Tonga people (Zambia and Zimbabwe)

Last updated

The Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe (also called 'Batonga') are a Bantu ethnic group of southern Zambia and neighbouring northern Zimbabwe, and to a lesser extent, in Mozambique. They are related to the Batoka who are part of the Tokaleya people in the same area, but not to the Tonga people of Malawi. In southern Zambia they are patrons of the Kafue Twa. They differ culturally and linguistically from the Tsonga people of South Africa and southern Mozambique.

Contents

The Tonga of Zimbabwe

The BaTonga people of Zimbabwe are found in and around the Binga District, Binga village the Kariba area, and other parts of Matabeleland. They number up to 300,000 and are mostly subsistence farmers. ln Zimbabwe the language of the Tonga people is called chitonga.

The Tonga People were settled along Lake Kariba after the construction of the Kariba Dam wall. [1] They stretch from Chirundu, Kariba town, Mola, Binga to Victoria Falls. Like any other tribes in Zimbabwe, the educated ones relocated to inner cities in search of jobs and better education. In the named places, we found different tribes in Zimbabwe socialising together.

Languages

The Tonga language of Zambia is spoken by about 1.38 million people in Zambia and 137,000 in Zimbabwe; it is an important lingua franca in parts of those countries and is spoken by members of other ethnic groups as well as the Tonga. [2] (The Malawian Tonga language is classified in a different zone of the Bantu languages.)

Tonga also speak Shona and Ndebele in Zimbabwe, English in Zambia and Zimbabwe, and Portuguese in Mozambique as second languages.

Notable Tonga People

See also

Related Research Articles

Kariba Dam Dam in ZambiaZimbabwe

The Kariba Dam is a double curvature concrete arch dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi river basin between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The dam stands 128 metres (420 ft) tall and 579 metres (1,900 ft) long. The dam forms Lake Kariba, which extends for 280 kilometres (170 mi) and holds 185 cubic kilometres (150,000,000 acre⋅ft) of water.

Zambia Landlocked country in south-central Africa

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern-Central Africa. Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country.

Languages of Africa Languages of a geographic region

The languages of Africa are divided into several major language families:

Sotho is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national and official language; South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages; and in Zimbabwe where it is one of 16 official languages.

Shona is a Bantu language of the Shona people of Zimbabwe. It is one of the most widely spoken Bantu languages.

Tonga may refer to five different languages:

Tsonga people

The Tsonga people are a Bantu ethnic group native mainly to Southern Mozambique and South Africa. They speak Xitsonga, a Southern Bantu language. A very small number of Tsonga people are also found in Zimbabwe and Northern Swaziland. The Tsonga people of South Africa share some history with the Tsonga people of Southern Mozambique; however they differ culturally and linguistically from the Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Tonga is a Pacific Island nation whose people are known as Tongans.

The Shona people are an ethnic group native to Southern Africa, primarily Zimbabwe. They have five major clans, and are adjacent to other groups with similar cultures and languages.

Tonga (Chitonga), also known as Zambezi, is a Bantu language primarily spoken by the Tonga people who live mainly in the Southern and Western provinces of Zambia, and in northern Zimbabwe, with a few in Mozambique. The language is also spoken by the Iwe, Toka and Leya people, and perhaps by the Kafwe Twa, as well as many bilingual Zambians and Zimbabweans. In Zambia Chitonga is taught in schools as first language in the whole of Southern Province, and parts of Lusaka and Central Provinces.

Siavonga Place in Southern Province, Zambia

Siavonga is a town in the Southern Province of Zambia, lying on the north shore of Lake Kariba. It is Zambia's principal tourism centre for the lake, with accommodation, boating and fishing tours on offer. Tongas are found in this region, the are one of the Bantu-botatwe speaking people. They have settled in this region for years and they are the major tribe living on the surface of the great lake Kariba. The Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe are a Bantu ethnic group of southern Zambia and neighbouring northern Zimbabwe, and to a lesser extent, in Mozambique. They are related to the Batoka who are part of the Tokaleya people in the same area, but not to the Tonga people of Malawi. In southern Zambia they are patrons of the Kafue Twa. They differ culturally and linguistically from the Tsonga people of South Africa and southern Mozambique.

Southern Province, Zambia Province of Zambia

Southern Province is one of Zambia's ten provinces, and home to Zambia's premier tourist attraction, Mosi-oa-Tunya, shared with Zimbabwe. The centre of the province, the Southern Plateau, has the largest area of commercial farmland of any Zambian province, and produces most of the maize crop.

Binga District administrative district in Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe

}

The Tonga are an ethnic group living in northern Malawi on the shores of Lake Malawi in Nkhata Bay and northern part of Nkhotakota. They are to be distinguished from the Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe, whose language belongs to a different branch of the Bantu family.

Languages of Zambia

Zambia has several major indigenous languages, all of them members of the Bantu family. English is the official language and the major language of business and education.

The Chopi are an ethnic group of Mozambique. They have lived primarily in the Zavala region of southern Mozambique, in the Inhambane Province. They traditionally lived a life of subsistence agriculture, traditionally living a rural existence, although many were displaced or killed in the civil war that followed Mozambique's liberation from Portuguese colonial rule in 1975. In addition, drought forced many away from their homeland and into the nation's cities.

The Somali Bantu are a Bantu-speaking origin ethnic marginalized group(s) in Somalia who primarily reside in the southern part of the country, primarily near the Jubba and Shabelle rivers. They are descendants of people from various Bantu ethnic groups, who were acquisitioned from Southeast Africa and in Somalia and other areas in Northeast Africa, and West Asia as part of the Arab slave trade. Somali Bantus are not genetically related to the indigenous ethnic Somalis and have a culture which since their arrival in the country, has been distinct from the indigenous Somalis who are Cushitic and they have remained marginalized ever since their arrival in Somalia.In 1991, 12,000 Bantu people were displaced into Kenya, and nearly 3,300 were estimated to have returned to Tanzania.

Languages of Zimbabwe Languages of a geographic region

Many languages are spoken, or historically have been spoken, in Zimbabwe. Since the adoption of its 2013 Constitution, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa. The country's main languages are Shona, spoken by roughly 70% of the population, and Ndebele, spoken by roughly 20%. English is the country's lingua franca, used in government and business and as the main medium of instruction in schools. English is the first language of most white Zimbabweans, and is the second language of a majority of black Zimbabweans. Historically, a minority of white Zimbabweans spoke Afrikaans, Greek, Italian, Polish, and Portuguese, among other languages, while Gujarati and Hindi could be found amongst the country's Indian population. Deaf Zimbabweans commonly use one of several varieties of Zimbabwean Sign Language, with some using American Sign Language. Zimbabwean language data is based on estimates, as Zimbabwe has never conducted a census that enumerated people by language.

The Hungwe tribe was a south-central African tribe that settled in Zimbabwe.

Southeast Africa

Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa. It comprises the countries Botswana, Burundi, Eswatini, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in the mainland, with the island-nation of Madagascar also included.

References

  1. Colson, Elizabeth (1971). The social consequences of resettlement: The impact of the Kariba resettlement upon the Gwembe Tonga. Human problems of Kariba, No. 4. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press on behalf of the Institute for African Studies, University of Zambia. ISBN   978-0-7190-1033-0.
  2. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue report for language code: toi". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved 2006-05-08.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)