Uyuni

Last updated
Uyuni
City
Uyuni Potosi Ave Aerial.jpg
Plaza Arce adjoins Potosí Avenue to mark the center of town.
Bandera de Uyuni.jpg
Flag
Bolivia adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Uyuni
Location in Bolivia
Coordinates: 20°28′S66°49′W / 20.467°S 66.817°W / -20.467; -66.817 Coordinates: 20°28′S66°49′W / 20.467°S 66.817°W / -20.467; -66.817
Country Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia
Department Potosí Department
Province Antonio Quijarro Province
Municipality Uyuni Municipality
Canton Uyuni Canton
Population
 (2012)
  Total29.672 [1]
  Ethnicities
Quechua Aymara
Time zone UTC-4 (BOT)

Uyuni (Aymara, uyu pen (enclosure), yard, cemetery, [2] -ni a suffix to indicate ownership, "the one that has got a pen", "the one with a pen") is a city in the southwest of Bolivia.

Contents

Uyuni primarily serves as a gateway for tourists visiting the world's largest salt flats, the nearby Uyuni salt flat. Each year the city receives approximately 60,000[ citation needed ] visitors from around the globe. The city also acts as a gateway for commerce and traffic crossing into and out of Bolivia from and to Chile, and there is a customs and immigration post downtown. Agriculture in the area is generally limited to quinoa, llamas, and sheep. [3] [4]

Founded in 1890 as a trading post, the city has a population of 29,672 (2012 official census). [1] The town has an extensive street-market. It lies at the edge of an extensive plain at an elevation of 3,700 m (12,139 ft) above sea level, with more mountainous country to the east.

Transport

It is an important transport hub, being the location of a major railway junction. Four lines join here, respectively from La Paz (via Oruro), Calama (in Chile), Potosí, and Villazón (on the Argentine border, where the line now ends).

Uyuni is connected by road to Oruro - La Paz, Sucre, Villazón (border with Argentina) and Ollagüe, Chile.

The city is also served by the Joya Andina Airport. Currently, two local airlines are flying regularly to the city from La Paz, Sucre and Rurrenabaque: Amazonas and Transporte Aéreo Militar.

Tourist attractions

Train cemetery

One of the major tourist attractions of the area is an antique train cemetery. It is located 3 km outside Uyuni and is connected to it by the old train tracks. The town served in the past as a distribution hub for the trains carrying minerals on their way to the Pacific Ocean ports. The train lines were built by British engineers who arrived near the end of the 19th century and formed a sizable community in Uyuni. The engineers were invited by British-sponsored Antofagasta and Bolivia Railway Companies, which is now Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia. The rail construction started in 1888 and ended in 1892. It was encouraged by the then Bolivian President Aniceto Arce, who believed Bolivia would flourish with a good transport system, but it was also constantly sabotaged by the local indigenous people who saw it as an intrusion into their lives. The trains were mostly used by the mining companies. In the 1940s, the mining industry collapsed, partly due to the mineral depletion. Many trains were abandoned thereby producing the train cemetery. There are talks to build a museum out of the cemetery. [5]

Uyuni Decembre 2007 - Cimetiere de Trains 1.jpg
Train cemetery

Images

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Uyuni has a climate near the borderline between Tundra climate and cold desert climate (BWk) with mild summers and cool winters. Night time temperatures stay chilly year round.

Climate data for Uyuni, elevation: 3,680 metres (12,070 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1945–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
31.5
(88.7)
26.4
(79.5)
24.0
(75.2)
19.5
(67.1)
20.5
(68.9)
29.0
(84.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.8
(80.2)
28.2
(82.8)
29.1
(84.4)
31.5
(88.7)
Average high °C (°F)20.6
(69.1)
20.3
(68.5)
20.2
(68.4)
18.6
(65.5)
15.2
(59.4)
12.8
(55.0)
13.1
(55.6)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
19.0
(66.2)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)13.0
(55.4)
12.4
(54.3)
11.7
(53.1)
8.7
(47.7)
4.4
(39.9)
1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
3.6
(38.5)
5.6
(42.1)
8.2
(46.8)
10.3
(50.5)
11.6
(52.9)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F)5.5
(41.9)
4.6
(40.3)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−6.3
(20.7)
−9.6
(14.7)
−9.7
(14.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.1
(32.2)
2.7
(36.9)
−2.1
(28.2)
Record low °C (°F)−7.4
(18.7)
−6.0
(21.2)
−10.0
(14.0)
−14.0
(6.8)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−8.8
(16.2)
−25.7
(−14.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)79.3
(3.12)
37.7
(1.48)
28.5
(1.12)
2.3
(0.09)
0.8
(0.03)
1.8
(0.07)
0.0
(0.0)
1.7
(0.07)
1.8
(0.07)
2.8
(0.11)
3.8
(0.15)
26.4
(1.04)
190.9
(7.52)
Average precipitation days11.17.35.81.00.30.90.00.30.40.30.93.832.8
Average snowy days0.00.240.00.00.040.030.00.100.00.00.00.00.48
Source: Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología de Bolivia [6]
Climate data for Uyuni, Bolivia
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)37
(99)
32
(90)
30
(86)
28
(82)
23
(73)
21
(70)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
30
(86)
36
(97)
33
(91)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F)18
(64)
18
(64)
17
(63)
17
(63)
15
(59)
13
(55)
13
(55)
15
(59)
18
(64)
19
(66)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.5
(47.3)
8.5
(47.3)
8.0
(46.4)
5.0
(41.0)
1.0
(33.8)
0.0
(32.0)
1.0
(33.8)
1.5
(34.7)
4.0
(39.2)
5.5
(41.9)
8.5
(47.3)
9.0
(48.2)
5.5
(41.9)
Average low °C (°F)1
(34)
1
(34)
−1
(30)
−7
(19)
−13
(9)
−13
(9)
−11
(12)
−12
(10)
−10
(14)
−8
(18)
−3
(27)
−1
(30)
−6
(21)
Record low °C (°F)−6
(21)
−7
(19)
−12
(10)
−17
(1)
−22
(−8)
−18
(0)
−20
(−4)
−21
(−6)
−18
(0)
−12
(10)
−12
(10)
−10
(14)
−22
(−8)
Average rainfall mm (inches)70
(2.8)
40
(1.6)
10
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
30
(1.2)
150
(5.9)
Average rainy days43100000000210
Average relative humidity (%)48524848384235343130353940
Source: Weatherbase [7]

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Bolivia Country in South America

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and executive capital is La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales, a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

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Salar de Uyuni salt flat in Bolivia

Salar de Uyuni is the world's largest salt flat, or playa, at over 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) in area. It is in the Daniel Campos Province in Potosí in southwest Bolivia, near the crest of the Andes at an elevation of 3,656 meters (11,995 ft) above sea level.

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Aymara people

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Altiplano Plateau in west-central South America

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Daniel Campos Province Province in Potosí Department, Bolivia

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Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado

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Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia

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Rail transport in Bolivia

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Totora, Cochabamba town in Cochabama, Bolivia

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Bolivians are people identified with the country of Bolivia. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Bolivians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Bolivian.

Mount Uyuni mountain

Uyuni is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia, about 5,084 metres (16,680 ft) high. It is situated in the Potosí Department, Antonio Quijarro Province, Tomave Municipality, Tomave Canton, east of the Uyuni salt flat and south-west of the Nuevo Mundo volcano and Kuntur Chukuña.

Uyuni Airport

Uyuni Airport, also known as Joya Andina Airport, is an airport at extremely high elevation just northwest of Uyuni, in the southwestern Potosí Department of Bolivia. It is close to the Salar de Uyuni, the world's largest salt flat. It was opened by the Bolivian president Evo Morales on July 11, 2011. Currently the airport is served by two airlines: Amaszonas and Boliviana de Aviacion which offer regular flights to and from Sucre, La Paz and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Bolivian Civil War

The Bolivian Civil War, also known as the Federal War was a civil war in Bolivia fought from 1898 to 1899. The war saw two factions, a conservative side supported by the political, economic and religious elite of the country with control of the armed forces and who defended a unitary state, and a liberal faction opposed to the policies set by the state and that intended to transform the country into a federation, with support of the peasantry, the indigenous peoples and small Catholic businesses.

History of rail transport in Bolivia

The history of rail transport in Bolivia began in the 1870s after almost three decades of failed efforts to build railroads to integrate the country, mining was the driving force for the construction of railways. The need to transport saltpeter to the coast triggered the first railway lines in Bolivia. It was the silver mining, however, that drove the construction of a railway from the Pacific coast to the high plateau during the nineteenth century. Later, at the beginning of the twentieth century, tin mining gave a new impetus to railway building, forming what is now known as the Andean or Western network. The eastern network, on the other hand, developed between the years 1940 and 1960 and is financed in exchange for oil through agreements with Argentina and Brazil. Bolivia being a landlocked country, the railways played a fundamental role and the history of its railroads is the history of the country's efforts to reach first ports on the Pacific coast and then the Atlantic.

References

  1. 1 2 "Ficha Resúmen Censo de Poblacion y Vivienda 2012". Resultados Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  2. Ludovico Bertonio, Aymara-Spanish dictionary (Transcription): Uyu - Cerca o corral o cementerio
  3. Kerssen, Tanya M. (27 Apr 2015). "Food sovereignty and the quinoa boom: challenges to sustainable re-peasantisation in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia". Third World Quarterly. 36 (3: Food Sovereignty: convergence and contradictions, condition and challenges): 489–507. doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1002992.
  4. "La quinua principal cultivo del municipio de Uyuni". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  5. David Atkinson (2007). Bolivia: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 170. ISBN   978-1-84162-165-4.
  6. "Base de datos Sistema Meteorológico–SISMET" (in Spanish). Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología de Bolivia. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  7. "Climate Statistics for Uyuni, Bolivia" . Retrieved March 8, 2012.