passerine birds that are endemic to the Americas. This group is divided into two clades that contain eleven families. The families listed here are those recognised by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).
Ceratopipra is a genus of passerine birds in the family Pipridae.
The Apolo cotinga or palkachupa cotinga is a species of passerine bird in the family Cotingidae. It is a member of the genus Phibalura.