|Tomato frog, Dyscophus antongilii|
|Subfamily:|| Dyscophinae |
|Genus:|| Dyscophus |
Tomato frogs are any of the three species of genus Dyscophus (family Microhylidae): D. antongilii, D. insularis, or D. guineti.Dyscophus is the only genus in subfamily Dyscophinae. They are endemic to Madagascar.
The common name comes from D. antongilii's bright red color. When threatened, a tomato frog puffs up its body. When a predator grabs a tomato frog in its mouth, the frog's skin secretes a thick substance that numbs up the predator's eyes and mouth, causing the predator to release the frog to free up its eyes. The gummy substance contains a toxin that occasionally causes allergic reactions in humans. The allergic reaction will not kill a human and the frog secretes it only when frightened.
The lifespan of the tomato frog can be from 6 to 8 years. When adult, the colors may vary from yellowish orange to deep red. Tomato frogs will reach sexual maturity in 9–14 months. Females are larger than males and can reach 4 inches in length. Males can reach 2 to 3 inches in length. Most females range from reddish-orange bright dark red. The bellies are usually more yellowish, and sometimes there are black spots on the throat. But males are not as brightly colored but more of a duller orange or brownish-orange. Juveniles are also dull in color and develop brighter coloration as they mature. They are also on the endangered species list. They breed in the rainy season and are nocturnal. They tend to eat small insects and invertebrates.
There are three different species:
|Image||Binomial name and author||Common name||Distribution|
|Dyscophus antongilii Grandidier, 1877||Tomato frog||Madagascar|
|Dyscophus guineti (Grandidier, 1875)||Sambava tomato frog||Madagascar|
|Dyscophus insularis Grandidier, 1872||Antsouhy tomato frog||Madagascar|
Tomato frogs lay fresh eggs during every month of the year except for November. Their reproductive activity is high during the months January–May and low between the months June–December.
The genus Taricha consists of four species of highly poisonous newts in the family Salamandridae. Their common name is Pacific newts, sometimes also western newts or roughskin newts. The four species within this genus are the California newt, the rough-skinned newt, the red-bellied newt, and the sierra newt, all of which are found on the Pacific coastal region from southern Alaska to southern California, with one species possibly ranging into northern Baja California, Mexico.
Cophylinae is a subfamily of microhylid frogs endemic to Madagascar. It has over 100 species in eight genera. Members of this subfamily range from minute to fairly large, and they are highly ecologically diverse. DNA barcode research has revealed a significant taxonomic gap in this subfamily, and an estimated 70+ candidate species were identified. Many of these have subsequently been described, as well as numerous new discoveries.
Pyxicephalus is a genus of true frogs from Sub-Saharan Africa, commonly referred to as African bull frogs or bull frogs. They are very large to large frogs, with females significantly smaller than males. They may take decades to reach their full size potential and they are some of the longest-living frogs, possibly able to reach ages as high as 45 years.
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Microhyla ornata. commonly known as the ornate narrow-mouthed frog, ornate narrow-mouthed toad, or ornamented pygmy frog, is a species of microhylid frog found in South Asia. This amphibian is distributed in Kashmir, Nepal, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. It was previously considered to be the same species as Microhyla fissipes; therefore, the aforementioned common names can refer to either species.
Anomaloglossus beebei is a species of frog in the family Aromobatidae. It is endemic to Guyana and only found on the Kaieteur Plateau, in the eastern edge of them Pacaraima Mountains. Recently, it has also been found on Mount Ayanganna.
The granular poison frog is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae, found in Costa Rica and Panama. Originally described as Dendrobates granuliferus, it was moved to Oophaga in 1994. Its natural habitats are tropical humid lowland forests; it is threatened by habitat loss.
Leptopelis parkeri is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to Tanzania and known from the Eastern Arc Mountains. Specifically, it has been recorded from Uluguru, Udzungwa, East and West Usambara, Nguru, and South Pare Mountains. Common names Parker's tree frog and Parker's forest treefrog have been coined for it. It is named after Hampton Wildman Parker, a British zoologist and herpetologist from the Natural History Museum, London.
Eupsophus emiliopugini is a species of frog in the family Alsodidae. It is found in the temperate Nothofagus forests of Chile between 40°50'S and 45°20'S, and in the Lago Puelo National Park, Chubut Province, Argentina. The specific name emiliopugini honors Professor Emilio Pugín, for "his contribution to knowledge of the reproductive biology and development of the Chilean frogs". Common name Emilio's ground frog has been coined for the species.
Hemiphractus fasciatus, or the banded horned treefrog, is a species of frog in the family Hemiphractidae. It is found in northwestern Ecuador and possibly the Pacific slopes of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia; although formerly listed for Panama, this involves the similar and closely related H. elioti, H. kaylockae and H. panamensis. It is a relatively large frog that may readily bite.
Hemiphractus proboscideus, or the Sumaco horned treefrog, is a species of frog in the family Hemiphractidae. It is found in the upper Amazon basin in extreme southwestern Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru.
Physalaemus ephippifer is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in central and eastern Brazilian Amazonia, the Guianas, and southern Venezuela. It might not occur in French Guiana.
Pleurodema somuncurense is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is endemic to the Somuncura Plateau in Patagonia, Argentina.
Boophis goudotii is a species of frog in the family Mantellidae. It is endemic to Madagascar where it is widespread on the high plateau of central Madagascar. Records elsewhere are uncertain and many of them represent misidentifications. It is the only Malagasy frog where females are known to be vocal.
Breviceps adspersus, also known as common rain frog, bushveld rain frog, and many other vernacular names, is a species of frog in the family Brevicipitidae. It is found in Southern Africa, in Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Eswatini, and Mozambique.
Dyscophus antongilii, the Madagascar tomato frog, is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae.
Dyscophus guineti, the false tomato frog or the Sambava tomato frog, is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical swamps, swamps, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The reticulated poison frog, known in French as dendrobate à ventre tacheté, is a species of poison dart frog. It is native to South America, where it can be found in Brazil, southeastern Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru.
Plethodontohyla alluaudi is a frog belonging to the Madagascar-endemic subfamily Cophylinae of the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to southeastern Madagascar. It is a terrestrial and fossorial frog that occurs in rainforest, including littoral forest. Despite being locally abundant, it is a difficult frog to find.
Beddomixalus is a monotypic genus of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae. The only described species, Beddomixalus bijui, is endemic to the Western Ghats, India. Its name is derived from a combination of the cognomen of Richard Henry Beddome, in honour of his work on the amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats, as well as Ixalus, which is often used as a suffix for names of rhacophorid genera.