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Pachyramphus castaneus.jpg
Chestnut-crowned becard
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Parvorder: Tyrannida
Family: Tityridae
Gray, GR, 1840

See text

Tityridae map.svg
Tityridae phylogeny













Cladogram of the genera in Tityridae based on the results of Tello and colleagues published in 2009. [1]

Tityridae is family of suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The 45 species in this family were formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae and Cotingidae (see Taxonomy ). As yet, no widely accepted common name exists for the family, although tityras and allies and tityras, mourners and allies have been used. They are small to medium-sized birds. Under current classification, the family ranges in size from the buff-throated purpletuft, at 9.5 cm (3.7 in) and 10 grams (0.35 ounces), to the masked tityra, at up to 24 cm (9.5 in) and 88 grams (3.1 ounces). [2] [3] Most have relatively short tails and large heads.


Taxonomy and systematics

The family Tityridae (as the subfamily Tityrinae) containing the genera Tityra and Pachyramphus was introduced by the English zoologist George Robert Gray in 1840. [4] [5]

Traditionally, the genus Laniocera was included in the family Tyrannidae, the genera Iodopleura , Laniisoma , Tityra , Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris were included in the family Cotingidae, and Schiffornis was included in the family Pipridae. Three of these genera, Tityra, Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris, were later moved to Tyrannidae based on the morphology of their skull and syrinx. [6]

The existence of the family Tityridae (although simply treated as a clade) was first proposed in 1989 based on the morphology of several syringeal and skeletal features. [7] The existence of this family has later been confirmed by multiple studies involving both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Evidence suggests there are two basal clades within this family, the first including the genera Schiffornis, Laniocera, and Laniisoma (with strong bootstrap support), and the second include Iodopleura, Tityra, Xenopsaris, and Pachyramphus (with poor bootstrap support). [13]

A molecular phylogenetic study of passerine families published in 2019 sampled species from five genera in Tityridae. The resulting tree indicates that if the family Tityridae is defined to include the genera Oxyruncus , Myiobius and Onychorhynchus then it becomes paraphyletic: a clade containing the genera Tityra and Schiffornis is basal to a clade that contains the genera Oxyruncus, Myiobius, Onychorhynchus and the family Tyrannidae. [14]


The family contains 46 species divided into 11 genera: [15]

ImageGenusLiving Species
Sharpbill.jpg Oxyruncus Temminck, 1820
Onychorhynchus swainsoni - Atlantic Royal Flycatcher 02.jpg Onychorhynchus Fischer von Waldheim, 1810
Myiobius atricaudus - Black-tailed Flycatcher.JPG Myiobius Gray, GR, 1839
Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher - Panama H8O2602 (16685744808).jpg Terenotriccus Ridgway, 1905
Tityra semifasciata -Brazil-8.jpg Tityra Vieillot, 1816
Schiffornis major - Greater schiffornis; Anavilhanas islands, Novo Airao, Amazonas, Brazil.jpg Schiffornis Bonaparte, 1854
Laniocera hypopyrra - Cinereous Mourner.JPG Laniocera Lesson, 1841
Buff-throated purpletuft (3).jpg Iodopleura Lesson, 1839
Shrike-like Cotinga fem - Regua - Brazil S4E1690 (16647938248).jpg Laniisoma Swainson, 1832
Xenopsaris albinucha - White naped xenopsaris (adult).jpg Xenopsaris Ridgway, 1891
Chestnut-crowned Becard.jpg Pachyramphus Gould & G.R. Gray, 1839

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