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Toprock is a major element of b-boying and b-girling (breakdance). It generally refers to foot movement performed from a standing position, relying upon a mixture of coordination, flexibility, rhythm, and most importantly, style. It is usually the first and foremost opening display of style, and it serves as a warm-up for transitions into the more acrobatic maneuvers of downrock.
Breakers may devote considerable time to developing their toprock, and the style they display is a point of pride.
Toprocking is a style of dance in and of itself, and the Indian step is the most commonly performed toprock "move". However, toprocking is very open to modification for individual style. For this reason, it has come to incorporate elements of salsa, Lindy Hop, Liquid dancing and the Robot. In particular, uprock, often confused with "toprock," is a competitively-oriented type of dance consisting of foot shuffles, spins, turns, and creative movements that may mimic combat.
The robot, also called mannequin, is an illusionary street dance style – often confused with popping – that attempts to imitate a dancing robot or mannequin. Roboting gained fame after Michael Jackson used the dance when he performed "Dancing Machine" with his brothers, and later performed the dance during his solo career in songs such as "Smooth Criminal".
Uprock, or Rocking as it was originally referred to, also known as Rock, is a competitive urban street dance, performed to the beats and rhythms of soul, rock and funk music, but was mostly danced to a specific and exclusive collection of songs that contained a hard driving beat. An example of such a song is the Uprock classic "It's Just Begun" by noted jazz musician Jimmy Castor. The dance consists of foot shuffles, spins, turns, freestyle movements and more characteristically a four-point sudden body movement called "jerk".
In some types of partner dance, lead and follow are designations for the two dancers comprising a dance couple. In the case of mixed-sex couples, the male is traditionally the Lead and the female is the Follow. The Lead is responsible for guiding the couple and initiating transitions to different dance steps and, in improvised dances, for choosing the dance steps to perform. The Lead communicates choices to the Follow and directs the Follow by means of subtle physical and visual signals, thereby allowing the couple to be smoothly coordinated.
Dance moves or dance steps are usually isolated, defined, and organized so that beginning dancers can learn and use them independently of each other. However, more complex movements are influenced by musicality and lyrical relevance to express emotions or refer to a message. Dance moves tend to emphasize the concepts of lead and follow and connection.
The schottische is a partnered country dance that apparently originated in Bohemia. It was popular in Victorian era ballrooms as a part of the Bohemian folk-dance craze and left its traces in folk music of countries such as Argentina, Finland ("jenkka"), France, Italy, Norway ("reinlender"), Portugal and Brazil, Spain (chotis), Sweden, Denmark ("schottis"), Mexico, and the United States, among other nations. The schottische is considered by The Oxford Companion to Music to be a kind of slower polka, with continental-European origin.
This is a list of dance terms that are not names of dances or types of dances. See List of dances and List of dance style categories for those.
Samba is a lively, rhythmical dance of Afro-Brazilian origin in 2/4(2 by 4) time danced to Samba music whose origins include the Maxixe.
The moonwalk is a dance move in which the dancer moves backwards while seemingly walking forwards. A popping move, the moonwalk became popular around the world after Michael Jackson performed it during a performance of "Billie Jean" on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever, broadcast May 16, 1983. It became his signature move.
Hip-hop dance refers to street dance styles primarily performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles primarily breaking which was created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States. The television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin', Beat Street, and Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages; therefore, giving hip-hop mainstream exposure. The dance industry responded with a commercial, studio-based version of hip-hop—sometimes called "new style"—and a hip-hop influenced style of jazz dance called "jazz-funk". Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were performed on the street. Because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in both dance studios and outdoor spaces.
Electric boogaloo is a funk style of hip hop dance closely related to popping. It became the signature style of the dance group started in the 1970s, the Electric Boogaloos. Along with electric boogaloo they also popularized popping and many of its related styles.
Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing mainly consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, downrock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is typically set to songs containing drum breaks, especially in hip-hop, funk, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns.
Drops are techniques that allow b-boys to transition down to the floor and begin performing downrock. Drops may be designed to look flashy, painful, or both. A wide variety of other movements can serve the same purpose, and others such as the kip-up can work in reverse, moving the breaker up from the floor.
Power moves are moves loosely defined as relying on speed, momentum, and acrobatic elements for performance. They are prominent in B-boying, often the centerpieces of routines featuring the other elements that make up breaking. Also, power moves are closer to gymnastics than dancing. B-boys who focus heavily on power moves and execute them as a main part of their routines are often called "power heads".
Locking is a style of funk dance, which is today also associated, but not to be confused with, hip hop. The name is based on the concept of locking movements, which basically means freezing from a fast movement and "locking" in a certain position, holding that position for a short while and then continuing in the same speed as before. It relies on fast and distinct arm and hand movements combined with more relaxed hips and legs. The movements are generally large and exaggerated, and often very rhythmic and tightly synced with the music. Locking is quite performance oriented, often interacting with the audience by smiling or giving them a high five, and some moves are quite comical in nature.
Ken Swift is a second generation B-boy, or breakdancer, and former Vice President of the Rock Steady Crew of which he was a longtime member and key figure. He is now President of the Breaklife and VII Gems Hip Hop movement in NYC. Ken Swift began B-Boying in 1978 at the age of twelve when he was inspired by dancers on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Widely known in the B-Boy world as "the Epitome of a B-Boy," he is universally considered by B-Boys to be the individual who has had the greatest influence on break dancing. Ken Swift is credited with the creation of many dance moves. His original footwork and "freeze style" became a foundational part of breaking, which was considered new concepts at the time.
The following is a glossary of figure skating terms, sorted alphabetically.
Gangsta Walking is a street dance that originated in Memphis, Tennessee alongside "Buck" music during the 1990s. The Gangsta Walk is commonly performed to crunk music due to the particular 'bounce' in the beat and the movement the dancers make to keep with it. Though Gangsta Walking has been around for many years, much of the dance is still exclusive to the city and surrounding areas.
Acro dance is a style of dance that combines classical dance technique with precision acrobatic elements. It is defined by its athletic character, its unique choreography, which seamlessly blends dance and acrobatics, and its use of acrobatics in a dance context. It is a popular dance style in amateur competitive dance as well as in professional dance theater and in contemporary circus productions such as those by Cirque du Soleil. This is in contrast to acrobatic, artistic and rhythmic gymnastics, which are sports that employ dance elements in a gymnastics context under the auspices of a governing gymnastics organization and subject to a Code of Points. Acro dance is known by various other names including acrobatic dance and gymnastic dance, though it is most commonly referred to simply as acro by dancers and dance professionals.
Electro dance is a frenetic and quirky form of street dance typically performed to electro house music. It is based on, although is not limited to, a blend of different dance styles, such as industrial dance, moroccan chaabi, disco, vogue, waacking, hip-hop and freehand glowsticking. It started in the 2000s and originated from the southern suburbs of Paris, France, mainly from the Metropolis nightclubs and has grown around the world. Fast-paced techno and electro house music imported from Northern Europe is the usual choice for Tecktonik dancing.
The History of Hip-Hop dance encompasses the people and events since the late 1960s that have contributed to the development of early hip-hop dance styles, such as uprock, breaking, locking, roboting, boogaloo, and popping. Black Americans and Latino Americans created uprock and breaking in New York City. Black Americans in California created locking, roboting, boogaloo, and popping—collectively referred to as the funk styles. All of these dance styles are different stylistically. They share common ground in their street origins and in their improvisational nature.
The Grass dance or Omaha dance is a style of modern Native American men's pow wow dancing originating in the warrior societies on the Northern Great Plains. Unlike most forms of pow wow dancing, the grass dance regalia generally has no feathers besides the occasional roach feather. Instead the regalia consists of brightly colored fringe made of either yarn, broadcloth, or ribbon.